Wednesday, 3 December 2014



Reading Comprehension -- Understanding the Main idea contained in the Paragraph by providing answers to questions following the paragraph.

With a view to examine or test the ability or understanding of the candidate about the idea given in the paragraph, it is followed by a number of questions to be replied. Some of these questions are of general nature and others of specific one about what is stated in the paragraph. One or two questions also relate to antonyms and meanings of some words used in the paragraph or conversion of words from one part of speech to other. For this, is required a fair good knowledge of word power, grammar and ability to understand what is given in the paragraph. One needs to read between the lines to pick up the meaning of what is stated. This can be possible by linking various points of idea and understanding the underlying motive of the author behind these. In addition to these all, time factor too is to be kept in mind.
Here is an exercise of paragraph  with answers  for practice.  


Directions  ( Q. No. 1 -10 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
Education reforms have been talked about many a time but they have not taken off. Till they do, the country will continue to mount a horrible hoax on its young people. If youth is the future of the country, the army of unemployables with declining job opportunities does not bode a very good future.
Dismal is the state of our universities and institutes of higher learning. A student enters such an institute with high hopes, spends time and money only to be ejected as an unemployable candidate.
The figures are unexceptional: according to a national survey of 650 engineering colleges in India by Aspiring Minds, more than 80 per cent of engineers in India were said to be unemployable in 2015. Another survey of management graduates, excluding those from the top 20 schools, conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2016 shows that only 7 per cent turn out to be employable. Except for the top-ranked business schools, only a few of the 5,500 management institutes seem to provide quality management education that helps their graduates become employable. Most get jobs earning less than Rs 10,000 a month, if at all they find placements. It can be argued that the 20 per cent engineering graduates and 7 per cent management students who do find good jobs could do so because of their school education or family connections. This shows the stark reality of Indian higher education.
Institutes of higher learning exist in the public as well as the private sector. The government universities and institutes are run by well-established professors with their own turfs. Nepotism, politics, strikes are rife. In recent times another problem has been added to their woes — a paucity of funds. It was widely reported recently in the newspapers, for instance, that the venerable Panjab University in Chandigarh may have to shut down if the Centre did not provide funds, according to its Vice Chancellor. With such culture of uncertainty, it is hardly a wonder that government institutes get to do any quality teaching at all.
About private universities and institutes, the less said the better. Without doing any demand assessment, the regulators, All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), the University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Ministry of Human Resource Development have given permissions left and right to start such institutes. As a result, businessmen and politicians of all shades have entered the education business, with scant regard to quality and with the sole intention of making a quick buck. Ironically, they are all registered as "non-profit" entities, though they are anything but that. The lifestyles of the owners belie any claim of these non-profit centres. Engineering colleges are today run by people who know nothing about engineering and management institutes are being run by people who know nothing about management. Teaching cost is kept least by hiring fresh graduates, in many cases from the senior classes.
But private institutes suffer from another acute malady: In a bid to collect numbers, they treat their students as their customers. Teachers are mere service providers. In such a scenario, the drill, practice and reading that is essential in higher education, goes for a toss. Private universities and institutes gain marketing traction by inviting local pop stars, organising fashion shows and other such events, to attract students. It is hardly a wonder that private universities sell themselves to students by advertising huge tracts of land and “world-class facilities,” none of which relate to education. Shopping areas, malls, cinemas and restaurants are brought in: the idea is to keep students occupied for some years before they can be packed off by placing a degree in their hands — printed by the university or institute itself. High marks are awarded to show good results, never mind the employability status of the students.
An area of academic excellence is research, measured by the papers published by faculty members. There is a focus on quantity. A large number of "online journals" have sprung up to provide quantity, and they publish any trash provided you pay for it. Universities and institutes are frequently hit by plagiarism charges. In private institutes and universities, teachers are made to do clerical work and to man call centers for admissions, leaving little time for research. It is hardly surprising that despite a plethora of universities and institutes very little research published in India makes it to the international arena. Despite tall claims seen in the ads of universities, not one in the country can rank among Harvard or Oxford.
It is unfortunate that policies towards education are all lopsided. The regulating agencies have failed and contributed to this mess. Instead of reforming the system, the Ministry of Human Resource Development engages itself in worthless and controversial pursuits. This leads one to the conclusion that the education system will keep getting worse. This is unfortunately a great fraud on the students and young aspirants. Poor families who see education as the road to a good life take huge loans to send their children for higher education, only to find two liabilities at the end: an unemployable graduate and a huge loan that is difficult to pay off.
(Adapted The Tribune India )

