Monday, 27 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (5) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS

Before attempting  a 'Cloze Test' exercise one must go through the whole paragraph. The candidate should never try to fill in blanks direct. By reading the paragraph one gets an idea of its contents and subject matter. It also tells about the mood of the author whether it is negative or positive. This helps in finding out the correct words to be filled in blanks.Reading and understanding the subject matter of the paragraph makes selection of words convenient. All the sentences in the paragraph are linked with each other. If one sentence is not clear,  sentences proceeding it  help in making it clear.  Sometimes there is a word used in the sentences following the blank. If not the same word a similar word also gives a clue about this word.

Mostly the author writes the paragraph in a single mood but it is not certain.In many cases it contains more than one moods i.e. positive mood and negative mood. There are certain words like but or otherwise etc. required to be identified which make the change. The mood prior to that word is different from that after that. This helps in selecting words out of the given options as these are to be according to the mood in that particular part of the sentence or stanza. 

Tense used in  the sentences also gives idea to choose words out of the given options.

'Elimination and Selection' is the best method to select words to fill in blank spaces.

EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE



ONE 


Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.


Happiness lies in 1.............................. and satisfaction. It does not mean that a person should not 2. ...................... for more, but he should strike a balance between contentment and ambition. An over-ambitious person can never be happy. Moreover, a man should use his wealth, talent, etc., which he 3............................. as a trustee and not as an owner and master. Moderation is the need of our life. If we go on 4. .............................. for more and more, there is no end. What is important is that how a person enjoys and uses the money he already possesses. Of what use is the 5...........................  wealth in a man’s possession or the huge bank-balance if he cannot enjoy it, or use it in the welfare of others? Compassion, charity, fellow-feeling, sacrifice and unselfishness are the 6. .................................  of happiness. A self-centered, egoist, unkind and 7.............................. person cannot achieve happiness. Poverty may 8............................................ inconvenience, but it is not always a curse. Many have turned their poverty into an 9.................................. of achieving happiness and bliss through their great will-power, determination and feeling for others. Sometimes poverty, adversity and sufferings may help a man to 10...................................... the best in him. Adjustment to the realities of life, facing things, and odds as they are and righteous resignation to the will of God can surely lead one to happiness.


1.cognition, purgation, contentmentsatiate, fatuity.
2.exertion,striveeffort, recreate, attenuate.
3. share, possesses,participates, control, dominates. 
4.demand, rapacious, aggressive, desires, craving.
5.enormous, hugely, exceedingly, majority, lofty.
6. precedent, antecedents, precursors, prerequisites, defunct. 
7. meek, haughty,subtle, divine, vividly. 
8.effects, reason, cause, channel, proceeds.
9. device, incarnate, methods,instrument, miracle. 
10.carry out, bring up, put out, show off, bring out.



SOLUTION & EXPLANATION


In this paragraph the author describes that a man has desires and he makes efforts to fulfill his desires. But a man should not have his desires beyond limits. There should a balance between desires of a man and their fulfillment. Man should enjoy the wealth and talents that he possesses instead of hankering after his desires unnecessarily. He can be happy only if he enjoys the things in his possession. Sometimes poverty causes inconvenience but this does not mean a poor man cannot be happy. He can also enjoy  his life in that condition also. The author describes about qualities a man should possess to be happy. He advises a man to adjust according to realities of life and submission to God;s will to enjoy real happiness of life. 


1. Sometimes the author gives a hint of the word in the sentences following the blank. The word 'contentment' in the next sentence fits well with the word next to blank 'satisfaction'. 'And' and 'or' are such words that take words of same part of speech on either side of them. 'Satisfaction' is a noun here and in the blank also there will be a noun. 'Cognition' means to think and understand, 'purgation' means to cleanse and purify, 'fatuity' means stupidity. All these words do not fit according to the context. 'Satiate' is a verb but here a noun is required. Contentment is the correct word here. The author has mentioned about in the next line also.  



2. In this sentence, 'a person' is a noun, subject 'should' a helping verb and one main verb is required here to complete the sentence. 'Exertion' and 'effort' are nouns. 'Attenuate' means to grow weaker, 'recreate' means to create something  again. These two words do not fit here. 'Strive' means to make effort or to try is the correct word here.


3. 'He' a pronoun is subject and a verb is required to complete the sentence. 'Dominates; means to control, participates means to take part, these two do not fit here according to the context. 'share' and 'control' do not suit here because with third person singular in present indefinite tense there is 's' or ;es; with a verb. 'Possesses' is the correct word here.



4. After a preposition a noun is required. A verb in present participle is also used as a noun.'Aggressive' is an adjective, 'rapacious' is a living being that lives by eating other beings. 'desires'  and ;demand' are a nouns. They are verbs also. 'Craving' means a very strong desire. It suits here the best. 

5. 'Wealth' is a noun. Before a noun, an adjective is required. 'Hugely' 'exceedingly' are adverbs. 'Lofty' means high in terms of height. 'Majority' is a noun. All these do not fit here. 'Enormous' is the correct word here.


6. 'Happiness' is a noun 'of' is a conjunction and before it also a noun is required. 'Defunct' is an adjective. 'Antecedents' means previous events, 'precedents' means a previous example to justify something, 'precursors' means forerunners. All these words have meanings different from the context. 'Prerequisites' something required in advance as a condition. For example the next will happen if the first occurs. This is the correct word.  


