Monday, 27 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (5) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS

Before attempting  a 'Cloze Test' exercise one must go through the whole paragraph. The candidate should never try to fill in blanks direct. By reading the paragraph one gets an idea of its contents and subject matter. It also tells about the mood of the author whether it is negative or positive. This helps in finding out the correct words to be filled in blanks.Reading and understanding the subject matter of the paragraph makes selection of words convenient. All the sentences in the paragraph are linked with each other. If one sentence is not clear,  sentences proceeding it  help in making it clear.  Sometimes there is a word used in the sentences following the blank. If not the same word a similar word also gives a clue about this word.

Mostly the author writes the paragraph in a single mood but it is not certain.In many cases it contains more than one moods i.e. positive mood and negative mood. There are certain words like but or otherwise etc. required to be identified which make the change. The mood prior to that word is different from that after that. This helps in selecting words out of the given options as these are to be according to the mood in that particular part of the sentence or stanza. 

Tense used in  the sentences also gives idea to choose words out of the given options.

'Elimination and Selection' is the best method to select words to fill in blank spaces.

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE



ONE 


Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.


Happiness lies in 1.............................. and satisfaction. It does not mean that a person should not 2. ...................... for more, but he should strike a balance between contentment and ambition. An over-ambitious person can never be happy. Moreover, a man should use his wealth, talent, etc., which he 3............................. as a trustee and not as an owner and master. Moderation is the need of our life. If we go on 4. .............................. for more and more, there is no end. What is important is that how a person enjoys and uses the money he already possesses. Of what use is the 5...........................  wealth in a man’s possession or the huge bank-balance if he cannot enjoy it, or use it in the welfare of others? Compassion, charity, fellow-feeling, sacrifice and unselfishness are the 6. .................................  of happiness. A self-centered, egoist, unkind and 7.............................. person cannot achieve happiness. Poverty may 8............................................ inconvenience, but it is not always a curse. Many have turned their poverty into an 9.................................. of achieving happiness and bliss through their great will-power, determination and feeling for others. Sometimes poverty, adversity and sufferings may help a man to 10...................................... the best in him. Adjustment to the realities of life, facing things, and odds as they are and righteous resignation to the will of God can surely lead one to happiness.


1.cognition, purgation, contentmentsatiate, fatuity.
2.exertion,striveeffort, recreate, attenuate.
3. share, possesses,participates, control, dominates. 
4.demand, rapacious, aggressive, desires, craving.
5.enormous, hugely, exceedingly, majority, lofty.
6. precedent, antecedents, precursors, prerequisites, defunct. 
7. meek, haughty,subtle, divine, vividly. 
8.effects, reason, cause, channel, proceeds.
9. device, incarnate, methods,instrument, miracle. 
10.carry out, bring up, put out, show off, bring out.



SOLUTION & EXPLANATION


In this paragraph the author describes that a man has desires and he makes efforts to fulfill his desires. But a man should not have his desires beyond limits. There should a balance between desires of a man and their fulfillment. Man should enjoy the wealth and talents that he possesses instead of hankering after his desires unnecessarily. He can be happy only if he enjoys the things in his possession. Sometimes poverty causes inconvenience but this does not mean a poor man cannot be happy. He can also enjoy  his life in that condition also. The author describes about qualities a man should possess to be happy. He advises a man to adjust according to realities of life and submission to God;s will to enjoy real happiness of life. 


1. Sometimes the author gives a hint of the word in the sentences following the blank. The word 'contentment' in the next sentence fits well with the word next to blank 'satisfaction'. 'And' and 'or' are such words that take words of same part of speech on either side of them. 'Satisfaction' is a noun here and in the blank also there will be a noun. 'Cognition' means to think and understand, 'purgation' means to cleanse and purify, 'fatuity' means stupidity. All these words do not fit according to the context. 'Satiate' is a verb but here a noun is required. Contentment is the correct word here. The author has mentioned about in the next line also.  



2. In this sentence, 'a person' is a noun, subject 'should' a helping verb and one main verb is required here to complete the sentence. 'Exertion' and 'effort' are nouns. 'Attenuate' means to grow weaker, 'recreate' means to create something  again. These two words do not fit here. 'Strive' means to make effort or to try is the correct word here.


