HOW TO IDENTIFY A PART OF SPEECH OF A WORD IN A SENTNCE
Words perform different functions in a sentence. A part of speech of a word is identified according to its form, usage and structure in a sentence. Different parts of speech are Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and interjection.
A word acquires its part of speech according to its use in the given sentence. The same word acts as different part of speech in different sentences according to its place and use. The same word can be a noun and verb, an adjective and an adverb or a conjunction and a preposition. Following sentences illustrate the point :
He carried a bag on his back. (Noun)
He entered from the back door. (Adjective)
Please close the door. (Verb)
He is my close friend. (Adjective)
She sat close to her mother. (Adverb)
All were present there. (Pronoun)
All members were present there.(Adjective)
He lost his all in gambling. (Noun)
He feels well now. (Adverb)
His ball fell into the well. (Noun)
He drank well water. (Adjective)
Tears welled up in her eyes. (Verb)
I did not see him since Monday. (Preposition)
I did not see him since he left. (Conjunction)
They reached soon after. (Adverb)
She left after they arrived. (Conjunction)
She left after their arrival.(Preposition)
Although no specific rule can be assigned yet there are certain tips to identify different parts of speech.
-- An article precedes a noun. i.e. a book, an apple.
-- A noun or pronoun is used as subject or object in a sentence.
--Nouns and Pronouns have their gender forms.
--Nouns, Pronouns and Verbs have their numbers.
--An adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun and an adverb qualifies a verb, adjective or adverb etc.
--Some words are used as both adjective and adverbs.
--Adjectives and Adverbs have their degree forms.
-- A conjunction enjoins a sentence with a sentence, a clause with a clause and a word with a word.
--An interjection expresses feelings of happiness, sorrow or fear etc.
--An interjection, if removed from the sentence, makes no change in the meaning of the sentence.
--A preposition precedes a noun or a pronoun.
-- A preposition joins any part of speech with any other part
-- A gerund acts as a noun and is used as subject and object.
-- A participle (present and past) is used as an adjective and qualifies a noun or pronoun.
In Competitive examinations there are questions of sentences with words whose part of speech is to be identified out of the given options or otherwise.
Here follow sentences with their solution for practice. In these cases part of speech of all the words besides that of the word in question has to be identified to find the solution.
1.The appreciated value of all the assets has been displayed .
2. I appreciate the decision taken by you.
3. Appreciating his action, she congratulated him.
4. Down went the building like a pack of cards.
5. He has seen many ups and downs in his life.
6. Down with the traitors.
7. Since when have you been studying in this college?
8. Since you are sick, you should not go to office today.
ANSWERS :1. Adjective 2. Verb 3. Participle 4. Adverb 5. Noun 6. Verb 7. Preposition 8. Conjunction
SENTENCES FROM QUESTION PAPERS OF CERTAIN COMPETETIVE EXAMINATIONS (WITH SOLUTION AND EXPLANATION).
IDENTIFY PART OF SPEECH OF THE WORD IN BOLD AND MARK IT AGAINST ONE OUT OF THE GIVEN OPTIONS.
1. You are paying less attention to your studies these days.
(Answer - In this sentence you is Pronoun, Subject, paying is verb, attention is noun, object. Less is second degree of adjective Little and qualifies noun, attention. It is an adjective.)
2. Sit down and rest a while.
(Answer - In this sentence sit is a verb, down is adverb and is conjunction, rest is a verb while represents time and it is a noun. It is preceded by an article a. )
3. All the pilgrims rested for a while under the bunyan tree.
4. Place value
(Answer - In this sentence pilgrim is a noun, rested is a verb and bunyan tree is a noun. A preposition precedes a noun. So under is a preposition.)
4. When people found that the jewel was in the records of Rahim, they gave it to him.
(Answer - In this sentence people is a noun and is subject, found is a verb, jewel is a noun and is object. They is a pronoun and subject, gave is a verb and "it" is a pronoun and object. Nouns and pronouns form Subject and Object )
5. The wonderful statue of the leader welcomes all the people to the city.
(Answer - In this sentence welcomes is a verb, people is a noun and is object. Statue is a noun and is subject. Wonderful is an adjective and it qualifies noun statue )
1. She truthfully answered the detective's questions.
2. The children were walking through the forest.
3." Bravo ! well done, my boys!" said the captain.
4. Ravi was declared as the winner because he had hit the most number of fours and sixes.
5. The building is very ancient.
1. Auxiliary Verb
2. Transitive Verb
3. Intransitive Verb
4. Phrasal Verb