Q. 1 According to the passage what ails the present higher education system in India ?

i) The infrastructure in the higher education institutions is not up to the mark.
ii) The government policies about higher education in the country are faulty.
iii) The higher education costs are exorbitant and are beyond the reach of students.
iv) It does not provide quality education that helps the youth become employable.
v) It does not impart education of international  standards to students.

  1. A) i & v B) i & ii C) ii & iii  D) iv & v E) iii & iv

Q.2. How under present circumstances does the writer foresee the future of higher education in India?

i) The higher education system will prosper and emerge up to standards maintained by other countries.
ii) It will continue to elude suitable job and employment opportunities for the youth.
iii) It will rise to higher levels by adopting better marketing tools and world class facilities to the students.
iv) The system will continue to be a practical hoax for students and their parents in the name of providing education to the wards.
v) The author visualizes a hope that the system will go a long way in imparting better education facilities to students.
  1. A) iii & iv B) iii & v C) ii & iii    D) ii & iv  E) i & v

Q. 3. What does the clause “to mount a horrible hoax” mean as used in the passage?

i) to make big losses ii) to add to bad practical jokes iii) to have a terrible dream iv) to tread a wrong path v) to bring more calamity.

Q. 4. What, according to the author, is wrong with running of Private Education institutions of the day ?

i) These institutions are managed by bodies comprising of incompetent personnel.
ii) These institutions lack funds for providing the required level of higher education to the students.
iii) These institutions are mostly run by non profit entities which instead make huge profits even by ignoring education requirements of students.
iv) The teaching faculty members of these institutions are not qualified enough to teach the students.
v) These institutions treat their students as customers and teachers as service providers and are not serious about providing education to students.

  1. A) i, ii & v B)ii & v   C) i, iii, v   D) ii & iii  E) i to v

Q. 5. What does the author see the role of Human Resource Development Ministry in the present higher education system of the country?

i) It provides proper guidance to these institutions by framing rules and regulations for conducting their business.
ii) It provides sufficient funds for running the business of these institutions in an appropriate manner.
iii) It follows unwanted pursuits making them a worse mess not worth meeting with aspirations of people and their wards.
iv) It makes all efforts to put in necessary inputs for raising the level of higher education.
v) It arranges a good number of competitions required to sharpen the abilities of the students to meet with the future challenges.

  1. A) iii B) ii C) iv D) i E) v

 Q.6. Out of the following statements which is true?

i) All the Management institutions in the country are not of the level to provide good education to students.
ii) A majority of Engineering and Management students after completion of their education immediately get their job placements.
iii) The private universities allure the students by good methods of advertising and showing off good facilities which have nothing to do with their education.
iv) All the higher education institutions establish and utilize their high political links to promote education among students.
v) The education institutes in private sector invest a lot of time and money for research work and endeavour to bring their work to international level.

Q.7. Out of given options choose the correct meaning of the word “plagiarism” as used in the passage.
i) downfall ii) extortion iii) exploitation iv) imitation v) deprivation

Q. 8. What are the reasons listed by author in the paragraph that hinder the public higher education institutes from imparting good quality education to students?

i) A large number of public institutes recruit fresh graduates as their teaching faculty not capable of imparting education of the required standards.
ii) Political interference, favouritism and shortage of funds are hurdles in giving quality education in public institutes.
iii) Shortage of staff and the available staff not being of the required standard is the reason for substandard quality education in public institutes.
iv)Infrastructure provided in the public institutes not being of good standard is the reason for their education not being of the required level.
v) Public higher education institutes give more attention to marketing and advertising aspect rather than good education to the students.