3. 'He' a pronoun is subject and a verb is required to complete the sentence. 'Dominates; means to control, participates means to take part, these two do not fit here according to the context. 'share' and 'control' do not suit here because with third person singular in present indefinite tense there is 's' or ;es; with a verb. 'Possesses' is the correct word here.



4. After a preposition a noun is required. A verb in present participle is also used as a noun.'Aggressive' is an adjective, 'rapacious' is a living being that lives by eating other beings. 'desires'  and ;demand' are a nouns. They are verbs also. 'Craving' means a very strong desire. It suits here the best. 

5. 'Wealth' is a noun. Before a noun, an adjective is required. 'Hugely' 'exceedingly' are adverbs. 'Lofty' means high in terms of height. 'Majority' is a noun. All these do not fit here. 'Enormous' is the correct word here.


6. 'Happiness' is a noun 'of' is a conjunction and before it also a noun is required. 'Defunct' is an adjective. 'Antecedents' means previous events, 'precedents' means a previous example to justify something, 'precursors' means forerunners. All these words have meanings different from the context. 'Prerequisites' something required in advance as a condition. For example the next will happen if the first occurs. This is the correct word.  


7. 'Person' is a noun. A self-centered, egoist, unkind are adjective used to describe noun person. These are all in negative sense. The words 'And' and 'or' take the same part of speech on both sides of themselves. So in blank also an adjective in negative sense is required. 'Vividly' is an adverb. 'subtle' and 'divine' are positive adjectives. These do not fit here. 'Haughty' meaning arrogant is the correct word here. 

8. 'Poverty' is a noun,subject, 'inconvenience' is a noun an object, and  'may' is a helping verb. To complete the sentence on main verb is required. 'Effects' and 'Proceeds' are nouns and these are also used as verb but these do not fit here because of 's' with them. 'Reason' and 'Channel' are nouns as well as verb but according to their meaning do not fit here, 'Poverty' is a reason of 'inconvenience' so 'cause' is the correct word here.


9. Before the blank there is an article 'an'. This shows that a noun is required in the blank space. 'An" means a singular noun starting with a vowel is required. There are only two words starting with a vowel (i). 'Incarnate' and ' instrument'. Out of these 'instrument' is the correct word. 


10. Before the blank space there is the word 'to'. This shows that a verb is required. after 'to' only first form of a verb is used. All the words are with first form of verb. 'Carry out' means to implement, 'bring up' means to rear, 'put out' means to douse or extinguish a fire. to 'show off' means to display pretentiously. All these do not fit here. 'Bring out' meaning to make visible  is the correct word here. 













TWO 

Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.




Food allergies are on a 1.................... across the globe, so much so that it is almost fashionable to announce that one is allergic to a certain 2................................ food item like eggplant, kopi, citric fruit or a pudding etc., which actually is not allergy but  3. .........................  intolerance. A true allergy is to the protein content of a food article and can 4. ............................ immediately or sometimes gradually, in hours to days. It is 5.................... to identify mild to moderate manifestations from severe presentation as immediate treatment can be 6. ........................and a life saved. Food allergy can 7.....................  breathing, intestinal tract, heart and skin. A person with food allergy will develop certain symptoms within a few minutes to an hour after eating the food.There is no single fool proof laboratory test to 8................... an individual allergic to a certain food item. The popular skin prick tests can sometimes produce a 9.........................reactions, hence should be avoided in individuals who present severe manifestations. There is currently no cure for food allergies;however, many persons grow out of them. It could be very frustrating to have a person with allergy because  food is everywhere and an individual by nature is 10..........................to try new foods outside their homes. This poses a risk of allergic reactions at places where one is new to. However the recommended strategy is to avoid a food that has caused problems to a person in the past.



1.  a)rise b)increasing, c)growing, d)upwards, e)ascend.
2.   a)display, b) spectacle,c)exotic d) exhibit, e) frantic.
3.   a) certain, b) doubt, c) clearly, d)shabbily, e)probably.
4.  a)apparently, b)manifest c) evidence, d)feeling, e)reveal.
5.  a) crucial b)critical, c)resolute, d) trivial, e)splendid.
6.  a)introduce, b) establish, c)found, d) instituted e) declared.
7.  a)intended,b) affect c) pretend, d)prompted, e)incite.
8.  a) change, b)facing, c) stamp d) cure, e) prove.
9.  a)evident, b) hardly, c) durable d) revealing e) severe
10.a) habit,b) interest, c)eagerly, d) curious e) inquisitive





SOLUTION & EXPLANATION


In this paragraph the author gives an account of allergy caused by  food items to human beings. He in a positive note tells the reasons of allergy and how one can save oneself from it. Although there is no fool proof treatment yet one can save oneself by avoiding those food items which cause allergy to a person. An allergy has its own cure but it should not be allowed to go to such an extent that might harm the body. The paragraph ends with an advice that one should identify and avoid the food item that causes allergy.





