Friday, 24 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (3) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS



 'Cloze Test' is set with a view to assess proficiency of a candidate in respect of word power and his knowledge of  grammar rules. This covers various  aspects of a number of fields i.e. word meanings, appropriate use words in a sentence, complete knowledge of various parts of speech and their use in a sentence. Knowledge about Subject and object placement, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective and Adverb and their use in a sentence is examined. A proper knowledge of all these is essential for correct attempt of this exercise. However regular practice makes it easy and possible.  

There are some points, though with exceptions, which help in making attempt easy and correct. For example :

Generally there are three parts of a sentence namely Subject, verb and Object. Sometimes an object is missing in a sentence.

Always a noun or a pronoun is used in the position of a Subject and object. An adjective always describes a subject and an object. 

A verb forms the vital part of a sentence. A sentence is not possible without a verb. A transitive verb has both subject and object with it. But in case of an intransitive verb there is no object in a sentence.

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun but an adverb describes other parts of speech except noun and pronoun. 

A conjunction joins a part of speech with a similar part of speech i.e. a noun with a noun and a verb with a verb etc.  




EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE


ONE



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the given passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered.Against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. 




In India, 5th September is celebrated as Teachers' Day as a mark of 1. ................  to the 2. ....................  made by teachers to the society. On this day falls the birth anniversary of a great teacher Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. He was a 3............................  believer of education and was a well-known diplomat, scholar, philosopher, the President of India and above all, a teacher.

Once some of his students and friends approached him and requested him to allow them to 4. ......................his birthday, he said, "instead of celebrating my birthday separately, it would be my proud 5. ................. if 5th September is observed as Teachers' day". From then onwards, the 5th of September has been observed as Teachers’ day.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888, in the town of Tirutani. He was sent to school at Thirupati and then Vellore. Later, he joined the Christian College, Madras, and studied philosophy. Radhakrishnan by his confidence, concentration and strong 6. ...........................  went on to become a great philosopher.

He was an evocative teacher, 7. .................................... popular
 8. ...........................  his students right from his early days as a professor at Presidency College, Madras. He served the country in many 9. ...................................... But above all, he is a great teacher from whom all of us have learnt much and will continue to learn. It is India's 10......................................privilege to have a great philosopher, a great educationist and a great humanist as her President.



1. a. award, b.ceremonial, c.
tribute, d.esteemed, e.amusement.
2.a.role, b. share, c. duty, d. contributions, e. provide.
3.a. depend, b. staunch, c. dynamic, d. liberty, e. progression.
4.a. celebrate, b. considers, c. regards, d. enjoy, e. respect. 
5. a. favour, b. 
privilege, c. rejoice, d. implication, e. eventually.
6. a.judgement, b.victory, c.convictions, d. malice, e. pursue.
7.a. moving, b. daring, c.shine, d.exceedingly, e.strong.
8.a. between,b. for, c.across, d. into, e.among .
9. a. area, b. fields, c. 
capacities, d. perform, e. format. 
10. a. peculiar, b. dominant, c. fluent, d. steering, e. governing.






SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION


On reading this paragraph one finds that the author is describing about celebrating Teachers' day in India. He gives reasons for its celebration and describes about life and principles of the former President of India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note.


1. 'A mark' is a noun and conjunction 'of ' follows it.It joins a noun with a noun. So the word in blank should be a noun. Out of given options, 'esteemed' is a verb in second and third form. Verb in third form is also used as an adjective. 'ceremonial' is also an adjective. 'Amusement' is a noun but according to its meaning it does not fit in this context. 'Award' and 'tribute' are nouns. The word 'Award' is used in the sense of some prize for some work. It does not give any sense in this context. 'Tribute' means some honour or admiration of someone. This is the correct word to be used here.

2. 'The' is an article and after this a noun is used. Out of the given options 'provide' is a verb. 'share' is a verb as well as a noun and 'role' and 'duty' are nouns. But these words are in general and simple terms. So these do not fit here because the author is talking about achievements of the person. 'Contributions' is the correct word.

3.'Believer' is a noun and before it an adjective is required. 'depend' is a verb. 'liberty' and 'progression' are nouns.'staunch' is the correct word here.


4. This blank is to be filled keeping in view the object 'his birthday' i.e. a verb is required here. Before blank there is 'to'. It means first form of verb without 's' or 'es' is required here.'Considers' and 'regards' do not fit here. Out of the remaining words 'celebrate' is the correct word.

5. "Proud' is an adjective and after it a noun is required. 'Eventually' is an adverb. 'rejoice' is a verb. 'Implication' a noun is a negative word. These all do not fit here. 'Favour' is a noun which means to give something out of pity. This too is not appropriate word. 'Privilege' is the appropriate word.

