PARTICIPLES - Types, Usage And Comparison
Verbs are of two types -- Finites and Non-Finites , the former change with person, number of Subject and tense used in a sentence whereas the latter don't have any effect of these on them.
He often sees him playing in the ground.
I often see him playing in the ground.
We often see him playing in the ground.
I saw him playing in the ground.
In the sentences written above, the verbs sees, see, and saw are changing with the change of person from he to I or we and tense from present to past tense. But the second verb in these sentences 'playing' remains constant in all these sentences. Verbs like 'Playing' which do not have any effect of any change of person, number or tense on them are called Non-finite verbs.
Non- Finites are also called Double Parts of Speech because these are verbs but act as Noun, Adjective or Adverb. These are also called Verbal-nouns or Verbal-adjectives etc.
TYPES OF NON - FINITES
Non-finite verbs or Non - finites are of three types.
1. Gerund - A verb used as a noun is called a Gerund.
2. Infinitive - First form of a verb preceding with 'to' used as a noun is called infinitive.
3. Participle - is formed by adding 'ing' to first form of verb i.e. doing, carrying etc.
Participles are of three types.
Present Participle is formed of first form of verb and 'ing' for example : breaking , carrying etc. It denotes continuity of action or incomplete or unfinished action. It acts as an adjective. It is also called 'Verbal Adjective'.
For example :
I saw him going in the street. ........1
They kept us waiting. ........2
The verbs 'going' and 'waiting' in the sentences written above denote continuity of action and unfinished action.
In the first sentence the verb,( go +ing) 'going' is basically a verb but it describes the pronoun 'him' prior to it and as such acts as an adjective. So it is Present Participle. Similarly 'Waiting' in the second sentence is also a verb acting as an adjective describing pronoun 'us'.
Growing children need nutritious food. ......3
In this sentence 'growing' is a verb and describes noun 'children'. It is a verb acting as an adjective and is called Present Participle.
In the sentences 1 and 2 Present Participle is in Predicative position whereas in 3 it is in attributive position.
God willing, you will win. .........4
The weather being fine, we went out for a walk. .........5
In sentences 4 and 5 the verbs 'willing' and 'being' are acting adjectives but these are independent of verb of the sentence. These are not subject, object or complement in these sentences. These are Absolute Present Participle.
Seeing a wolf, the child started crying.
This sentence is formed of two sentences combined together.
The child saw a wolf. He started crying.
The Present Participle 'Seeing' , a verb but acting as an adjective is used to combine the two sentences. This is Combining Present Participle.
A verb in its third form acting as an adjective i.e. describing a noun or a pronoun is called Past Participle. For Example :
She is a retired teacher.
In this sentence 'retired' is third form of verb 'retire' and describes the noun teacher following it. It is Past Participle.
Time gone never returns.
In this sentence 'gone' the third form of' 'go' acts as an adjective describing the noun 'time'. It is a Past Participle. A Past Participle represents a completed work in the past.
It is also called verbal adjective because it is averb acting as an adjective.
1. If the temperature fluctuates, it will cause frozen foods to lose their moisture faster and they will become drier and tough.
'Frozen' in this sentence is third form of verb 'freeze' but is describing the noun 'foods' and acting as an adjective. It is Past Participle.
2. He preferred to pave a new way for himself instead of treading on a beaten track.
In this sentence beaten is third form of verb beat and describes the noun track and acts as and adjective. It is a Past participle.
3. The burnt child dreads the fire.
In this sentence 'burnt' third form of verb 'burn' acts as an adjective describing noun 'child'. It is a Past Participle.