Tuesday, 17 December 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - VERB - TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES.

             PARTS OF SPEECH -- 
                      VERB
Meaning, Its types, Definitions, Explanation with examples.

A  sentence comprises of words each having its own function. It contains a Subject and Predicate. The Predicate has a verb and an object. 

A verb is an essential part of a sentence. If a sentence is to be of a word, this word will be verb only. 

For example: 
Listen. Stop. Go. etc.


A verb can be of one word or more than one word. 

For example : 
One word : 
I go. I run. I eat. etc.
Two words: 
I am going. I am running.
Three words :
 I shall be sleeping.
Four words :
 I shall have been working....

A verb tells about some work or action being done. 

A verb is a word that tells about some work or action about a person, a thing or a place. 

For example : 
He writes a letter. 
She is singing a song. 
They played a match. etc.   


A verb tells :-

1.What a person or a thing does. 

The child laughs. 
The clock strikes ten.

2. What is done to a person or a thing.

The jar is broken. 
The horse is tamed. 
The thief is arrested. 

3. What a person, thing or place is :

The child is asleep. 
Glass is brittle.
 She feels happy.

A sentence generally has a Subject, Verb and Object. 
For example

She sings a song. 
She is subject. Sings is a verb and a song is an object. 

But in some sentences there is no object. 

For example She sings.

The sentence having an object has a transitive verb whereas a sentence without an object has an intransitive verb.

Verbs are divided into following  classes :

1. Transitive Verb 
2. Intransitive Verb 
3. Auxiliary Verb  
4. Linking Verb


TRANSITIVE VERB

A Transitive Verb is a word that denotes an action which passes on from the Subject to an Object. 

For example : Girls sing a song. Boys play a match.

A Transitive Verb must govern the object.



INTRANSITIVE VERB

An Intransitive Verb is a word that denotes an action which does not pass on to an object. 

For example : The child weeps. She cries. The horse neighs.
The words weeps, cries and neighs denote action but this action does not pass on to any object as there is no object.    



AUXILIARY VERB

An Auxiliary Verb is a helping verb used to form a tense or mood of the Principal Verb. 

For example :

He is (Auxiliary Verb) writing (Principal Verb) a letter.
They will (Auxiliary Verb) do (Principal Verb) their work.
She may (Auxiliary Verb) come (Principal Verb) in.


The chief Auxiliary Verbs are :
is, am, are, was, were, been, being, has, have, had, does, did, may, might, can, could, shall, should, will, would, ought and must.   




LINKING VERB


A verb that requires a complement to complete its meaning is called a Linking Verb. It connects a Subject in a sentence to its complement. 

The Principal is honest. 

In this sentence the verb 'is' connects the Subject 'the Principal' with the complement of the sentence 'honest'. 

Some examples are

She is beautiful.
You are brave.
This house is to let.
Sugar tastes sweet.
She looks sad.
He is a beggar.
The sun is hot.
Quinine tastes bitter.
The earth is round.

A complement of a linking verb is word that acts as a Noun, Pronoun or an Adjective. 

Is, am, are, was and were are forms of the verb 'Be'. These all are used as linking verbs. Following words are also used as linking words - come, go, get, grow, feel, run, appear, become, look, remain, seem and taste etc.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN AUXILIARY VERB AND LINKING VERB :

Linking verb is a word used in a sentence whereas an auxiliary verb is a word or words used with the main verb in a sentence. 

For example :

Linking Verb

She is rich.
He is brave.
We are happy.
You are sad.
He is a doctor.

Auxiliary Verb

He is playing football.
She is singing a song.
You are sleeping.
I am going to office.


COMPLEMENT 


Intransitive Verbs do not take any object after them. They, however, require some word or words to be added to them in order to make the sense complete.

For example: 

John is a rich man.
Roses smell sweet.

In these sentences their intransitive verbs 'is and smell' require additional words 'a rich man' and 'sweet' respectively to complete their sense.


