Usage of Adverb and Adjective in sentences.
In a sentence an Adjective is used to describe a Noun or a Pronoun and an Adverb is used to describe mainly a Verb, an Adjective or an Adverb.
There are certain words which are used both as an adjective as well as an adverb. A few of these are:
Early, Enough, Fast, Little, Long, Loud, Late, Much, Only.
The status of a word whether a word is an adjective or an adverb depends on its place and position i.e. its usage in a sentence.
In one of its forms, an adjective is formed, when ly is added to a Noun and an adverb is formed when ly is added to an adjective. But these two create confusion while using them in a sentence.
For example :
Saint (Noun) + ly = Saintly (adjective)
King (Noun) + ly = Kingly (adjective)
Woman (Noun) + ly = Womanly (adjective)
High (adjective) + ly = Highly (adverb)
Quick(adjective) + ly = Quickly (adverb)
Strict (adjective) + ly = Strictly (adverb)
In competition examinations there are questions with incorrect usage of an adverb or an adjective in sentences. The error in sentences is required to be located and rectified.
For example :
The money-lender is a miser person. ........1
He turned out to be a coward person. .......2
In the sentence 1 the word miser describes the word person.
But both these words miser and person are nouns. A noun cannot describe a noun. It should be an adjective i.e. miserly.
In the sentence 2 the word coward describes the word person.
But both these words coward and person are nouns. A noun cannot describe a noun. It should be an adjective i.e. cowardly.
One of the areas of confusion in selecting an adjective or an adverb is their usage with a Gerund, a Present Participle or a Past Participle in a sentence. Both a Gerund and a Present Participle are basically a first form of verb in continuous form (i.e. first form of verb+ ing) but their usage in a sentence is different for either of them. A Gerund is used as a noun and a Present Participle is used as an adjective. To describe a Gerund i.e. a Noun, an Adjective is required whereas to describe a Present Participle i.e. an Adjective, an Adverb is required.
Further Present Participle and Past Participle both are used as adjective. In case of Present Participle work started in the past continues upto present. But in case of Past Participle work started in the past is also completed in the past. As both are used as adjective, they require an adverb to describe them.
For example :
1. Brisk walking is good for health.
2. I saw him walking briskly.
3. He purchased a well furnished house.
In sentence no. 1, Walking is a Gerund and an adjective Brisk describes it.
In sentence no.2, walking is an adjective describing a pronoun him and an adverb briskly describes it.
In sentence no.3, house is a noun and past participle, an adjective furnished describes it. Further an adverb well describes the adjective furnished.
SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE
1. The board has decided to impose a severe penalty on all the players for their slowly playing in the penultimate match played during the last week.
2. Hurriedly accomplishing the project is reported to be one of the reasons for so many mistakes and lapses found in the final report of the project.
3. I am not truly free if I am taking away someone else's freedom just as sure as I am not free when my freedom is taken from me.
4. He is well versed with the rules of this place because he has been visiting here very frequent during the last few years.
5. The case provoked nationwide protests from different sections of the society who said that the police treated victims of a particular community more favourable than those of others.
1. Playing is a gerund and a noun so to describe it there should be an adjective slow instead of an adverb slowly.
2. Hurriedly is an adverb and accomplishing is a gerund, a noun. It should be 'Hurriedly accomplished project'. Project, a noun, accomplished a participle, an adjective and hurriedly is an adverb describing adjective accomplished.
3. 'I am not truly free' is correct but ..'just as sure as I am not free' is incorrect. It should be surely.
4 Visiting is a verb and to describe it an adverb frequently instead of adjective frequent is required.
5. Treated is a verb and to describe it, favourable, an adjective is used. It should be an adverb favourably instead of favourable.