Thursday, 21 January 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (Tense Sequence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 

ERROR SPOTTING

In different competitive examinations, there are questions of error finding in the given sentences. These errors generally relate to use of parts of speech, Subject and object or Subject and Verb combinations, Sequence of Tense, Use of Preposition or Phrasal verbs etc. It becomes a little difficult to trace out  errors if sentences are lengthy. However it becomes possible if proper use of tense, subject, object and verb combinations are checked. So it becomes necessary to verify proper use of tense and  parts of speech in the sentence. 

There are certain important points that need to be considered  while making sentences. For example :

1. 'Have' is a word that is used as a modal verb as well as a main verb. It also joins a helping verb like 'should' to express past tense of 'should'. Following sentence will clear this point.
I have a bag. 
In this sentence 'have' is used as a main verb. It denotes possession. It is therefore a possessive verb in this sentence. 

I have finished my work.
In this sentence 'have' is used as a helping verb. 'Finished' is the main verb in this sentence.
Similar is the case of 'Had'. 'Had' is also used as helping verb as well as a main verb. 
Had can be used as a Helping verb and Main verb both in one sentence.
I had had my breakfast.
It means that I had taken my breakfast. 
'Had' in first place is helping verb and 'had' in second place is main verb being third form of verb 'have'. This sentence is in Past Perfect Tense using 'had' + third form of verb.
Sometime in examination there are sentences with single verb 'had' in error finding questions.
 For example:

If he had had his medicine he would not have fallen ill.


 You should finish your work now.

In this sentence 'should' is a helping verb. This sentence is in present tense as is also evident from the word 'now'. To express past tense of 'should' the helping verb 'have' is used with it.

You should have finished your work by now.
'Should have' in this sentence expresses past tense of should.

'Have ' is used not only as a possessive verb but it is also used as a stative verb. But as a stative verb it is not used in continuous or progressive form.

 So it is incorrect to say He is having a bag. It should be He has a bag.
But 'Having' when used as a noun in the form of a gerund is correct.

Having taken the breakfast, he started for his office.

In this sentence, 'Having' being a gerund is used as a noun. So it is correct use of 'having' here. 

Similarly there are some more verbs which are used as stative verbs and they do not have their continuous or progressive form. These are appear, like, know, see, believe or taste etc. When these words are used as stative verb these are not used in continuous or progressive forms.

It is incorrect to say 'It is appearing that it will rain today'. Here appear is used as a stative verb. It is correct to say 'It appears that it will rain today'. Similarly it is incorrect to say 'He is believing in God'. It should be 'He believes in God'.

2. There are errors relating to conditional sentences.

When two parts are joined together in a sentence there can be future tense in both the parts. But if one part of these is a conditional sentence, the conditional part should be in simple tense and the other part in future indefinite tense. 


For example:

In case of two parts in simple form
He will go by bus and I shall go by train.
These two are simple parts and are joined by 'and' so both can be in  future tense. 

In this case sense and tone of both parts of the sentence is the same. But if one part contains contrary tone 'but' in place of 'and' is used. 
He will go by bus but I shall go on foot.

In case of conditional sentence, one part is dependent on the other. One part containing condition will be in simple present tense and the other part will be in future tense. 
It will be incorrect to say - If he will go by bus, I shall go by train.
It should be - If he goes by bus I shall go by train.

The above conditional sentence can be in past tense also as-
If he went by bus I would go by train.
These both actions relate to past and one action is dependent on the other.

These conditional sentences can be in perfect tense also for example:
If he had gone by bus I would have gone by train.

In this case the conditional part has 'had and third form of verb' and the other part is 'would have and third form of verb'.
Just as there cannot be future tense in both the parts of the sentence, similarly there cannot be 'would have' in both the parts of the sentence. The part containing condition will have 'had and third form of verb' and in other part 'would have and third for of verb'. For example :

If he had come I would have helped him.

Some examples of above cases:

He will work hard and he will succeed.
If he works hard he will succeed.
If he worked hard he would succeed.
If he had worked hard he would have passed.


Here follow some sentences of this type on pattern of questions of competitive examinations duly solved with explanation. 

ERRORS DUE TO USE OF TENSE

EXERCISE NO 1

   1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.

