Sunday, 15 March 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH -CONVERSION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH FROM ONE TO ANOTHER -- EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES



Generally a sentence comprises of  two parts i.e. Subject and Predicate. Further different Parts of speech  i.e.  Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and interjection etc. under these two parts form a sentence. These all have their specific roles according to their use in the sentence.

The boy writes a letter. 
In this sentence, 'the boy' is Subject. It is a noun. 
The part 'writes a letter.' is predicate.  In this part 'writes' is a verb.
'a letter' is object. It is a noun.

Different words are used as different parts of speech in a sentence but sometimes one word is also used as different parts according to its use in the sentence. 

There are various signs which help in identifying a word as a noun in a sentence. A noun has a singular and plural numbers. A noun or a pronoun acts as  Subject or Object. A noun is preceded by an article. A noun is described by an adjective.  

A word can be used as more than one parts of speech. For example as the same word is used as a noun, verb or adjective etc. in the following sentences.


BACK

NOUN - He carried a log on his back.
VERB  - He did not back me in this case.
ADJECTIVE - He went through the back door. 
ADVERB - He turned back to look at me.



WELL

NOUN - He has sunk a well in the field.
ADJECTIVE - Villagers use well water to drink.
ADVERB - He feels well now.
VERB - Tears welled up in her eyes.
CONJUNCTION - He qualified the test ; well, I did not
expect it of him.



These sentences show that the same word Back or Well is being used as a Noun, Adjective, Verb or Adverb. 

But besides this, words are also  formed from one part to another  i.e. an Adjective or Adverb  formed from a Noun, a Verb formed from a Noun or an Adjective etc. This is called Formation of Parts of Speech.

Following examples will make the point clear.


FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS

Verbs       Nouns

Advise  - Advice
Break   - Breech
Choose - Choice
Drink - Draught
Draw - Draft
Enter - Entrance
Flow - Flood
Grieve - Grief
Hinder - Hindrance
Inform - Information
Invent - Invention
Live - Life
Lose - Loss
Permit - Permission
Prove - Proof
Refuse - Refusal
Speak - Speech
Weave - Web       



FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES     NOUNS

Active                 Activity
Absent                Absence
Brief                   Brevity
Broad                 Breadth
Coward              Cowardice
Certain               Certainty
Equal                  Equality
Eminent              Eminence
Free                     Freedom
Fertile                  Fertility
Generous             Generosity
Grand                  Grandeur 
High                     Height
Humble                Humility
Inferior                 Inferiority
Just                       Justice
Long                     Length
Loyal                    Loyalty
Moist                     Moisture
Noble                    Nobility
Poor                      Poverty
Rival                      Rivalry 
Royal                    Royalty
Scarce                   Scarcity
Secure                   Security
Timid                     Timidity 
Vain                       Vanity
Young                    Youth


  


FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM NOUNS




NOUNS            ADJECTIVES
Angle                    Angular
Angel                    Angelic
Boy                      Boyish
Brass                    Brazen
Day                       Daily
Essence                Essential
Enemy                  Inimical
Frost                     Frosty
Fury                      Furious
Glory                    Glorious
Grace                   Gracious 
Greed                   Greedy
Industry                Industrious
Iron                       Ironical
Ignorance              Ignorant 
Joy                         Joyful
Live                       Lively
Love                      Lovely
Labour                   Laborious
Mystery                  Mysterious
Mirth                      Mirthful
Man                        Manly
Nature                     Natural
Nation                     National
Palace                      Palatial   
Particle                    Particular
Price                        Precious
People                      Popular
Pride                         Proud
Quarrel                     Quarrelsome 
Rain                          Rainy
Sense                        Sensible
Silk                            Silken
Star                           Starry
Table                         Tabular
Talk                           Talkative
Terror                        Terrible 
Type                          Typical
Vice                           Vicious
Vigour                       Vigorous
Virtue                        Virtuous
Voice                         Vocal
Will                            Wilful
War                            Warlike
Wood                         Wooden
Worth                         Worthy
Year                           Yearly
Youth                         Young    
Zeal                            Zealous
     