1. A verb can be used as different parts of speech in English. The past and present participle of a verb are used an adjective as in these sentences. An 'increased' demand of sugar........ The 'increasing' water level of the river........ Here 'increased' and 'increasing' are used as adjective. Similarly first form of a verb is used as a noun and it is preceded by an article.Just as An 'increase' in income......Otherwise in its usual form this word is used as a verb for example, the demand is 'increasing'. In options 'increasing' and 'growing' are present particles of their verbs. 'Upwards' is an adverb. 'Ascend' is the first form of verb. All these do not fit here according to the context. Before the blank space there is an article 'a'. According to the meaning 'rise' is the correct word here.   


2. 'Food item' is a noun so in the blank space an adjective is required. 'Display' and 'exhibit' are verbs. 'Spectacle' is a noun. All these do not fit here. 'Exotic' and 'frantic' are adjectives. Out of these 'exotic' is the correct word according to sense of the sentence.


3.'But' is such a conjunction that takes a positive word or clause on its one side and on its other side there is always a contrary word or clause. For example, He is miser but honest. Here 'actually' is followed by 'but'. 'Clearly' has its meaning in the same sense. 'Doubt' is a verb and 'certain' is an adjective. 'shabbily' does not fit here according to its meaning. 'Probably' is the correct word.


4. In this sentence 'can' is a helping verb and with this a main verb is required. A first form of verb is the only possibility. 'Apparently' is an adverb. 'Evidence' is a noun. 'Feeling' is present participle it is also used as a noun. 'Reveal' and 'manifest' are the first form of verbs but 'reveal' does not fit here according to the sense of the sentence. 'Manifest' is the correct word.


5. The writer is writing in the whole stanza in positive mood. So words with positive mood only will be used. 'Critical' and 'trivial' are negative words. 'resolute' means strong determination. 'Splendid' means eloquent or with grandeur. All these words do not fit here. 'Crucial' means of importance is the correct word.

6. 'Can be' is a helping or auxiliary verb and with this third form verb is required as the sentence is in passive voice.'Introduce' and 'establish' are first forms of verbs. 'Found' and ''declared' are third form of verbs but these do not fit here according to their meanings.'Instituted' meaning 'set up' is the correct word.   


7. 'Food allergy is subject and can is a helping verb  and 'breathing ... skin' is object. Here  main verb is missing. The sentence is in active voice, So first form of verb is required.'Intended' and 'prompted' are not first form of verb. 'Pretend' means 'to feign as' and 'incite' means 'to prompt a person'. Both these words do not fit here.'Affect' means to effect in a negative manner. This is the correct word. 


8. After 'to' always a first form of verb is used. 'facing' is not first form of verb. According to the meaning of the sentence, a laboratory test cannot 'cure' or 'change'. Out of the two 'Prove' and . 'Stamp' , 'stamp'is a better word.  


9. 'Tests' is a noun and Subject, 'reactions' is a noun and object. 'Can produce' is verb.  An adjective to describe noun 'reactions' is required. 'Hardly' is an adverb, 'durable' is an adjective. 'Revealing' is a present participle and is also used as adjective. 'Evident' and 'Revealing' do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Severe' is the correct word.  


10. An individual is a noun and subject. To describe a noun some adjective is required. 'Habit', 'interest' are nouns. 'Eagerly' is an adverb. 'Inquisitive' means to put into inquiry. All these do not fit here. 'Curious' is the correct word here.




  THREE

Directions  (111 - 120 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



An old couple was asking for water on the pavement outside an office. They (111) .............. to be pitifully poor. When asked where they were (112) ................. to. They told that they had come from a (113)...................... village to get their cataract-affected eyes operated. But they were stranded. The stranger who had (114)................... them there with a promise of treatment was (115)................Humanely, few staff members of the office arranged for their (116)................. for a night and next day (117)................ to a reputed hospital, whose eye surgeon had helped (118)...................poor patients. He examined his new patients and got them admitted. The surgeon (119)............... picked beggars from the streets and operated them for free. The old couple stayed in the hospital for a week and came out with new (120)............ They were now happier and healthier.