7. 'Person' is a noun. A self-centered, egoist, unkind are adjective used to describe noun person. These are all in negative sense. The words 'And' and 'or' take the same part of speech on both sides of themselves. So in blank also an adjective in negative sense is required. 'Vividly' is an adverb. 'subtle' and 'divine' are positive adjectives. These do not fit here. 'Haughty' meaning arrogant is the correct word here. 

8. 'Poverty' is a noun,subject, 'inconvenience' is a noun an object, and  'may' is a helping verb. To complete the sentence on main verb is required. 'Effects' and 'Proceeds' are nouns and these are also used as verb but these do not fit here because of 's' with them. 'Reason' and 'Channel' are nouns as well as verb but according to their meaning do not fit here, 'Poverty' is a reason of 'inconvenience' so 'cause' is the correct word here.


9. Before the blank there is an article 'an'. This shows that a noun is required in the blank space. 'An" means a singular noun starting with a vowel is required. There are only two words starting with a vowel (i). 'Incarnate' and ' instrument'. Out of these 'instrument' is the correct word. 


10. Before the blank space there is the word 'to'. This shows that a verb is required. after 'to' only first form of a verb is used. All the words are with first form of verb. 'Carry out' means to implement, 'bring up' means to rear, 'put out' means to douse or extinguish a fire. to 'show off' means to display pretentiously. All these do not fit here. 'Bring out' meaning to make visible  is the correct word here. 













TWO 

Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.




Food allergies are on a 1.................... across the globe, so much so that it is almost fashionable to announce that one is allergic to a certain 2................................ food item like eggplant, kopi, citric fruit or a pudding etc., which actually is not allergy but  3. .........................  intolerance. A true allergy is to the protein content of a food article and can 4. ............................ immediately or sometimes gradually, in hours to days. It is 5.................... to identify mild to moderate manifestations from severe presentation as immediate treatment can be 6. ........................and a life saved. Food allergy can 7.....................  breathing, intestinal tract, heart and skin. A person with food allergy will develop certain symptoms within a few minutes to an hour after eating the food.There is no single fool proof laboratory test to 8................... an individual allergic to a certain food item. The popular skin prick tests can sometimes produce a 9.........................reactions, hence should be avoided in individuals who present severe manifestations. There is currently no cure for food allergies;however, many persons grow out of them. It could be very frustrating to have a person with allergy because  food is everywhere and an individual by nature is 10..........................to try new foods outside their homes. This poses a risk of allergic reactions at places where one is new to. However the recommended strategy is to avoid a food that has caused problems to a person in the past.



1.  a)rise b)increasing, c)growing, d)upwards, e)ascend.
2.   a)display, b) spectacle,c)exotic d) exhibit, e) frantic.
3.   a) certain, b) doubt, c) clearly, d)shabbily, e)probably.
4.  a)apparently, b)manifest c) evidence, d)feeling, e)reveal.
5.  a) crucial b)critical, c)resolute, d) trivial, e)splendid.
6.  a)introduce, b) establish, c)found, d) instituted e) declared.
7.  a)intended,b) affect c) pretend, d)prompted, e)incite.
8.  a) change, b)facing, c) stamp d) cure, e) prove.
9.  a)evident, b) hardly, c) durable d) revealing e) severe
10.a) habit,b) interest, c)eagerly, d) curious e) inquisitive





SOLUTION & EXPLANATION


In this paragraph the author gives an account of allergy caused by  food items to human beings. He in a positive note tells the reasons of allergy and how one can save oneself from it. Although there is no fool proof treatment yet one can save oneself by avoiding those food items which cause allergy to a person. An allergy has its own cure but it should not be allowed to go to such an extent that might harm the body. The paragraph ends with an advice that one should identify and avoid the food item that causes allergy.





1. A verb can be used as different parts of speech in English. The past and present participle of a verb are used an adjective as in these sentences. An 'increased' demand of sugar........ The 'increasing' water level of the river........ Here 'increased' and 'increasing' are used as adjective. Similarly first form of a verb is used as a noun and it is preceded by an article.Just as An 'increase' in income......Otherwise in its usual form this word is used as a verb for example, the demand is 'increasing'. In options 'increasing' and 'growing' are present particles of their verbs. 'Upwards' is an adverb. 'Ascend' is the first form of verb. All these do not fit here according to the context. Before the blank space there is an article 'a'. According to the meaning 'rise' is the correct word here.   


2. 'Food item' is a noun so in the blank space an adjective is required. 'Display' and 'exhibit' are verbs. 'Spectacle' is a noun. All these do not fit here. 'Exotic' and 'frantic' are adjectives. Out of these 'exotic' is the correct word according to sense of the sentence.


3.'But' is such a conjunction that takes a positive word or clause on its one side and on its other side there is always a contrary word or clause. For example, He is miser but honest. Here 'actually' is followed by 'but'. 'Clearly' has its meaning in the same sense. 'Doubt' is a verb and 'certain' is an adjective. 'shabbily' does not fit here according to its meaning. 'Probably' is the correct word.


4. In this sentence 'can' is a helping verb and with this a main verb is required. A first form of verb is the only possibility. 'Apparently' is an adverb. 'Evidence' is a noun. 'Feeling' is present participle it is also used as a noun. 'Reveal' and 'manifest' are the first form of verbs but 'reveal' does not fit here according to the sense of the sentence. 'Manifest' is the correct word.


5. The writer is writing in the whole stanza in positive mood. So words with positive mood only will be used. 'Critical' and 'trivial' are negative words. 'resolute' means strong determination. 'Splendid' means eloquent or with grandeur. All these words do not fit here. 'Crucial' means of importance is the correct word.