   2. We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.

   3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.

   4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.

 5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.

   6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.

   7. When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.

   8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to     hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.

   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but  she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    


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1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.


In this sentence ‘does not like’ is in present tense. ‘to seek’ is infinitive and it is correct. ‘Seek ..from’ a phrasal verb is also correct. ’But’ is a conjunction it is a negative conjunction so after this tone or sense of the sentence will change. after ‘his father advised him’ is in past tense. ‘should’ is a modal verb and it has no effect of any tense on it. ‘she invites him’ is in present tense. It should be, according to the tense of ‘advised’, ‘if she invited him’ is correct.

 
2.We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.


In this sentence, ‘had planned’ is correct as this action took place in the past. ‘so that we could’ is also correct as it is an imaginary action supposed to have taken place in the past. ‘he had completed’ is also correct as this action had already taken place in the past. ‘but we reach there’ is in present whereas it should be in the past tense as this action also took place in the past. So ‘we reached there’ is correct in place of ‘we reach there’.


 
3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.


In this sentence ‘had been working …..for the last ten years’ is correct. ‘A couple of months back’ is correct denotes action occurred in the past and was complete in the past. Similarly the action, ‘had left the job’ also occurred in the past and was complete in the past. It did not continue for a span of time in the past. It should be ‘he left the job’.

 
4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.


‘My friend opined ‘ is I past tense, accordingly ‘he would ensure’ is correct. ‘Although his son did not like’ is correct according tense. Similarly ‘preferred to start his ……’ is also in correct form of tense. But ‘his son gets a good job’ is in present tense. It also should be in past tense according to ‘opined’. ‘His son got a good job’ is correct here.

 
5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.


In this sentence ‘is working’ is in present continuous tense and is correct. ‘to get through’ is a phrasal verb and is correct. ‘she hopes’ is also in present tense and is correct.’by this time’ denotes action in future time. ‘will take’ also is in future tense. But it is an imaginary situation which may or may not happen in future. For this instead of future indefinite tense , future perfect tense is used. So ‘she will have taken’ is the correct version.

 
6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.


 
In this sentence, ‘yesterday’ denotes past time and for this ‘I went’ is correct. With this ‘to the market to purchase ‘ is also correct. ‘that I wanted to purchase’ qualifies a particular type of pen. ‘I chose’ and ‘I purchased’ denote action in the past. ‘is leaking since’ denotes that action started in the past and continues up to present. For such an action perfect tense instead of indefinite tense is used. So ‘it has been leaking since’ is correct here.

 
7.When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.


In this sentence, two actions of past have been described. In such a case one part is in past indefinite tense and the other is in past perfect tense. The earlier action is in past perfect tense and the other in past indefinite tense.  ‘we had already done’ is correct but instead of ‘they had arrived’ should be ‘they arrived’.

8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to

      hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.


      In this sentence, 'she' is subject, 'decided' is verb in past tense, 'to    

     host' infinitive, 'an exhibition' is an object. In 'following of art      

   lovers' of is a conjunction, followers and lovers are noun. art is  adjective describing lovers. 'A huge' is an adverb describing an adjective online which in turn describes following a noun a gerund. 'Having' is perfect participle with this a third form of verb is used. In the case of  a perfect participle, an action takes place and another action follows that. But here with perfect participle 'Having' 'amass' is incorrect it should be third form of verb 'amassed'.


   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    In this sentence, the girl is subject, was a verb and 'frightened' is adjective, she is subject, 'saw' is verb 'a snake' is object. In the part, 'she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone' 'She' is subject, 'killed' is verb in past tense but 'gathering' is verb in continuous form, 'and' is a conjunction but with this on both sides of it there should be verb in past tense. 'Gathering' should also be in past tense as 'killed'. It should be '..but she gathered her courage and killed the snake with a stone.' 


   10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    

   In this sentence there are two actions one happening after the other,

    namely 'we went' and 'he arrived'. In such a case the first action is in 

   perfect tense and the second in indefinite tense. So the first action 'he

   arrived' should be in perfect tense and the other'we went' in indefinite

    tense. So instead of 'he arrive' it should be 'he had arrived.'

    

   




 








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