Tuesday, 7 January 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - CONJUNCTION - TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES.

PARTS OF SPEECH--       


       CONJUNCTION

Meaning, Definitions, its types, 
Explanation with Examples.  


Different parts of speech join together to form a sentence. These are Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection. Every part has its place and role in a sentence.


A Conjunction is a word that joins words or sentences together. 

Conjunctions are also called Linkers. These are -- and, but, when, as, that or still etc.

Conjunctions are of following two types:

1. Coordinative Conjunctions

2. Subordinative Conjunctions



COORDINATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

Coordinative Conjunctions join sentences of equal rank. These are :
and, but,for, also, otherwise, either....or, neither...nor, or, no less than, now, well, but...and, so, still,yet,however,therefore, too,as etc.



And : Gold and silver have I none.

Both ...  and : He was both punished and fined.

Also : He is guilty, and you also.

Too : He is an idler and gambler too.

As well as : He as well as you is guilty.

No less than : He no less than you is at fault.

Not only ..... but : He was not only fined but also dismissed.

Either ... or : Either he or his brother is guilty.

Neither ... nor : Neither he nor his brother is to blame.

Otherwise, or,else    :   Leave the room or (otherwise, else) you will be punished. 

But : He is sad but hopeful.

Still, yet : He is very rich still (or yet) he is not happy.

Nevertheless : All men were against him; nevertheless  he persevered.

However : All men were against him, however, he stuck to his                            point.

Only : Go anywhere you like; only do not stay here.

Therefore : He was careless therefore he did not succeed.

Whereas,while : Wise men work hard whereas (or while) fools shun it.

Then : It is time to go, let us start then.

So : It is time to go, so let us start.

For : He will die some day; for all men are mortal.





SUBORDINATIVE CONJUNCTIONS

 Subordinative Conjunctions join subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause. 
One sentence is said to be Subordinate to other when it depends upon the other.
The Dependent sentence is that to which some subordinate conjunction is prefixed. 
The Principal sentence is that on which the subordinate sentence depends.

The subordinate conjunctions are classified according to their meaning as under :



Time : after, before, as soon as, since, while, so long as, till, until. 

Cause : as, because, since.

Purpose : so that, in order that, lest, that.

Result or Effect: so that.

Comparison : less than, as...as, than.

Extent or Manner : as, as far as, so far as, according to, as if.

Contrast : Though, although, however, notwithstanding.

Condition: In case, if, provided, provided that, whether, supposing, unless.

Apposition: that... would i.e. He made a promise that he would...





A sentence is said to be Subordinate to another when it depends upon the other.

The Dependent sentence is that to which some Subordinate Conjunction is prefixed.

The Principal sentence is that on which the subordinate sentence depends.


For example :

I will do this      
Principal   

  if            
Conjunction         
   
 I am allowed.
Dependent

                                





Some Examples :

He will succeed           
 because         
  he works hard.

Men work       
 that     
 they may earn money.

I shall do this              
since         
you desire this.

He walked carefully   
 lest           
 he should stumble.

She took medicine  
 in order that   
 he might recover.

You must take it       
whether         
 you like it or not.

He is a honest man   
though         
 he is poor.

He is as intelligent    
as            
his brother.

He is more intelligent 
than                
 his brother.

I shall take rest    
while   
 you do your work.

He went to the bed  
 as soon as     
 you left.

This is true     
 as far as       
 I think. 

He left the room    
 as         
 the clock struck ten.



Relative and Interrogative Adverbs form class by themselves.For example : When, where, wherever, whether, whence, how etc.

Some examples are :

He remained silent  
when
he heard that.

He feels nostalgic         
whenever  
he visits this place.

Let me ask you      
how 
you did this.

He wanted to know  
whether 
I was ready by then.

We found flowers
wherever    
we wandered.

I do not understand 
why   
he behaves like this.

Nobody knows  
where 
she came from.

Ten o'clock is the time 
when
we will start.



CO-RELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS
Co-relative conjunctions are those which are used in pairs.For example :  either....or , neither ...nor, both ..... and, not only.... but also, etc. These conjunctions are :


As ..... as                    
  He is as clever as you.

So ..... as                     
 He is so wise as you.

The same ...as            
This is the same kind of pen as mine.

The same... that         
 This is the same stranger that I saw there.

Such....as                  
She is not such a lady as will deceive you.

So... that                  
I am so tired that I cannot walk.

As ..... so                    
 As you sow so shall you reap.

Hardly ... when         
Hardly had I entered the room when it
started raining.  

Scarcely.. before       
Scarcely had I entered the room when the
lights went off. 

No sooner... than    
 No sooner did I reach there than he left.

Either ..or                
Either she or her sister is at fault.

Neither ... nor       
Neither she nor her sister is to blame.

whether... or          
You must go there whether you like it or not.                                             
Both... and    
He is both mean and miser.