6. 'Can be' is a helping or auxiliary verb and with this third form verb is required as the sentence is in passive voice.'Introduce' and 'establish' are first forms of verbs. 'Found' and ''declared' are third form of verbs but these do not fit here according to their meanings.'Instituted' meaning 'set up' is the correct word.   


7. 'Food allergy is subject and can is a helping verb  and 'breathing ... skin' is object. Here  main verb is missing. The sentence is in active voice, So first form of verb is required.'Intended' and 'prompted' are not first form of verb. 'Pretend' means 'to feign as' and 'incite' means 'to prompt a person'. Both these words do not fit here.'Affect' means to effect in a negative manner. This is the correct word. 


8. After 'to' always a first form of verb is used. 'facing' is not first form of verb. According to the meaning of the sentence, a laboratory test cannot 'cure' or 'change'. Out of the two 'Prove' and . 'Stamp' , 'stamp'is a better word.  


9. 'Tests' is a noun and Subject, 'reactions' is a noun and object. 'Can produce' is verb.  An adjective to describe noun 'reactions' is required. 'Hardly' is an adverb, 'durable' is an adjective. 'Revealing' is a present participle and is also used as adjective. 'Evident' and 'Revealing' do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Severe' is the correct word.  


10. An individual is a noun and subject. To describe a noun some adjective is required. 'Habit', 'interest' are nouns. 'Eagerly' is an adverb. 'Inquisitive' means to put into inquiry. All these do not fit here. 'Curious' is the correct word here.




  THREE

Directions  (111 - 120 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



An old couple was asking for water on the pavement outside an office. They (111) .............. to be pitifully poor. When asked where they were (112) ................. to. They told that they had come from a (113)...................... village to get their cataract-affected eyes operated. But they were stranded. The stranger who had (114)................... them there with a promise of treatment was (115)................Humanely, few staff members of the office arranged for their (116)................. for a night and next day (117)................ to a reputed hospital, whose eye surgeon had helped (118)...................poor patients. He examined his new patients and got them admitted. The surgeon (119)............... picked beggars from the streets and operated them for free. The old couple stayed in the hospital for a week and came out with new (120)............ They were now happier and healthier.

                                                                      (Adapted source question paper


111 a) wanted  b) apparently c) wished  d) appeared  e) liked

112 a) headed  b) journey  c) sitting  d) footing  e) tourist

113 a) nearing b) residential  c) close  d) distantly  e) nearby

114 a) took b) asked c) bring  d) brought  e) walked

115 a)forgotten b)untractable c)untraceable d) retraceable e)missed

116 a)refuge b)asylum  c)living d)livelihood e)shelter

117 a)took b)transferred c)bought d)lead e)bring

118 a)many b)greater c)quiet d)much  e)lot

119 a)timely b)repeatedly c)unwillingly d)constantly e)continuously

120 a)happy b)insight c)site d)sense e)sight






SOLUTION & EXPLANATION

On reading the paragraph a reader finds that the author is telling about an old couple sitting on pavement. They came here from a village for treatment of their eyes. Someone came along with them but he is not there now. A few persons from the nearby office took them to a hospital where their eyes were operated upon. After operation they are feeling better and healthier.The whole paragraph is in past tense. This implies that the required words are to be selected accordingly. The paragraph is written in a positive note.




111. In this sentence they, a pronoun is Subject and a verb in past tense is required to complete the sentence. 'Apparently' being an adverb does not fit here. 'Wished, 'wanted' or 'liked'  'to be poor' does not give any sense in this context. 'Appeared' is the correct word here.

112. In this sentence the word 'where' suggests that it is about movement to some place. 'They' is subject, 'were' is helping verb and with this one main verb is required and that too in present participle or third form of verb.'Journey' and 'tourist' are nouns. 'Sitting' does not show movement. 'Footing' too gives no sense. 'Headed' is the correct word here. Preposition 'to' also fits with it. 'Head to' means 'to go'. 

113. In this sentence 'village' is a noun and before it there should be an adjective to describe it. 'Nearing' is a verb, 'distantly' is an adverb, residential is an adjective. 'Close' is a verb but it is used as adjective also. All these do not fit here. 'Nearby' is an adjective it fits here.


114. In this sentence 'the stranger' is subject, 'them' is object 'had' is helping verb and with it one main verb in past participle is required. 'Took and bring' are not third form of verb. 'Asked or walked' them.. there, does not give any sense according to the context. 'Brought' them there is the correct word here.


115. In this sentence 'the stranger ....was ......' an adjective describing 'stranger' is required. 'untractable' means unmanageable, 'forgotten' means not remembering. 'Retractable' means something that can be pulled back or withdrawn. These all do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Missed' is past participle of 'miss'. Some time past participle is used as an adjective but in a sentence where action has been completed but in this sentence action still continues so it is not correct here. 'Untraceable' is the correct word.


116. In this sentence, 'staff members' a noun is subject, 'arranged for' is a verb, an object, a noun is required here. 'Asylum' is a shelter but in a negative sense i.e. lunatic asylum or political asylum. 'Refuge' is also used in the same sense of security or safety. 'Living' and 'livelihood' also do not fit here. 'Shelter ' is the correct word.

117.Here blank space is followed by a preposition 'to' it suggests that here a verb with preposition 'to' is required.'Bring' and 'lead'  in present tense are wrong. 'Bought' does not give any sense. 'Transferred' means some official shifting or through some other agency or person. As the persons are to be taken physically 'took' is the correct word here.