Some examples are:


The milk tastes sour.
(The milk is sour when it is tasted.)
The plane feels rough.
(The plane is rough when it is felt.)
The cloth will wear thin. (The cloth will become thin when it is worn)
They found him dead. ( He was dead when they found him.)



IMPERSONAL VERBS


An impersonal verb is a verb which has no real object.

For example: 
It is pleasant.
It rains.
It hails.
It is fine.

In these sentences it refers to either the weather or the sky. The sentences relating to weather start with 'it'.



REFLEXIVE VERBS

A Verb which has a reflexive pronoun as its object is called a Reflexive Verb.

For example :

The boy hurt himself.
He cried himself hoarse.

In these sentences the verbs hurt and cried are reflexive verbs as they are followed by reflexive pronoun 'himself.




DIFFERENCE BETWEEN TRANSITIVE VERB AND INTRANSITIVE VERB :

A transitive verb is followed by an object but an intransitive verb has no object. Some verbs are transitive as well as intransitive verbs according to their usage. 

For example:

Birds fly in the sky. (Intransitive Verb)
Boys fly kites. (Transitive Verb)

Girls are singing.  (Intransitive Verb)
Girls are singing a song.(Transitive Verb)

The teacher teaches.(Intransitive Verb)
The teacher teaches us.(Transitive Verb)


The words Rise, lie, and fall are intransitive verbs but Raise, lay,and fall are transitive verbs.

The sun rises in the east.
The patient raised his head.

The child lies in the bed.
She laid the child in the cradle.

The boy fell.
The gardener felled the tree.





TYPES OF OBJECTS:

DIRECT OBJECT
INDIRECT OBJECT


A Transitive verb is generally  followed by an object but in some cases there are two objects. 

For example:

The teacher teaches us.
The teacher teaches us English.

1. He gave a prize.
2. He gave her a prize.

1. She wrote a letter.
2. She wrote him a letter.

1.The mother told a story.
2.The mother told him a story.

In the sentences written above, sentences marked 1 have single object whereas those marked 2 have two objects.

Of the two objects one next to the verb is called Indirect Object and it is generally a person or an animal but the object next to this object is called Direct Object. It is generally a thing.



COGNATE OBJECT 

Intransitive verbs sometimes take after them an object similar in meaning to the verb. Such an object is called the Cognate Object.

He sleeps a sound sleep.
She dreamt a horrible dream.
She sighed a deep sigh.
He laughed a heavy laugh.
Soldiers fight a good fight.
He ran a race.
They sang a sweet song.

A noun used as a Cognate Object is in the Object Case.





  STATIVE VERB


As the word itself suggests it means a verb that does not represent any physical activity. For example He thinks. I aver. You imagined. 

All the words think, aver and imagine donot involve any physical action but the action takes place at mental level.

Some examples are

He did not concur with me.
Do you agree with me? 
I perceive he is wrong.
He considers himself as a king.
She prefers milk to tea.

Stative verbs can be recognised because they express a state rather than an action. They typically relate to thoughts, emotions, relationships, senses, states of being, and measurements.

The best way to think about stative verbs is that they are verbs that describe things that are not actions.

 The stative verbs are all expressing a state: A state of doubting, a state of believing, a state of wanting. These states of being are often temporary. 

Some examples of Stative Verbs are:

The manager disagrees with your views.

Disagrees is a stative verb here, as it describes a person's state of mind of disagreeing.

Lucy doubts your opinion.
She wants another opinion.














EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

NO. 1
Fill in the blanks with a suitable verb out of given words.
1. The books are .......... ( laying/lying) on the table.

2. The frog ......... (fell/felled) in the well.

3. The boss has ........ (raised/risen) his salary.

4. The old man was ......... (sitting/sat) under the tree.

5. She likes to ............ ( move/moving) in the sun.





NO. 2


Fill in the blanks with suitable words out of given ones.

small, sad, grudge, captain, free.

1.She appears ...........

2. The judge set the prisoner .........

3. Now she does not bear any ........

4. The players made him ...........

5. The gentleman felt ...........  









No. 3. 