                                                                      (Adapted source question paper


111 a) wanted  b) apparently c) wished  d) appeared  e) liked

112 a) headed  b) journey  c) sitting  d) footing  e) tourist

113 a) nearing b) residential  c) close  d) distantly  e) nearby

114 a) took b) asked c) bring  d) brought  e) walked

115 a)forgotten b)untractable c)untraceable d) retraceable e)missed

116 a)refuge b)asylum  c)living d)livelihood e)shelter

117 a)took b)transferred c)bought d)lead e)bring

118 a)many b)greater c)quiet d)much  e)lot

119 a)timely b)repeatedly c)unwillingly d)constantly e)continuously

120 a)happy b)insight c)site d)sense e)sight






SOLUTION & EXPLANATION

On reading the paragraph a reader finds that the author is telling about an old couple sitting on pavement. They came here from a village for treatment of their eyes. Someone came along with them but he is not there now. A few persons from the nearby office took them to a hospital where their eyes were operated upon. After operation they are feeling better and healthier.The whole paragraph is in past tense. This implies that the required words are to be selected accordingly. The paragraph is written in a positive note.




111. In this sentence they, a pronoun is Subject and a verb in past tense is required to complete the sentence. 'Apparently' being an adverb does not fit here. 'Wished, 'wanted' or 'liked'  'to be poor' does not give any sense in this context. 'Appeared' is the correct word here.

112. In this sentence the word 'where' suggests that it is about movement to some place. 'They' is subject, 'were' is helping verb and with this one main verb is required and that too in present participle or third form of verb.'Journey' and 'tourist' are nouns. 'Sitting' does not show movement. 'Footing' too gives no sense. 'Headed' is the correct word here. Preposition 'to' also fits with it. 'Head to' means 'to go'. 

113. In this sentence 'village' is a noun and before it there should be an adjective to describe it. 'Nearing' is a verb, 'distantly' is an adverb, residential is an adjective. 'Close' is a verb but it is used as adjective also. All these do not fit here. 'Nearby' is an adjective it fits here.


114. In this sentence 'the stranger' is subject, 'them' is object 'had' is helping verb and with it one main verb in past participle is required. 'Took and bring' are not third form of verb. 'Asked or walked' them.. there, does not give any sense according to the context. 'Brought' them there is the correct word here.


115. In this sentence 'the stranger ....was ......' an adjective describing 'stranger' is required. 'untractable' means unmanageable, 'forgotten' means not remembering. 'Retractable' means something that can be pulled back or withdrawn. These all do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Missed' is past participle of 'miss'. Some time past participle is used as an adjective but in a sentence where action has been completed but in this sentence action still continues so it is not correct here. 'Untraceable' is the correct word.


116. In this sentence, 'staff members' a noun is subject, 'arranged for' is a verb, an object, a noun is required here. 'Asylum' is a shelter but in a negative sense i.e. lunatic asylum or political asylum. 'Refuge' is also used in the same sense of security or safety. 'Living' and 'livelihood' also do not fit here. 'Shelter ' is the correct word.

117.Here blank space is followed by a preposition 'to' it suggests that here a verb with preposition 'to' is required.'Bring' and 'lead'  in present tense are wrong. 'Bought' does not give any sense. 'Transferred' means some official shifting or through some other agency or person. As the persons are to be taken physically 'took' is the correct word here.


118.'......eye surgeon' is subject, 'had helped' a verb and ' patients' a noun is object 'poor' is an adjective in this sentence. An adverb to describe adjective 'poor' is required here. Here a countable word is required. So 'many' is correct word here.


119. 'Timely' means in time, 'repeatedly' means again and again 'unwillingly' is a negative word. These all do not fit here. 'Continuously' means without any break and 'constantly' means to do with a gap of time. So 'Constantly' is the correct word here.


120. Here 'new' is an adjective, a noun should follow it. 'Happy' is not a noun. 'Insight' 'site' and 'sense' have no meaning suitable to the context.'Sight' is the correct word.



























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