118.'......eye surgeon' is subject, 'had helped' a verb and ' patients' a noun is object 'poor' is an adjective in this sentence. An adverb to describe adjective 'poor' is required here. Here a countable word is required. So 'many' is correct word here.


119. 'Timely' means in time, 'repeatedly' means again and again 'unwillingly' is a negative word. These all do not fit here. 'Continuously' means without any break and 'constantly' means to do with a gap of time. So 'Constantly' is the correct word here.


120. Here 'new' is an adjective, a noun should follow it. 'Happy' is not a noun. 'Insight' 'site' and 'sense' have no meaning suitable to the context.'Sight' is the correct word.



























Saturday, 25 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (4) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS



  While attempting  exercise of 'Cloze Test', method of 'elimination and selection' of the suggested choices should be adopted. There are various hints or tips that help in making correct choice of  words. It requires application of grammar rules to make selection. One should try to find out the part of speech that fits suitably in the blank. The word next or prior to the blank also helps in finding out the word. Just as an adjective is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. An adverb describes words other than a noun and a pronoun, It also describes a verb. Identifying and selecting an appropriate preposition with a verb also helps in finding out verb to be filled in blank space. 

Number of a noun or a pronoun, whether it is in singular or plural number, placed as Subject or Object also helps in selecting the corresponding verb that fits according to the subject.  

Identifying voice i.e. active or passive voice of a sentence also helps in completing the sentence by checking proper placement of subject, object and verb in the sentence.

Identifying infinitives, participles and gerunds etc. and their appropriate use in the sentence is also very helpful in this process. Use of a gerund and a participle as a noun usually creates a confusion. For this understanding these terms is very necessary. 

A thorough reading of the paragraph is very essential before attempting exercise. This gives an idea of  subject matter and theme of the stanza. One gets a view of the author's approach whether he is writing in a positive or a negative note. This makes elimination and selection process of the suggested words much easier.

Undoubtedly above all these it is practice that is the best guide and teacher. One needs continuous practice to get good results.



EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE



ONE


Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



Advertising is a form of communication intended to(1) ........................... potential customers to purchase or to consume a commodity or service of a particular brand. Commercial advertisers often seek to (2) ......................  increased consumption of their products or services through method involving repetition (3).......................... of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media are used to (4).........................  these messages, including (5) .............................media such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, out door or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.
In the current era of (6)......................... competition each marketer has to prove himself to be better than his competitors. The cut-throat competitive market (7)............................  has made the advertising field very experimental and hence advertisers are (8).......................different measures to (9)............................ the attention of their target customers. They try to present their advertisements in such a way that catches instant customer attention. For this, they use a blend of message appeals like rational, emotional, ethical, etc. to make a positive (10)...........................on the target audience. They engage the minds and touch the hearts of the target audience, and ultimately motivate a response.                                 
                                                                               (Adapted Source Internet)



1. a)solicit, b) action, c)  persuade, d) impart,e) deter
2. a) existence, b)  generate, c) incite, d) creation, e) supply
3. a) performance, b) repose, c) solace, c) interjection, d) exert.
4. a) favour, b)  promote, c)  enhance, d) deliver, e) occurrence.
5. a)occasional, b) traditional, c) foundation, d) orthodox, e)coarse.
6.a)tough, b)endure, c) aggression, d)violent, e)baffle.
7. a)practise, b) setting,c) surround,d) environment,e) decor
8.a)feeling, b) adopting, c) invoking, d) sticking, e)assume
9.a)divulge, b)govern, c)variance,d) attract, e)divert
10.a)strike, b) roles, c) impact, d) impress, e)interact










TWO



Directions  (111 - 120 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.




We have worked really (111) ............ on helping those at the very bottom, but is that enough? Imagine how different the world would be if the (112)............... of much aid spending was not "ending $1.25 dollar-a-day poverty "but (113)................ a fairer and more equitable world". Inequality is about much more than income and that is why it is such a valuable (114) ............ If we took the wealth of the world's richest and used it to double ,treble or even quadruple the incomes of the world's poorest three billion people, would that be enough? It would make a big difference but those people would still be relatively poor and (115).............of better, fuller lives.Inequality, as a focal point for campaigns, (116) ........... us to accept and explain that building a better world is slow and perennial (117)................ Delivering a world where the quality of education, healthcare and national infrastructure available to every person is sufficient to bestow on them meaningful hope and ambition is hopefully the aim of 'development'. It is not possible without (118) ............. inequalities. Goals and targets will help us to keep moving forwards but achieving them will not (119) ................ success, which is why (120) .............. its important role as an inspiration- we shouldn't be so belligerent about zero poverty and specially about whether aid is the tool to get us there.

                                              (Adapted Source Competitive Examination.Question Paper)

111. a. lot b. much c. hard d.fortunately e. abysmally       
112.a. aiming b.limitation c. surrounding d. focus e. control 
113.a. creating b. spreading c. touching d. heightening e. populating 
114.a.frame b.resource c.portion d.dimensions e.remark 
115.a.want b.desolate c.absent d.deserving e.lamenting 
116.a.let b.makes c.pushed  d. pulls e.allows 
117.a. account b. endeavour c. causes d. method e.wisdom 
118.a.prevailing b.current c.talking d.tying e.tackling 
119.a. result b.arrest c. equal d.station e.figure 
120.a.as b. despite c. although d. while e.technically 






SOLUTION
&

EXPLANATION

On reading the given paragraph the reader finds that the author is describing poor condition of the people at the lowest level. There is mention of attempts being made to make improvement in their condition. Of course they  need money and material help  but for them more important than this is improvement in their living conditions like better education and healthcare facilities. Monetary aid is important  but there should not be so anxiety about it. Rather more stress should be on removing inequality among  people. This will certainly pave way for development.  The paragraph is in double note. First part of the paragraph is in negative note but the latter part has a positive tone. The author is hopeful by bringing some change.  This helps in making selection of words to be filled in blanks. 