FORMATION OF VERBS FROM NOUNS



NOUNS                   VERBS         

Air                          Aerify
Action                     Act
Authority                Authorise
Belief                       Believe
Blood                      Bleed
Body                       Embody
Breath                     Breathe
Breadth                   Broaden
Class                       Classify
Critic                       Criticise
Circle                      Encircle
Courage                  Encourage
Centre                     Centralize
Danger                    Endanger
Drop                        Drip
Example                  Exemplify
Electricity               Electrify
Election                   Elect
Fool                         Befool
Force                       Enforce
Frost                        Freeze
Friend                      Befriend
Food                        Feed
Grass                       Graze
Glass                       Glaze
Glory                       Glorify
Gait                          Go
Habit                        Habituate
Half                          Halve
Haste                        Hasten
Heir                          Inherit
Head                         Behead
Height                       Heighten
Health                       Heal
Knee                         Kneel
Knot                         Knit     
Memory                   Memorize
Nation                      Nationalize
Necessity                 Necessitate
Office                      Officiate 
Origin                      Originate 
  

FORMATION OF VERBS FROM ADJECTIVES

 ADJECTIVES     VERBS

Able    -  Enable
Brief   - Abbreviate
Bold  -Embolden
Clean  - Cleanse
Clear - Clarify
Dear  - Endear
Dark - Darken
Equal - Equalize
Fond - Fondle
Fresh  - Refresh
Full - Fill
Glad - Gladden
Hard - Harden
Humble - Humiliate
Just - Justify
Large - Enlarge
Little - Belittle
New - Renew
Real - Realize
Sure - Ensure
Thick - Thicken
Wide - Widen
White - Whiten









FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVE      NOUNS

Absurd     -  Absurdity
Accurate  - Accuracy
Brutal  - Brutality
Candid  - Candour
Chaste - Chastity
Dear - Dearth
Dear - Dearness
Dense - Density
Enormous - Enormity
Frail - Frailty
Frequent - Frequency
Gallant - Gallantry
Hot - Heat
Hard - Hardship
Intense - Intensity
Liberal - Liberality
Moist - Moisture
Notorious - Notoriety 
Pious - Piety
Rare - Rarity
Solid - Solidity
Solitary - Solitude
Uniform - Uniformity
Vicious - Vice
Wide - Width
Young - Youth




FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES           ADJECTIVES 

Two - Twofold
Many - Manifold
Economic - Economical
Whole - Wholesome
Tragic - Tragical
Black  - Blackish
Green - Greenish
Red - Reddish
White - Whitish
Yellow - Yellowish

FORMATION OF ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES             ADVERBS 

Absolute - Absolutely
Adequate - Adequately
Apparent - Apparently
Bold - Boldly
Careful - Carefully
Efficient - Efficiently
Full - Fully
High - Highly
Quick - Quickly
Slow - Slowly
Swift - Swiftly




FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM FOREIGN WORDS


WORDS           ADJECTIVES 

Body  - Corporal
Brother - Fraternal
Cat - Feline
Church - Ecclesiastical
City - Civic
Citizen - Civic
Cow - Bovine
Daughter - Filial
Son - Filial
Dog - Canine
Devil - Diabolic
Death - Mortal
Earth - Terrestrial
East - Oriental
Egg - Oval
Father - Paternal
Mother - Maternal
Flesh - Carnal
Flower - Floral
Foot - Pedal
Friend- Amicable
God - Divine
Hand - Manual
Head - Capital
Heaven- Celestial
Hell - Infernal
Home - Domestic
Husband - Conjugal
Wife - Conjugal
King - Regal
Male- Masculine
Female - Feminine
Man - Human
Moon - Lunar
Nose - Nasal
Night - Nocturnal
Sea - Marine
Ship - Naval
Sky - Ethereal
Sun - Solar
Tooth - Dental
Town - Urban
Village - Rural
Year - Annual



















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