Thursday, 5 December 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH. PRONOUN - THEIR TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. ---PRONOUN

PARTS OF SPEECH -- PRONOUN -- Its types, Definitions, Explanation with examples.


Words are used for expression of feelings, thoughts and description of observations.These words are grouped in the form of a sentence which makes a sense. The words have their specific functions in a sentence according to their form, usage and structure.These are classified as different Parts of Speech namely, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and interjection. Pronoun is explained in detail in the following paragraphs.



THE PRONOUN


A word used in place of a Noun or a Noun equivalent is called a Pronoun. 


The word Pronoun consists of two words i.e. Pro and Noun. It means For a Noun i.e. a word used for a Noun. 

For example : John is  resting because he is tired.  
The word 'he' used in place of 'John' is a Pronoun.

There are following types of Pronouns.

1. Personal Pronoun
2. Reflexive Pronoun
3.Emphatic Pronoun
4.Demonstrative Pronoun
5. Relative Pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun
7. Reciprocal Noun
8. Indefinite Pronoun.


PERSONAL PRONOUN

A Pronoun that describes a man, woman or a thing is called Personal Pronoun i.e. I, We, Me, Us, You, He, She, His, Her, They, Them, It etc. 'It' is used for animals,birds or non living things. 

Personal Pronouns are used for three types of persons, First Person, Second Person and Third Person. 
First Person -- Singular I, Me Plural We, Us.
Second Person -- Singular and Plural You
Third Person --  Singular He, Him, She, Her, It, Plural They Them.

As Pronoun is used in place of a Noun, it is used like Noun in Nominative Case, Objective Case and Possessive Case.






Nominative Case -- I, we, you, He, She, It and They.

Objective Case -- Me, us, you, Him, Her, It and Them.
Possessive Case -- My, Mine, Our, Ours, Your, Yours, His,His, Her, Hers, Its, Their, Theirs. 

It may be mentioned here that with He only His and with It Its is used. It is wrong to use apostrophe with Its.

Mine, ours, yours, Hers and Theirs are used as pronoun.
For example This book is mine and that is yours.

My, our, your, His, Her and Their are used as adjective as these are always followed by Noun.
For Example This is my book and that is your book.


Some Features of Personal Pronouns.

ONE

If all the three persons are to be used together in a sentence:

For a good work, seriatum will be Second person, third person and First person.
For example - You, He and I have done our duty.

For a wrong action - First Person, Third Person and Second Person. For example - I, he and you are at fault.

TWO

If the speaker involves other people in his activities then first person plural  'we' is used. For example -- He said to the people,"We should help the poor."   

In speaking of mankind 'we' is used. For example -- We  are the subject of God. We should obey orders of Almighty.

THREE

Second Person, You is used as singular and plural both.
For example -- You are my friend. (singular) You all are my friends. (Plural)

FOUR

'It' is used for non-living things, animals and young children.
For example --   
The cow lives in  its shed. It is his pet. The child resembles its mother. 

It is used with a pronoun or a noun to emphasize it. For example - It is he who is at fault. It is Lucy who is to blame.

It is used to express time and weather conditions. For example : 
It is very hot today. It is ten O' clock. It is raining today.

It is used to express exclamatory sentences. For example --
What a pleasant weather it is !
What a lovely child it is !


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Fill in the blanks in following sentences with suitable possessive pronouns.

We went to ......... house and our friends went to .........
We carried .......luggage and they carried .............
They reached .........house well in time but we reached ....... very late. We had to cook ...... food ourselves but they were served food by .......... neighbour. After having food our friends went to .......... bed very early but we could lay ........ beds very late.The next morning they came to ....... house and took all of us to ............ house. They said to us,"You and we will  do...... work together. We will not allow you to leave until we all finish ...... work." We all started doing ...... work. We enjoyed ....... a lot while doing .......work together. We all finished ..... work very soon.



SOLUTION



We went to our house and our friends went to theirs
We carried  our luggage and they carried theirs
They reached  their house well in time but we reached ours very late. We had to cook our food ourselves but they were served food by their neighbour. After having food our friends went to their bed very early but we could lay our beds very late.The next morning they came to our house and took all of us to their house. They said to us,"You and we will  do our work together. We will not allow you to leave until we all finish our work." We all started doing our work. We enjoyed ourselves a lot while doing our work together. We all finished our work very soon.