111. In this sentence, 'We', a pronoun, is Subject, 'have worked' a verb and after a verb an adverb is required. Fortunatel and abysmally by their meanings do not fit here. 'Lot' and 'much' are used for a quantity. 'Hard' is sthe correct word here. 

112. 'Aid' is a noun here and 'of' is a conjunction. a conjunction takes the same part of speech word on both sides, so a noun is required in the blank. "Aiming' is a verb but as agerund it can be used here as a noun.'Limitation' 'surrounding' and 'control' are nouns but none of these fits well with '.....of ..aid'. 'Focus' is the correct word here. 

113.In this sentence 'but' is a word that changes the tone of the sentence. The author is talking of ending poverty but this does not satisfy him and he given another option of making the atmosphere better.Here as a verb is required, 'creating' is the correct word. 

114. In this sentence the author talks in a positive tone. He considers removing  inequality better than providing more income to the poor.The words 'remark' 'dimensions' and 'portion' do not fit here according to the context. The author is not talking here about any source of income but money is to be provided to the poor. So 'resource' is also not correct. 'Frame'( meaning thereby spread of action) is the correct word here. 

115.This sentence is also divided by the word 'but' view prior to 'but' is different from that after it. It will make a difference but people will be still poor and will require better living conditions. An adjecting  'poor' describing 'people' is joined by conjunction 'and'. So in blank space there also will be a noun. 'Want' is a verb.'Desolate' 'lamenting' and absent are negative words and do not fit here. 'Deserving' is the correct word here.

116. The paragraph is in present tense.'Pushed' is incorrect word. 'Pulls' also does not fit here. 'Inequality', a noun is Subject  and 'us'
a pronoun is object. A verb is required to complete a sentence. Inequality is singular so a singular verb is required. 'Let' is plural verb. Out of 'allows' and 'makes' allows is the correct word.

117. 'Building', a gerund, a noun is subject and 'slow and perennial' is adjective and in blank space an object (singular according to verb 'is')  a noun is required.'Causes' is verb as well as a plural noun. 'wisdom' and 'account' are nouns but all these do not fit here. 'Method' and 'endeavour' are nouns. Out of these two 'endeavour' meaning an attempt to try, is the correct word. 

118. As the author is talking about removing inequalities, out of all the suggested words only 'tackling' is the correct word. 

119.In the preceding sentences the author is comparing benefits of providing monetary help to the poor  with those of  removing inequalities. Targets and goals are necessary to do a work but their achievement is nit the fulfillment. Tone of the sentence before and after is different. 'equal' is the correct word.

120. In this sentence there are two tones of the author but the word that changes the tone is missing. 'As' is used in equal things. 'Technically' an adverb does not fit here.  'While' is used for time and duration. Out of 'although' and 'despite' is the correct word because it joins two contrary thoughts.   










  is set with a view

Friday, 24 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (3) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS



 'Cloze Test' is set with a view to assess proficiency of a candidate in respect of word power and his knowledge of  grammar rules. This covers various  aspects of a number of fields i.e. word meanings, appropriate use words in a sentence, complete knowledge of various parts of speech and their use in a sentence. Knowledge about Subject and object placement, Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective and Adverb and their use in a sentence is examined. A proper knowledge of all these is essential for correct attempt of this exercise. However regular practice makes it easy and possible.  

There are some points, though with exceptions, which help in making attempt easy and correct. For example :

Generally there are three parts of a sentence namely Subject, verb and Object. Sometimes an object is missing in a sentence.

Always a noun or a pronoun is used in the position of a Subject and object. An adjective always describes a subject and an object. 

A verb forms the vital part of a sentence. A sentence is not possible without a verb. A transitive verb has both subject and object with it. But in case of an intransitive verb there is no object in a sentence.

An adjective describes a noun or a pronoun but an adverb describes other parts of speech except noun and pronoun. 

A conjunction joins a part of speech with a similar part of speech i.e. a noun with a noun and a verb with a verb etc.  




EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE


ONE



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the given passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered.Against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. 




In India, 5th September is celebrated as Teachers' Day as a mark of 1. ................  to the 2. ....................  made by teachers to the society. On this day falls the birth anniversary of a great teacher Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. He was a 3............................  believer of education and was a well-known diplomat, scholar, philosopher, the President of India and above all, a teacher.

Once some of his students and friends approached him and requested him to allow them to 4. ......................his birthday, he said, "instead of celebrating my birthday separately, it would be my proud 5. ................. if 5th September is observed as Teachers' day". From then onwards, the 5th of September has been observed as Teachers’ day.

Dr. Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan was born on September 5, 1888, in the town of Tirutani. He was sent to school at Thirupati and then Vellore. Later, he joined the Christian College, Madras, and studied philosophy. Radhakrishnan by his confidence, concentration and strong 6. ...........................  went on to become a great philosopher.

He was an evocative teacher, 7. .................................... popular
 8. ...........................  his students right from his early days as a professor at Presidency College, Madras. He served the country in many 9. ...................................... But above all, he is a great teacher from whom all of us have learnt much and will continue to learn. It is India's 10......................................privilege to have a great philosopher, a great educationist and a great humanist as her President.