Fill in the blanks with suitable form (tense or past participle) of the given verbs. 

STING
1. His remarks .......... her,
2. The villager was ........ by a snake.

SHAKE
3. The poor lady was ........ by the news.
4. Her voice ........ as she spoke.

GO
5. The prices of vegetables have ........... high.
6. We ........ upstairs to see his mother.

STEAL
7. Someone has ........... her purse.
8. Our team ........... the show.

SLAY
9. The rogue ......... the young man.
10. Many people were ....... in the riots.




No. 4. 

Identify the verbs in bold in following sentences as Transitive and Intransitive verbs.

1. The door opened and she went in.
2. They opened the door and she went in.

3. Her examinations will begin tomorrow.
4. He is yet to begin his work.

5. A thorn ran into his foot.
6. His father is running a factory.

7. Nobody can stop him from going there.
8. The train stopped and we got down.

9. The aeroplane flies in the sky.
10. He flies  a kite in the sky.




No. 5. 

Select auxiliary verbs suitable to be filled in following sentences.

1. Every man and every woman was/were punctual.
2. You who am/is/are my friend should not desert me.
3. The captain with all his team members was/were staying         here. 
4. The quality of goods is/are not so fine.
5. Each one of our shops is/are to let.
6. It was either she or her sister who was/were at fault.
7. Neither my brother nor I am/is/are to blame.
8. Neither food nor water was/were served to us.
9. Fire and water does/do not agree.
10. The artist and his accomplice is/are coming.













SOLUTION

NO. 1
Fill in the blanks with a suitable verb out of given words.


1. The books are .......... ( laying/lying) on the table.

2. The frog ......... (fell/felled) in the well.

3. The boss has ........ (raised/risen) his salary.

4. The old man was ......... (sitting/sat) under the tree.

5. She likes to ............ (move/moving) in the sun.




NO. 2


Fill in the blanks with suitable words out of given ones.

small, sad, grudge, captain, free.

1.She appears sad.

2. The judge set the prisoner free.

3. Now she does not bear any grudge.

4. The players made him captain.

5. The gentleman felt small.  









No. 3. 

Fill in the blanks with suitable form (tense or past participle) of the given verbs. 

STING
1. His remarks stung her,
2. The villager was stung by a snake.

SHAKE
3. The poor lady was shaken by the news.
4. Her voice shook as she spoke.

GO
5. The prices of vegetables have gone high.
6. We went upstairs to see his mother.

STEAL
7. Someone has stolen her purse.
8. Our team stole the show.

SLAY
9.The rogue slew the young man.
10. Many people were slain in the riots.



No. 4. 

Identify the verbs in bold in following sentences as Transitive and Intransitive verbs.

1. The door opened and she went in. (Intransitive)
2. They opened the door and she went in.(Transitive)

3. Her examinations will begin tomorrow.(Intransitive)
4. He is yet to begin his work.(Transitive)

5. A thorn ran into his foot.(Intransitive)
6. His father is running a factory.(Transitive)

7. Nobody can stop him from going there.(Transitive)
8. The train stopped and we got down.(Intransitive)

9. The aeroplane flies in the sky.(Intransitive)
10. He flies  a kite in the sky.(Transitive)




No. 5. 




Select auxiliary verbs suitable to be filled in following sentences.



1. Every man and every woman was/were punctual.

2. You who am/is/are my friend should not desert me.

3. The captain with his team members was/were staying here. 
4. The quality of goods is/are not so fine.
5. Each one of our shops is/are to let.
6. It was either she or her sister who was/were at fault.
7. Neither my brother nor I am/is/are to blame.
8. Neither food nor water was/were served to us.
9. Fire and water does/do not agree.
10. The artist and his accomplice is/are coming.
























Tuesday, 10 December 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - ADJECTIVES --TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. ---ADJECTIVE

PARTS OF SPEECH --  ADJECTIVE -- Meaning, Its types, Definitions, Explanation with examples.



Words grouped in such a way that make a sense are called a sentence. A group of jumbled words cannot be called a sentence. 