REFLEXIVE PRONOUN 

A reflexive pronoun is used to express that the action done by the subject has effect on the subject itself. For example Myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, herself and themselves etc.

He covered himself with a piece of cloth.
The child hurt itself.
One should help  oneself.
He did his work himself.
The rabbit hid itself in a bush.
By doing so she will harm herself.


EMPHATIC PRONOUN

Reflexive Pronouns used to lay emphasis are called Emphatic Pronouns. OR
Reflexive Pronouns used in an emphatic sense are called Emphatic Pronouns.

For example --
He himself did this work.
She was welcomed by her mother herself. 

His mother herself cooked food for herself.
The minister himself visited her to meet her.


Emphatic Pronoun is used to put emphasis so its proximity to the Subject is necessary. For example

The students were guided by the Principal himself.
The Principal himself guided the students. 

In these sentences himself is placed next to Principal in order to lay stress on the word 'Principal'. 


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


Select Reflexive Pronouns and Emphatic Pronouns in the following sentences.

1. By doing so she will land herself in a difficulty.
2. He himself instigated the children to do mischief.
3. She herself is responsible for her failure.
4. You will hurt yourself if you do so.
5. Sometimes she herself hates herself.
6. I myself shall try to do this work.
7. Her mother bought a new dress for herself.
8. My brother himself saw the thief in the street.
9. The culprit himself admitted his fault.
10. The poetess herself recited poems on the stage.
11. She murmured these words to herself in a suppressed voice. 


SOLUTION


(1. Reflexive Pronoun   2. Emphatic Pronoun )

1. By doing so she will land herself  (1) in a difficulty.
2. He himself (2) instigated the children to do mischief.
3. She herself (2) is responsible for her failure.
4. You will hurt yourself  (1) if you do so.
5. Sometimes she herself (2) hates herself.(1)
6. I myself  (2)shall try to do this work.
7. Her mother bought a new dress for herself. (1)
8. My brother himself (2) saw the thief in the street.
9. The culprit himself (2) admitted his fault.
10. The poetess herself (2) recited poems on the stage.
11. She murmured these words to herself (1) in a  suppressed voice.




DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 


A Pronoun used to point out to some Noun already used is called a Demonstrative Pronoun.

The main pronouns of this kind are : This, These, That, Those, Such, Some, One, Ones, None etc.

This, That, One are used as singular number and These, Those and Ones are used as plural number. This and these are used for nearer objects and That and Those are used for distant objects. For example :

This is the house where I live now and that is the house where I lived earlier.

These are my books and those are yours.


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

A Pronoun used in asking questions is called Interrogative Pronoun.
Who, Whom, What, Which, Whose, Where, and When etc are words used as interrogative pronouns. 

Who, what and which are used in Nominative case, Whom is used in Objective case and Whose is used in Possessive case.
Who refers to persons only, Which refers to persons and things and What is neuter and applies to things only. 

Who and What are used in an indefinite sense that is without reference to class. 

Which is used with reference to a particular class and implies selection out of that class.   

For example--

Who painted this beautiful picture?
Whose picture is this ?
What is the price of this picture?
Where is your house situated?
Which of these is your picture?
By whom has this picture been painted? 

What is sometimes used to express exclamation also as
 What a fool he is ! What a jovial fellow he is !  


Distinction between 'Who', 'What' and 'Which' ---

Who is her father?     
 Mr Edward is her father.

What is her father?       
Her father is a teacher.

Which is her father?        
Her father is standing
first in the second row.


                                          
In the preceding sentences 'who' refers to name or parentage of a person. 

'What' refers to the profession of a person. 'Which' inquires about a particular person out of a definite group.



In the following sentences 'which' refers to a particular thing out of some given things.

Which book of these books is yours?
This is my pen which is yours? 


The word but after a negative is equivalent to 'who not' or 'which not' but it is used only in the Nominative as
There is no man but l(who does not) love his country.
There was no one but (who did not) shed tears.