SOME IMPORTANT CONJUNCTIONS AND THEIR USE 

SINCE

1. From and after the time; as 

Many things have happened since you left.
We have not seen him since he got married.

2. In view of that, seeing that; as

Since she wishes, I will help her.
Since he feels unwell, he should take light food.


IF

1. On the condition that; as

If he participates, I shall not attend the function.
If he comes, I shall  go with him.

2. Admitting that; as

If she is poor, yet she is honest.
If he is blunt, he is sincere.

3. Whenever; as

If you feel convenient, you may consult me.
If you have any inconvenience, meet the manager.

4. Whether; as

I wonder if he would come to our rescue.
I doubt if she has any plan with her.




OR

1.To introduce as an alternative; as

She must weep or she will die.
Your wealth or your life.

2. Otherwise; as 

Walk fast or you will lose the train.
Obey orders or be ready for punishment.

3. In the sense of and; as

He does not lack strength or courage but needs guidance.


LEST

1. Lest is used to mean 'in order that ... not' 'for fear that' ; as

Walk fast lest you should miss the train.
Be careful lest you should be robbed.



WHILE 

1. During the time that, as long as; as,

The thief took away their money, while they were sleeping.
I finished my work, while you were taking your meals.

2. All the same that; as, 

He found out faults while he also praised.
The girls danced while the band played.

3. Whereas; as,

While it applies to a few, it is not for all.
While he has no money, you have nothing to spend on. 


AS LONG AS

To express time 'how long'; as,

As long as you pay money, you will get the supply.
They will serve you as long as you pay them.


AS WELL AS 

To connect one word with another word.

He as well as his brother is to blame.
I as well as you am at fault. 




 

EXERCISE OF CONJUNCTIONS 
FOR PRACTICE

Fill up the blanks with suitable conjunctions out of the given options.

As soon ...as, Not only .... but also, lest, Scarcely... before, as well as, as if, both.... and, as, than. while, since


1.The music was ......... jarring ........vulgar.
2.You are such a man .......... all admire.
3. She feels sad ........... she remembers her children.
4. She returned home ........... she finished her task.
5. Leave the room ........ you should come to grief.
6. .......  she entered the room......they started laughing.
7. He is a swindler........... a cheat.
8. It appears ........ it will rain.
9. It is more than a week ....... he left.
10. Make hay ....... the sun shines.








SOLUTION
1.The music was not only jarring but also vulgar.
2.You are such a man as all admire.
3. She feels sad while she remembers her children.
4. She returned home as soon as she finished her task.
5. Leave the room lest you should come to grief.
6. As soon as she entered the room when they started laughing.
7. He is a swindler as well as a cheat.
8. It appears as if it will rain.
9. It is more than a week when he left.

10. Make hay while the sun shines.





Conjunction is an important part of speech. It is a linking or joining word. It joins  words with  words, a phrase with a phrase, a clause with a clause and a sentence with a sentence. 
For example :

Bread and Butter,
He will stay at a hotel or at his friend's house.
He did not come as he was ill.  
He told me that he was ill.

In the sentences written above the words in bold letters are conjunctions. As is in English language a word can be used as different parts of speech. But it is the place of a particular word in the sentence that decides its status as a part of speech. For example the word 'Since' used in the following sentences.


1. I have not met him since Monday.
2. Since I am unwell, I shall not go to office today. 
3. He has not come to my house  since you left.

In the sentence at Sr. no. 1, the word 'Since' is followed by a Noun 'Monday', its part of speech is a Preposition, because a Preposition is always followed by a Noun or a Pronoun.

In the sentence at Sr. no. 2, the word  'Since' is joining two clauses. I am unwell, comprises of a Pronoun 'I' as Subject , am a verb. and unwell an Adjective describing the Pronoun 'I'. It is a clause. Similarly in the part, I shall not go to office today, 'I' is Pronoun, a Subject. 'shall not go' its verb. It is also a clause. So a word joining two clauses, 'Since', is  a Conjunction.

In the sentence at Sr. no. 3, 'He has not come to my house' is a clause and 'You left' is also a clause. 'Since' is a Conjunction.

Here follow some more words used as conjunctions.

The word 'If' used in the following sentences is a conjunction.

I shall go if you accompany me.

In this sentence the word 'If ' denotes a condition. One action is on the condition of happening the other action. But 'If ' in this sentence joins two clauses. A word that joins two clauses is a conjunction.

I don't know if he will help you.

In this sentence also the word 'If ' joins two clauses as such it is a conjunction. But in this sentence it does not express a condition but raises a doubt about happening of an action. 


You can go if the principal allows you.
I shall go if it does not rain.
He will come if he is well.

In these sentences 'if ' is a conjunction and describes a condition.




 


























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