For example :
built, day, a, Rome, in, not, was.

This sequence comprises of words having their own meanings but this group of words does not make any sense.

The arrangement of these words to make a sentence should be :
 Rome was not built in a day. 

Every word has its place and function in a sentence. 

For example 'Rome' and 'day' are nouns, 'built' verb and 'in' a preposition etc. 

These words are classified according to their form, usage and structure as different Parts of Speech namely, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and interjection. 

Adjective is explained in detail here-under.



THE ADJECTIVE

A word used to qualify or describe a Noun or Pronoun is called an Adjective.

An adjective is a word used with a Noun or a Pronoun to add something to its meaning. 

For example : 
A clever boy, An intelligent girl, an honest man, a cloudy day etc.

John is an honest man.
He is poor but happy.
She has five books.
We had enough food with us.
Several men came to see the fair.

Words in bold italics in these sentences are examples of adjective.

Adjectives may be divided into following classes :

1. Adjective of Quality
2. Adjective of Quantity
3. Adjective of Number
4. Demonstrative Adjective
5. Interrogative Adjective
6. Distributive Adjective
7. Possessive Adjective
8. Proper Adjective



ADJECTIVE OF QUALITY

A word that describes the type or qualities of things, persons or places is called an Adjective of Quality. It adds to the meaning of a noun or pronoun. 

For example -- 

He is an honest man.

The word Honest adds to the meaning of the noun man. It tells about a quality of the noun Man.

 She is beautiful.

 The word beautiful tells about a quality of 'She'. It is an Adjective of Quality.  


Some examples are:

He is a dwarf man.
She is a pious lady.
We live in a large city.
I wear woollen clothes.
She has a red rose.

In these sentences, dwarf,pious, large woollen and red are adjectives of quality.


ADJECTIVE OF QUANTITY:


 A word used to describe uncountable quantity of nouns i.e. things, persons or places, is called Adjective of Quantity. For example: Many people, Some villages,Much sugar etc.

These words provide answer to the question 'how much'. These are used for uncountable nouns which are not expressed in numbers.

Some examples are : 

We had enough food with us.
Many people went to see the show.
I do not take much tea these days.
Will you lend me some money.


Will In these sentences the words 'enough, many, much, some' are the words of Adjective of Quantity. 



ADJECTIVE OF NUMBERS :

The word that expresses the quantity in numbers of nouns i.e. persons,places or things is called Adjective of Numbers. For example : Four, sixth, first, last etc.

Adjectives of Numbers are countable. They are expressed in the form of numbers.

Some examples are:

He is the first man to win this prize.
Five of them entered the house.
I went there last of all.
She purchased two books.

In these sentences, the words 'first,five, last and two' are examples of Adjectives of Numbers. 



DEMONSTRATIVE ADJECTIVE:


A word used to indicate which person, place or thing is mentioned is called a Demonstrative Adjective. It is used to describe a specific noun. For example : This, That, These or Those.



Some Examples are :

He purchased this cow.
These books are mine.
That toy is beautiful.
Those toys are beautiful.

In these sentences the words 'this, these, that and those' are examples of Demonstrative Adjectives.  As an adjective always qualifies a noun these Demonstrative Adjectives also qualify nouns following them.



INTERROGATIVE ADJECTIVE :

A word that is used to interrogate or put a question about a Noun is called an Interrogative Adjective. For example : Which, Whose,and What etc.

Other Interrogative words like 'Who, Why and How' are not Interrogative Adjectives because they do not modify nouns. 

It is correct to say - Whose coat is this? But not Why, How or Who coat is this.

Interrogative Adjectives are used to inquire about nouns.

'Whose' means to whom the noun relates.
'Which' refers to one out of specified nouns.
'What' refers to a choice among things in general.

Some examples are :
Which book is yours?
Whose book is this?
What favour do you expect from him?


These words i.e. 'What, Which, Whose' are adjectives only when these are followed by nouns.

In the following sentence the word 'whose' is not an adjective because it does not qualify any noun or it is not followed by a noun.

Whose is this coat ?