INDEFINITE PRONOUN



The pronoun that refers to persons or things in a general way is called Indefinite Pronoun. Pronouns like Some, many, few, one or other etc are called Indefinite Pronouns. For example -

One or the other of us will be there.
Many of them are Indians.
Some are born great.
Few escaped unhurt.
Somebody has stolen my watch.
Do good to others.
Nobody was there to rescue the child.
Did you ask anybody to come?
What is everybody's business is nobody's business.

All, any, anybody, everyone, everybody, few, many, no one, none, one, some, somebody or same are some examples of Indefinite Pronouns.

One is followed by one's i.e. One should do one's duty.
Everybody, Everyone, anybody are followed by 'his' or 'her' i.e. Everybody should do his work well. 



RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

Compound Pronouns connected with each other expressing their relation are called Reciprocal Pronouns.
For example --

Both the brothers love each other very much.
Three brothers helped one another.

Each other is used to express relation between two persons. One another is used express relation of more than two persons.



DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN

Distributive Pronoun is used to refer to one or some of given persons or things For example Each, Either, Neither, None.

Each of these girls won a prize.
Either of the two boys will win a prize.
Neither of the two boys won a prize.
None of the boys in the class won a prize.


Either or neither is used between two persons or things. Each is used for more than two things or persons.

Each, either, neither are followed by singular form of verb.

Either of you can participate in the competition.
Neither of you was able to win the prize.
Each of them was paid the amount.
None of them was paid the amount.
(For 'none' singular and plural both forms of verb are used.) 

None but the brave deserve the fair.
None but fools have faith in such things.

Have you brought me a letter?
 There was none for you.



  RELATIVE PRONOUN

A Pronoun used to refer to some noun going before called its antecedent is called a Relative Pronoun. For example --

1. The boy who stands first gets a prize.
2. I who am your friend will stand by you through thick and thin.
3. The time which is lost is lost for ever.
4. This is one of the most interesting books which have ever                   appeared.
5. There are some people who seldom think before they leap.
6. Those whom the gods love die young.
7. He is the boy who is my friend.
8. Where are the boys who want to see me?
9. I know the man who stole your watch.

In these sentences the words 'who, whom, which' are Relative Pronouns. The Noun and Pronoun used preceding these Relative Pronouns are their antecedents.

In the first sentence 'who' is related to the noun 'the boy'. In second sentence 'Who' is related to Pronoun 'I'. In third sentence 'which' is related to 'the time'. In fourth sentence 'which' is related to 'books'. In fifth sentence 'who' is related to 'people'. In sixth sentence 'whom' is related to Pronoun Those'. In sixth to eighth  sentences 'who' is related to 'boy', boys and man respectively. The words preceding these relative pronouns are their antecedents.   


SOME FEATURES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS

ONE


It is worth noting that the Relative Pronouns are used to join two sentences. For example-- 

She is the girl. The girl was singing a song.
If these two sentences are joined together, the sentence will be-
She is the girl who was singing a song.

This is the book. I wanted this book.
This is the book which I wanted.

Which is the boy? The boy stole her purse.
Which is the boy who stole her purse?

My uncle gave me a pen. I love the pen.
I love the pen which my uncle gave me.

He is the teacher. All the students respect the teacher.
He is the teacher whom all the students respect. 

I bought a watch last month. I lost the watch.
I lost the watch that I bought last month. 



TWO

Who, Whom and Whose are generally used for human beings. Who is used in Nominative case, Whom in Objective case and Whose in Possessive case. 
For example --

He is the boy who always tops in the class.
He is the man whom I paid the money.
She is the girl whose purse was lost.


Which is used for animals and non-living things. That is used for non - living things. 

I lost the dog that I purchased  last month.
He got repaired the house that he inherited.
The house which he purchased is not in good condition.


THREE

Generally an antecedent precedes the Relative Pronoun but sometimes it is not used or is not clear. For example -- 

Whom the gods love die young.
(Those whom the gods love die young.)
Select the students you like.
(Select the students whom you like.)
These are the students the Principal honoured.
(These are the students whom the Principal honoured.)
Write on the topic you like.
(Write on the topic that you like.) ONE



FOUR

Sometimes instead of 'that' 'what' is used but its antecedent noun or pronoun is missing. For example :

The fat man eats what he likes.
(The fat man eats (anything ) what he likes.)
She purchased what she needed.
(She purchased everything  what she needed.)




EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


 Fill up the blanks in following sentences with Who, Whom, Which, That etc.

1. I ........am captain , will lead the team.
2. This is the only one of these books .......  I love to read.
3. The articles ......... are kept in this basket are not for sale.
4. He ........ does not support me is my enemy.
5. Is she the lady .......... you consider the owner of this house?
6. Those women .......... are virtuous are always respected.
7. He ........ I worship is the Almighty.
8. Those bananas ......... are raw should not be taken.
9. Those ......... are mighty are always humble.
10. This is the man ......... I consider was in the garden.




SOLUTION


1. I  who am captain , will lead the team.
2. This is the only one of these books that  I love to read.
3. The articles which are kept in this basket are not for sale.
4. He who does not support me is my enemy.
5. Is she the lady whom you consider the owner of this house?
6. Those women who are virtuous are always respected.
7. He whom I worship is the Almighty.
8. Those bananas which are raw should not be taken.
9. Those who are mighty are always humble.
10. This is the man who I consider was in the garden.




IMPORTANT USE OF PRONOUNS

ONE


When a Collective Noun describes about a whole group, a Pronoun used in its place is always in its singular form. For example--

The jury gave its decision.
The class honoured its teacher.
The Army welcomed its commander.


TWO

When a Collective Noun describes about different persons of the group, a Pronoun used in its place is  in its plural form. For example--


The committee left their seats after deciding the case.
The jury were divided in their opinion.

THREE

When two or more Nouns are joined together by 'and', for them a plural Pronoun is used.
For example--

John and Peter are there. They will help you.
Lucy and Mary are friends. They help each other.


FOUR


When two nouns joined together give the impression of a single entity, a Pronoun of singular number is used for them. For example --

The secretary and cashier is at fault.
The Chairman and the Chief guest is coming late.

FIVE

When two or more Nouns are combined together by either....or and Neither ...... nor, singular form of pronoun is used for them.
For example --

Either Gray or his brother has lost his pen.
Neither John nor Peter finished his work.

SIX

With Anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each etc.the pronoun he or she is used. For example --

Everyone should do his duty.
Anyone of these boys can help if he wishes.

If gender is not given the masculine gender for pronoun is used.
For example--

Everyone tried to do his best.
Each of these will have his own way.

SEVEN

After the introductory word 'It' Pronoun in Nomonative case is used. For example --

Who is there ? It is he.
Who knocked at the door? It is I.
It is you. It is she.


EIGHT

With words - Let, between, but, like, and prepositions, Pronoun in Objective case is used. For example--

Let him do this work.
It is between you and me.
You should not be afraid of him.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Use the correct form of Interrogative Pronoun in the following:-

1. ............ wishes to see me?
2. .............. do you want to see?
3. ............., do you consider, is right?
4. ............ do you consider right?
5. ........... did he say to you?
6. ............ is better, honour or riches?
7. ......... were you talking with ?
8. ........... of these girls is more intelligent?
9. .......... did you find in the room?
10. ......... I have said, I have said.




 SOLUTION



1. Who wishes to see me?
2. Whom do you want to see?
3. Who, do you consider, is right?
4. Whom do you consider right?
5. What did he say to you?
6. What is better, honour or riches?
7. Whom were you talking with ?
8. Which of these girls is more intelligent?
9. What did you find in the room?

10.What I have said, I have said.











Fill in blanks with correct form of Interrogative Pronouns in the following:-

1. He is the man ..........you can trust.
2. He sold out  all ...........he did not need.
3. .......... do you believe your son to be?
4. ......... is done cannot be undone.
5. He chose the gift ......... he liked the most.
6. I gave it to the man ........ I met there.
7. Where is the book ......... I gave you?
8. You should not trust such a man ....... he.
9. Is this the road ........ leads to the station?
10.We met a child ....... had lost its way.



SOLUTION


1. He is the man whom you can trust.
2. He sold out all  that he did not need.
3. What do you believe your son to be?
4. What is done cannot be undone.
5. He chose the gift that he liked the most.
6. I gave it to the man whom I met there.
7. Where is the book that I gave you?
8. You should not trust such a man as he.
9. Is this the road that leads  to the station?
10.We met a child who had lost its way.



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