1. a. award, b.ceremonial, c.
tribute, d.esteemed, e.amusement.
2.a.role, b. share, c. duty, d. contributions, e. provide.
3.a. depend, b. staunch, c. dynamic, d. liberty, e. progression.
4.a. celebrate, b. considers, c. regards, d. enjoy, e. respect. 
5. a. favour, b. 
privilege, c. rejoice, d. implication, e. eventually.
6. a.judgement, b.victory, c.convictions, d. malice, e. pursue.
7.a. moving, b. daring, c.shine, d.exceedingly, e.strong.
8.a. between,b. for, c.across, d. into, e.among .
9. a. area, b. fields, c. 
capacities, d. perform, e. format. 
10. a. peculiar, b. dominant, c. fluent, d. steering, e. governing.






SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION


On reading this paragraph one finds that the author is describing about celebrating Teachers' day in India. He gives reasons for its celebration and describes about life and principles of the former President of India Dr. S. Radhakrishnan. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note.


1. 'A mark' is a noun and conjunction 'of ' follows it.It joins a noun with a noun. So the word in blank should be a noun. Out of given options, 'esteemed' is a verb in second and third form. Verb in third form is also used as an adjective. 'ceremonial' is also an adjective. 'Amusement' is a noun but according to its meaning it does not fit in this context. 'Award' and 'tribute' are nouns. The word 'Award' is used in the sense of some prize for some work. It does not give any sense in this context. 'Tribute' means some honour or admiration of someone. This is the correct word to be used here.

2. 'The' is an article and after this a noun is used. Out of the given options 'provide' is a verb. 'share' is a verb as well as a noun and 'role' and 'duty' are nouns. But these words are in general and simple terms. So these do not fit here because the author is talking about achievements of the person. 'Contributions' is the correct word.

3.'Believer' is a noun and before it an adjective is required. 'depend' is a verb. 'liberty' and 'progression' are nouns.'staunch' is the correct word here.


4. This blank is to be filled keeping in view the object 'his birthday' i.e. a verb is required here. Before blank there is 'to'. It means first form of verb without 's' or 'es' is required here.'Considers' and 'regards' do not fit here. Out of the remaining words 'celebrate' is the correct word.

5. "Proud' is an adjective and after it a noun is required. 'Eventually' is an adverb. 'rejoice' is a verb. 'Implication' a noun is a negative word. These all do not fit here. 'Favour' is a noun which means to give something out of pity. This too is not appropriate word. 'Privilege' is the appropriate word.

6. 'Confidence' and 'concentration' are nouns. 'Concentration' is joined by conjunction 'and' thereby in blank a noun is required. 'Strong' is adjective of this noun. 'Pursue' is a verb. 'Malice' meaning hatred is a negative word. 'Judgement' and 'victory' do not give any sense in this context. 'Convictions' is a correct word here. 

7.An adjective 'Popular' describes pronoun  'he' here. Before an adjective an adverb is used to describe it. For example She is a very beautiful girl. In this sentence 'girl' is a noun, 'beautiful' an adjective and 'very' is an adverb. Only an adverb and not an adjective can describe an adjective. Here only 'exceedingly'  being an adverb is the correct word.

8. Here  after 'popular', a preposition is required. 'For', 'across' and 'into' are incorrect. Out of 'among' and 'between', 'among' is correct. 'Between' is used for two and 'among' is used for more than two things or persons.


9. 'Many' is an adjective and after it a noun is required. 'Perform' is a verb. 'Format' and 'area' are singular but with 'many' a plural noun is required. Out of 'fields' and 'capacities', 'capacities' suits here.


10. 'Privilege' is a noun here. Before a noun an adjective to describe it is required. 'Governing' and 'steering' are verbs. These are also used as nouns but do not describe 'privilege' well. 'Dominant' ( a negative word) and 'fluent' do not fit here according to their meanings. 'Peculiar' meaning distinctive or typical is the correct word.
 





TWO 

Directions  (1 - 7 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



Patriotism is a 1...................  that binds people of a country of different religions, castes and sects together. They work collectively in the 2.....................of the country. This fact becomes more 3...............    during the days of war, disaster or a natural 4....................... in a country. People generally address their country as motherland. The word motherland itself 5........................    the spirit of true patriotism. A country like a mother brings up and looks after its people who in turn are under an 6........................ to do every possible service to the country. This is the real spirit of patriotism 7.................  the countrymen.    




1. cords, joint, bond solution, favours. 
2. curious, sense, charge, share , interest.
3. reveal, transparent, evident, application, incline.
4. eventuality, calamity, adventure, temperament, flow.
5. procures,belief,carry,express, manifests.
6. bound, agreement, indebted,obligationpenalize. 
7. among, with, by, upon, through.








SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION


The given paragraph describes about patriotism. This is a feeling among countrymen that helps in keeping them united. People from different sects, religions or groups living in the country work together in the interest of the country. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note. For filling in blank spaces there are small tips of rules. of grammar which help in     finding out correct words out of the given options. Words prior to or after the blank space also give hint about the word to be filled in the blank space. By using the method of 'elimination and selection' , the inappropriate words can easily be eliminated. For selecting from words of close proximity it is better to read the adjoining sentences carefully as it helps in selecting the correct word. First of all a thorough reading of the whole paragraph should necessarily be done.  