It will be an adjective when it is followed by a noun i.e. 

Whose coat is this?

Some Examples are :

Which way did they follow?
Whose child is playing there ?
What food do you take at night?
Whose shirt was torn in the brawl?
Which boy has won the prize?
What share did you get?
Which side will you go?
What amount does it cost?




DISTRIBUTIVE ADJECTIVE


 A word used to refer to a member of a group as an individual is described as Distributive Adjective. For example : Each, every, either or neither etc.

1. Boys present there got a
    prize.
2. Each of the boys present
    there got a prize.

In the first sentence it is stated that boys got a prize but the second sentence specifies that each of the boys present there got a prize. The word 'each' makes this distinction. It is called a distributive adjective.

Distributive Adjectives are normally used for singular nouns. Each, every, either and neither etc are used to refer to individuals.


Some Examples are :

Every member of the group was very happy.
Each member of the society participated in the competition.
Each boy in the class did his work.
Either of the two brothers will go there.
Neither of the two sisters did this work.
Every student was asked to submit an application.


POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE :

A word used to express something in possession of a noun are called Possessive Adjective. It refers to what a noun possesses with it. For example : my, our, your, his, her or their etc.

A Possessive Adjective describes about possession of a noun and not about ownership. For example :  This is her purse. It means she possesses a purse.


Some Examples are:

His house is very far off.
Her necklace is very beautiful.
They waited for their turn.
We kept our promise.
My clothes are wet.






PROPER ADJECTIVE:

A word that is a proper noun in itself, comes before a noun and acts as an Adjective is called a Proper Adjective. For example : Russian vessel, English channel, China border etc.

A proper noun, as it is, is used as an Adjective or its adjective form is used. For example China and Chinese both words are used as Proper Adjectives.

Some Examples are :

Shakespearean plays are very interesting.
China goods are imported by India.
Indian tea is liked by people all over the world.
Japanese people are very hard working.
He likes to eat Mexican food.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE:

Find out Adjectives in the following sentences 
and specify their types.

1. Whose box is lying there?
2. That box is mine.
3. Many people tried to open
    this box but could not.
4. This box is made of iron.
5. Many books are contained
    in this box.
6. These books contain
    interesting stories.
7. My brother likes reading
    good books.
8.  Many people do not like
     reading books these days.
9.  Young people are not in the
     habit of reading books.
10. There is a dire need of
      inculcating good habits
      of reading books among
      young men.



SOLUTION 



1. Whose box is lying there?
(interrogative Adjective)

2. That box is mine.
(Demonstrative Adjective)

3. Many (Adjective of Quantity)
    people tried to open
    this  (Demonstrative Adjective) box but could not.

4. This (Demonstrative Adjective)box is made of iron.

5. Many(Adjective of Quantity)books are contained
    in this(Demonstrative Adjective)box.

6. These(Demonstrative Adjective)books contain
    interesting(Adjective of Quality)stories.

7. My(Possessive Adjective) brother likes reading
    good(Adjective of Quality)books.

8.  Many(Adjective of Quantity)people do not like
     reading books these(Demonstrative Adjective)days.

9.  Young (Adjective of Quality)people are not in the
     habit of reading books.

10. There is a dire(Adjective of Quality)need of
      inculcating good(Adjective of Quality)habits
      of reading books among
      young(Adjective of Quality)men.

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH AN APPROPRIATE
 ADJECTIVE OF THE GIVEN WORDS.

.

1. This ........ (wood) box contains ......... (iron) rods.

2. This reminded him of his ............. (glory) past.

3. ........ (flower) decoration in the room presented a ........... 
   (beauty) scene.

4. This ...... (fame) poet is known  for his ....... (romance) poetry.

5. ......... (Neither) of the two has ........ (enough) experience for this post.



SOLUTION

1. This wooden box contains iron rods.

2. This reminded him of his glorious past.

3.Floral decoration in the room presented a
   beautiful scene.

4. This famous poet is known  for his romantic poetry.

5. Neither of the two has enough experience for this post.