6. 'Confidence' and 'concentration' are nouns. 'Concentration' is joined by conjunction 'and' thereby in blank a noun is required. 'Strong' is adjective of this noun. 'Pursue' is a verb. 'Malice' meaning hatred is a negative word. 'Judgement' and 'victory' do not give any sense in this context. 'Convictions' is a correct word here. 

7.An adjective 'Popular' describes pronoun  'he' here. Before an adjective an adverb is used to describe it. For example She is a very beautiful girl. In this sentence 'girl' is a noun, 'beautiful' an adjective and 'very' is an adverb. Only an adverb and not an adjective can describe an adjective. Here only 'exceedingly'  being an adverb is the correct word.

8. Here  after 'popular', a preposition is required. 'For', 'across' and 'into' are incorrect. Out of 'among' and 'between', 'among' is correct. 'Between' is used for two and 'among' is used for more than two things or persons.


9. 'Many' is an adjective and after it a noun is required. 'Perform' is a verb. 'Format' and 'area' are singular but with 'many' a plural noun is required. Out of 'fields' and 'capacities', 'capacities' suits here.


10. 'Privilege' is a noun here. Before a noun an adjective to describe it is required. 'Governing' and 'steering' are verbs. These are also used as nouns but do not describe 'privilege' well. 'Dominant' ( a negative word) and 'fluent' do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Peculiar' meaning distinctive or typical is the correct word.
 





TWO 

Directions  (1 - 7 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



Patriotism is a 1...................  that binds people of a country of different religions, castes and sects together. They work collectively in the 2.....................of the country. This fact becomes more 3...............    during the days of war, disaster or a natural 4....................... in a country. People generally address their country as motherland. The word motherland itself 5........................    the spirit of true patriotism. A country like a mother brings up and looks after its people who in turn are under an 6........................ to do every possible service to the country. This is the real spirit of patriotism 7.................  the countrymen.    




1. cords, joint, bond solution, favours. 
2. curious, sense, charge, share , interest.
3. reveal, transparent, evident, application, incline.
4. eventuality, calamity, adventure, temperament, flow.
5. procures,belief,carry,express, manifests.
6. bound, agreement, indebted,obligationpenalize. 
7. among, with, by, upon, through.








SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION


The given paragraph describes about patriotism. This is a feeling among countrymen that helps in keeping them united. People from different sects, religions or groups living in the country work together in the interest of the country. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note. For filling in blank spaces there are small tips of rules. of grammar which help in     finding out correct words out of the given options. Words prior to or after the blank space also give hint about the word to be filled in the blank space. By using the method of 'elimination and selection' , the inappropriate words can easily be eliminated. For selecting from words of close proximity it is better to read the adjoining sentences carefully as it helps in selecting the correct word. First of all a thorough reading of the whole paragraph should necessarily be done.  





1. This blank space is preceded by an article 'an'. This gives a possibility of a noun in this space.Out of the given options, 'cords and favours' cannot be the correct choice as these words are in plural but here, due to the article 'a',  a singular noun is required. 'Solution' that binds the people does not fit well here. Out of 'joint' and 'bond' it is 'bond' that binds the people. 





2. This blank space is preceded by an article 'the' and followed by a preposition 'of' which signals towards possibility of a noun. Out of the given options, 'curious' is an adjective. Words like ' sense', 'charge' and 'share' can be used as verbs as well as nouns. But all of these words do not give any sense in the given context as in the share of the country, in the charge of the country, in the sense of the country. So 'in the interest of the country' is the appropriate choice.



3. 'This fact becomes more...' shows that a word describing the fact is required. So there is need of an adjective here. 'Reveal' and 'incline' are verbs. 'Application' is a noun. 'Transparent' means a medium through which something can be seen. This does not fit with 'this fact becomes more transparent'. 'Evident' means visible or apparent. It is the correct word. 

4.The words prior to the blank space are all negative words.So in this space also a negative word is required. 'A' shows a singular word, 'natural' , an adjective tells that a noun will follow it. 'Flow' means moving of a fluid, 'temperament' means nature of a person, 'adventure' means something above normal, and eventuality' means the final termination of a thing. These all words do not fit in this context. 'Calamity' meaning some event of misfortune is the correct word.



5. 'The word' a noun is subject and 'the spirit' is an object. Here a verb is required in the blank space. 'The word' is singular, so a singular verb is required. 'Belief' is a noun. 'Carry'and 'express' are plural verbs. 'Procures' means to obtain or to secure which does not fit here. 'Manifests' means 'clearly reveals'. It is the correct word.



6. The blank space is preceded by an article 'an' and followed by a preposition 'to' which shows that a singular noun is required here. 'Penalize' is a verb. 'Bound' and 'indebted' are verbs and can be used as  adjectives also.'Agreement' is something in writing to bind the parties. This does not give any sense here. 'Obligation' is the correct word here.
  


7. 'The real spirit 'with' 'upon' 'through' the countrymen do not give any meaningful expression. Out of 'by' and 'among' among is the correct word here. ' the spirit of patriotism among the countrymen.





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