Saturday, 30 November 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - THEIR TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. --NOUN

DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH 


Words combined in a meaningful way form a sentence. These words do different functions in a sentence. According to their form, usage and structure they are divided into following eight parts. These are called Parts of Speech.


1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3.Adjective 4. Verb 5. Adverb 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. Interjection.







These parts of speech are explained with examples as under :


THE NOUN 

A word expressing a thing, place, person, quality or state of condition, position or attitude is called a Noun.

In other words a noun is the name of a person, place,thing or a quality. For example :

A book is lying on the table. (Thing)
John teaches Lucy. (Person)
They moved from a village to the city. (Place)
He lives in London. (Place)
Honesty is the best policy. (Quality)
My body needs rest now. (Condition)
Ornaments are made of gold. (Material)



Noun is of following five types.

1. Proper Noun
2. Common Noun
3. Collective Noun
4. Material Noun
5. Abstract Noun


PROPER NOUN

The name of a particular person, place or thing is called a Proper Noun. For example : 

John lives in a village. (Person)
Paris is a beautiful city. (Place)
Kohinoor is a precious gem. (Thing)

First alphabet of a Proper noun is always in capital letter.


COMMON NOUN 

The name given in common to every person, thing or place of the same kind or class is called a Common Noun. For example :


He reads a book. (Thing)
Girls sing a song. (Person)
He lives in a village.(Place)




COLLECTIVE NOUN

The name of a collection of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole is called a Collective Noun. For example :


He is sitting in the class. 
He is a member of the committee.




MATERIAL NOUN

The name of the matter or substance of which things are made is called a Material Noun. For Example:


The table is made of wood.
Fetch me some water.
Gold is a precious metal.
She wears a silver ring.


ABSTRACT NOUN

The name given to a quality, action or state is called Abstract Noun.
For example :

Health is wealth.
People praise his acts of bravery.
The jury delivered its judgement.
He spent his childhood in this town.




EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


Pick out Nouns in the following sentences and tell the kind of each.

1. Women of virtue are always respected.

2. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
3. The committee respects him for his honesty.
4. Iron is a useful metal.
5. Who does not love the beauty of  Nature?
6. They enjoyed beautiful sights.
7. The army fought for the freedom of the country.
8. The moon shines in the sky.
9. The teacher is teaching the students.
10. This box is made of iron.




SOLUTION

Words in bold and italics in following sentences are Nouns.

1. Women of virtue are always respected.
2. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
3. The committee respects him for his honesty.
4. Iron is a useful metal.
5. Who does not love the beauty of  Nature?
6. They enjoyed beautiful sights  in Paris.
7. The army fought for the freedom of the country.
8. The moon shines in the sky.
9. The teacher is teaching the students.
10. This box is made of iron.

1. Women (Common) Virtue (Abstract)
2. Cleanliness , godliness ( Abstract)
3. Committee (Collective) Honesty (Abstract)
4.  Iron, Metal (Material) 
5. Beauty (Abstract) Nature (Proper)
6. Sights (Common) Paris (Proper)
7. Army (Collective) Freedom ( Abstract) Country (Common) 

8. Moon, Sky (Proper)
9. Teacher, Students (Common)
10. Box (Common) Iron (Material)


FORM ABSTRACT NOUNS FROM THE FOLLOWING WORDS


Humble, Sweet, Dark, Clever, Brilliant, High, Poor, Laugh, Vain, Safe, Give, Go, Fragrant, Broad, Proud, Narrate, Stable, Kin, Relate
Necessary, Devote.

SOLUTION
Humility, Sweetness, Darkness, Cleverness, Brilliance, Height, Poverty, Laughter, Vanity, Safety, Gift, Gait, Fragrance, Breadth, Pride, Narration, Stability, Kinship, Relation, Necessity, Devotion.






SOME FEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF NOUN


1.All nouns except Abstract Noun can be felt and touched i.e
abstract nouns describe qualities, state, or condition of  a person or thing as Honesty, Poverty, Vacancy, Childhood, Shortage, Appointment, Superiority, goodness etc. 


Abstract nouns can be formed from 
VERB  Obey - Obedience, Guide - Guidance, Run - Race
Adjective  Honest - Honesty, Strong - Strength Weak - Weakness
Common Noun Child - Childhood, Friend -Friendship.

2. Common Nouns can be changed into their plurals. Boy- Boys.


3. Proper Noun, Abstract Noun, Material Noun, Collective Noun cannot be changed into plurals. If these are changed into plural these are used as Common Nouns.

All the classes are in the playground.
Many Newtons spend their lives unhonoured.


4. If a Proper Noun is preceded by the, it becomes a Common Noun.  He is the Shakespeare of modern times. 


5. A noun used as an adjective : 


I met a village girl who lives in a mud house.

6. An adjective used as a Noun:

People look down upon the poor.





























EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Rewrite the following sentences using Noun form of the words in bold and italics without changing the meaning and sense of the sentence. 


1. She is beautiful and she is very proud of it.
2. Although he is  strong yet he is  humble.
3. The engineer was measuring the ground.
4. Children respect their elders.
5. His habits have effected his health badly.
6. He lost the game because he is careless.
7. I am certain that he will win the game.
8. I do not know where he has gone.
9. After people dispersed, they started for their destination.
10. Who paid the bill of dinner last night?
11. To be brief is the soul of wit.
12. How he expresses is not clear.
13. He attempted thrice but could not solve it.
14. The result was more than he expected






SOLUTION


1. She possesses beauty and she is very proud of her beauty.
2. Despite his strength he possesses humility.
3. The engineer was taking measurements of the ground.
4. Children pay  respect  to their elders.
5. His habits have a bad effect  on his health.
6. He lost the game because of his carelessness.
7. I can say with certainty  that he will win the game.
8. I do not have knowledge where he has gone.
9. After people's dispersal, they started for their destination.
10. Who made payment  of the bill of dinner last night?
11. Brevity is the soul of wit.
12. His way of expression lacks clarity.
13. He made three attempts but could not find the solution.
 14. The result was more than his expectation. 
























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