1. This blank space is preceded by an article 'an'. This gives a possibility of a noun in this space.Out of the given options, 'cords and favours' cannot be the correct choice as these words are in plural but here, due to the article 'a',  a singular noun is required. 'Solution' that binds the people does not fit well here. Out of 'joint' and 'bond' it is 'bond' that binds the people. 





2. This blank space is preceded by an article 'the' and followed by a preposition 'of' which signals towards possibility of a noun. Out of the given options, 'curious' is an adjective. Words like ' sense', 'charge' and 'share' can be used as verbs as well as nouns. But all of these words do not give any sense in the given context as in the share of the country, in the charge of the country, in the sense of the country. So 'in the interest of the country' is the appropriate choice.



3. 'This fact becomes more...' shows that a word describing the fact is required. So there is need of an adjective here. 'Reveal' and 'incline' are verbs. 'Application' is a noun. 'Transparent' means a medium through which something can be seen. This does not fit with 'this fact becomes more transparent'. 'Evident' means visible or apparent. It is the correct word. 

4.The words prior to the blank space are all negative words.So in this space also a negative word is required. 'A' shows a singular word, 'natural' , an adjective tells that a noun will follow it. 'Flow' means moving of a fluid, 'temperament' means nature of a person, 'adventure' means something above normal, and eventuality' means the final termination of a thing. These all words do not fit in this context. 'Calamity' meaning some event of misfortune is the correct word.



5. 'The word' a noun is subject and 'the spirit' is an object. Here a verb is required in the blank space. 'The word' is singular, so a singular verb is required. 'Belief' is a noun. 'Carry'and 'express' are plural verbs. 'Procures' means to obtain or to secure which does not fit here. 'Manifests' means 'clearly reveals'. It is the correct word.



6. The blank space is preceded by an article 'an' and followed by a preposition 'to' which shows that a singular noun is required here. 'Penalize' is a verb. 'Bound' and 'indebted' are verbs and can be used as  adjectives also.'Agreement' is something in writing to bind the parties. This does not give any sense here. 'Obligation' is the correct word here.
  


7. 'The real spirit 'with' 'upon' 'through' the countrymen do not give any meaningful expression. Out of 'by' and 'among' among is the correct word here. ' the spirit of patriotism among the countrymen.





Tuesday, 21 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (2) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS



 In an examination 'Cloze Test' plays a vital role in securing good marks for the candidate. Nevertheless there is variation in  its level that makes the difference. In some cases it is of simple to moderate level whereas in others it is of a good standard. Performance of the candidate in this regard counts accordingly. However it is practice only that helps in bringing good results. 

Instead of using a 'hit and trial' method one should attempt 'elimination and selection' method. First of all go through the whole paragraph without taking blank spaces in to consideration. Try to understand the underlying theme or the substance that the author wants to convey through these lines.The tone of the author, it is positive or negative, helps a lot in selecting words to be filled in blanks. If the paragraph carries a happy or pleasant note, all the positive words are  used. And for a melancholy note negative ones are  selected.

It is important to read and understand words around and near the blank space. This helps and gives a hint in choosing a word to be filled in the blank. 

For example:


An article 'a,an, or the' before a blank indicates possibility of a noun. 

Article 'an' before a blank tells that the word to be used in it starts with a vowel. 

Article 'a' or 'an' before blank shows that noun in blank will be in singular form.

A verb before a blank tells about possibility of an adverb in the blank space.

Number of verb i.e. in singular or plural form shows that noun too will according to that verb.

A preposition after a blank shows that there is possibility of a phrasal verb in blank space.  

A preposition after a blank space also helps in selecting a verb out of given options by eliminating those with which that preposition does not fit. 

A noun after a blank space gives a hint of an adjective in the blank space.      


A number of times there are chances that words may have very proximity in their meanings or spellings. For this one needs to apply one's common sense according to the meaning of the subject matter.  

Never try to select words without reading and understanding the paragraph. It is very necessary to first of all read the whole paragraph thoroughly and carefully. It helps to understand the underlying meaning.  

Always adhere to the subject contained in the paragraph and do not try to guess meanings of own. 

All the sentences are linked with each other. If one sentence is not clear, try to understand it with the help of  those next to that. 

A good knowledge of vocabulary and grammar aids much in this exercise. Above all this, it is practice that teaches how to handle the given situation.





EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE 


ONE 



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.




In order to make the country a fully developed country, women empowerment is an (1)....................... tool to get the goal of development. Many programmes have been (2)........................ 
 and run by the government  in order to bring (3)............................  in the society about the true rights and value of the women in the development of the nation. Women need to be progressed in a number of  (4)....................... The real meaning of the women empowerment is to make them well educated and leave them (5).............................  so that they can be (6).................... to take their own decisions in any field. India (7)..................................to take some advance steps to (8)..................................... women's position in the society through the proper health, higher education and economic (9)...................................... Women empowerment needs to take full speed in right direction instead of being in (10)......................... stage.





OPTIONS


1. a.inimical, b. durable, c. essential, d. sacredly, e. majority. 
2. a.perform, b. governed. c. executed, d. implemented,e. approve.
3. a.knowledge b.awareness c. familiar d. fluent e.expert.
4. a.focus b.issues c. topics d. centre  e.spheres.
5. a.open b.independent  c.liberal  d.free e.ideal.
6. a.strong b. capable c. definitely d. fluently e. distinct.
7. a.feel b. endure c. called d. beckon e. needs
8. a.upgraded b.ascend c. rose d. improve e.initiate
9. a.participate b.emancipation c.creative d.inclined e.development.
10. a.ancient b. growth c.nascent d.ultimately e.modern.



SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION 




Before trying to select words to be filled in blanks read the whole paragraph without considering any blank space. The author tries to convey a message about empowerment to women. It is necessary if a country is develop. For that many steps have been taken. Women need to be educated. They should be able to take their decisions themselves. These should be undertaken in a better and stronger way so that women are able to get better education and health facilities. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note. All the words to be selected are to be positive ones.


1. 'An' before blank is related to the noun 'tool'. 'An' and singular noun 'tool' are in correct combination. Before a noun an adjective is required in this blank. Out of given options, 'majority' is a noun, 'sacredly' is an adverb. So these two do not fit here. 'Inimical' meaning harmful is in negative sense so it also does not fit here. the remaining two 'durable' meaning lasting for long time which does not fit here. 'Essential' means necessary is the correct word. Besides 'essential' starting with vowel 'e' is also correct according to the article 'an'.  

2. This sentence is in passive voice. 'Many programmes' is an object and 'have been and third form of 'run' are used. In the blank also third form of a verb will be used. 'Approve' and 'perform' are in first form of verb.So these do not fit here. Verb 'Governed' does not fit here according to its meaning. Out of 'executed' and 'implemented' the latter fit well with the other verb 'run'.

3. After 'to bring' a noun is required. 'Familiar, Fluent and expert' are adjectives. These do not fit here. Knowledge is a noun but does not give any sense here. 'Awareness' is the correct word.

4.   In this space a noun is required to be filled. But it should be in plural as indicated by 'a number of'. 'Focus and centre' are in singular. 'Issues' is in negative sense.'Topics' does not fit according to the context. 'Spheres' is the correct word.  

5.This sentence 'leave' is a verb. 'them' is object. An adverb is required. 'Open,independent,liberal and ideal' all are adjectives. 'Free' is a word that can be used both as an adjective and adverb.So 'free' is correct word.

6. Here an adjective relating to the pronoun 'they' is required. But 'definitely' and 'fluently' are adverbs. 'Distinct' does not fit here according to its meaning. 'Strong' and 'capable' are adjectives. Out of these 'capable' fits more because here a word according to mental and not physical power to women is required.

7.After 'to bring' In this sentence 'India' is Subject and 'steps' is object. In the blank space a verb is required. India is singular so a singular verb and that too in present tense is required. 'Feel','beckon',and 'endure'  are plural verbs. 'Called' is in past tense. Only verb 'needs' singular and in present tense is the correct word.     

8. 'to' before blank shows that a verb is required in this blank space. After 'to' there is always first form of verb and that too without 's' or 'es' i.e. verb in plural form is required. 'Upgraded' and 'rose' are not in first form of verb. 'Ascend' means 'to go up' does not suit here.'Initiate' means 'to start' but programmes have already been started so this is also incorrect. 'improve' is the correct word.

9. Here 'proper' is an adjective and 'health' is a noun, 'higher' is an adjective and 'education' is a noun and 'economic' is an adjective and in blank space a noun is required. 'Participate' and 'inclined' are verbs.Creative is an adjective. 'Emancipation' a noun means liberation which does not fit here. With adjective 'economic'  'development' is the correct word. 

10.'Stage' is a noun and in blank space an adjective is required. 'Growth' is a noun, 'ultimately' is an adverb. 'Ancient' means of old times and 'modern' means of present times do not fit here according to the context. 'Nascent' means in primitive stage fits here well. 







TWO 

Directions  (76 - 85 ) : In the given passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered.Against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. 



Many multinationals think they understand and have tried to (76) ............ the serious risks posed by operating in China-intellectual-property-rights violations,corruption, lack of transparency, potential political instability 
(77)...........one of the highest risks of all China's massive environmental degradation -in (78) ...............corporate boardrooms.China's environmental problems are(79).............the point where they could (80)................ its GDP growth. Its State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) concluded in 2006 that environmental degradation and pollution  (81) ............... the Chinese economy the equivalent of 10% of GDP annually. This figure is echoed in more specific costs reported in the Chinese press, up to $36 billion in lost industrial output from a lack of water to run factories, $13 billion from the degradation and health impact of acid rain, $6 billion from the spread of desert regions, and the list goes on. 

The effect on the population is (82)  ............Already more than 400000 people die each year as a result of the country's air pollution, according to environmental expert and an estimated 190 million people drink water so contaminated that it makes them sick. Some 40 million people have had to migrate because their local ecology can no longer (83) ........... them. The Chinese leadership is now concerned that environmental (84) ............... is leading to social unrest. The domestic media reported 50000 environmental protests in 2005. Such protests are usually small in scale, but some have engaged upwards of 30000 to 40000 people, some have been violent, and they are increasing in (85).  

                                                            (Adapted source Question paper)
76.a. elevate b. mitigate c.amplify d.cure e.relieve 
77.a.because b. thus c. yet d. till e. until 
78.a. almost b.scanty c. popularly d. just e. barely 
79.a. reaching b.beyond c. arriving d. joining e. coming 
80.a. stay b. drive c. curl d. constrain e. migrate 
81.a. compensate b. amount c. cost d. accrue e. violent
82.a. alarming b. distressed c. countering d. delightful e. shoddy
83.a. approve b. bare c. harm d.sustain e. survive 
84.a. leading  b.causing c. appealing d. advancing  e. bulging 
85. a. frequent b. number c.sum d. numerical e. representation