 Q.9. What is the word out of given options having meaning opposite to the word “paucity”?
i) dearth ii) abundance iii) scarcity iv) availability v) collection

Q. 10.What should be a suitable title of the passage?

i) Growing education facilities in India
ii) Education Institutes - A Profitable venture in India
iii) Prospects of Higher Education  in India
iv) Higher Education in Public and Private sector in India
v) Problems of Indian Higher Education Institutes

(ANSWERS 1. (D)  2. (D)  3. (ii)   4. (iii)  5. (iii)  6.(iii)  7. (iv)  8. (ii) 9. (ii) 10.(iv))

In certain competition examinations, under Paragraph comprehension, questions of different types relating to a given passage are asked. An example of the same is as follows :


Directions :  (Q. Nos. 1 -10 ) :  Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

A usual image of a rose plant in a garden for a common man is that of a rose-bed full of small bushes laden with flowers of different colours. This no doubt is the most common perception about roses and very rarely does one picture roses climbing wildly over the boundary walls or house walls making a lavish spread of foliage and flowers. But roses growing vertically also create an equally mesmerizing effect. Technically, climbing roses are not a particular variety of roses but any variety can be ‘trained’ to climb in an orderly manner. It has been observed that roses bloom more profusely laterally than when grown vertically. Rosa Indica and Rosa multiflora are commonly trained as climbing rose. Rambling roses are among the ancestors of climbing roses. The main difference between  rambling  roses and climbing roses is that the former usually flower once, whereas climbing roses have repeat flowering with some exceptions. Climbing roses are ideal for   space as these use more of vertical space than horizontal one.
The most favourable time to plant roses is pre-winters in October-November so that the plant develops a sturdy root system and establishes itself before the winter sets in. Roses require ample morning sun light from east. Therefore these should be planted at such a location which receives at least six hours of sunlight. Damp and cramp locations should be avoided. A spot that has adequate space for the plant to flourish should be selected as climbing roses tend to spread more. If the roses are planted to cover the wall these should be planted  at least a  feet away from the wall. Roses need besides light a nutrient rich soil also. They are heavy feeders and require more fertilizers because of their vigorous growth and size. Roses like other plants do well in well drained soil so proper drainage must be ensured. While planting rose plants proper care should be taken about  soil health  also. It is best to replace the  soil. This is necessary to save the new plants from the diseases and pests. A layer of minimum of six inches thick should be replaced with new soil mixed with well rotten compost. The plant should be adequately irrigated thereafter to maintain the moisture.
The rose root stock grows vigorously over arches and looks majestic. Climbing roses are used for making fencing and covering the boundary walls providing greenery, colour and security. Horizontal wires near the walls should be put up to allow air circulation for the branches. When rose bush is used to cover the walls of building it should be placed away from the wall for air circulation. Climbing roses tend to get heavy and need sturdy support structure to hold a fully grown plant. Climbing roses produce two kinds of shoots – the main structural and the flowering shoot which grows from main shoot. The long structural branches are tied into the support structure. Therefore it is better to erect the support before the roses are planted. Once the plant is established the unwanted and overcrowded canes should be removed to streamline the plant in the desired form. Rose pruning makes the plant grow well in a given direction. If this is not carried out carefully then the branches will become a tangled mess with fewer flowers. A well maintained bed of roses  is a thing of joy for the onlooker.

1. Which of the following can be inferred from the passage?

    a. Rose plants can be grown under all climatic situations.
    b. Rose plants are grown for security of big buildings.
    c. Rose plants grow as thorny bushes in  clusters.
    d. Any type of variety of rose plants can be grown vertically.
    e. Rose plants bloom profusely in damp locations.

2. Which of the following, according to the author, is correct about  growing           rose plants?

    a. Rose plants need ample sunlight for their growth.
    b. Rose plants are grown in vertical as well as horizontal directions.
    c.  A rose plant has a thick stem and a large number of branches on it.

    (A) only a  (B) a & b (C) a, b & c  (D) a & c (E) only c

3. Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word                  ‘Orderly’ given in bold as used in the passage.

    a. Preferential b. Better c. Decorative 4. Tainted 5. Organised

4. What according to the author are the uses of rose pruning?

     a. It makes the plants look more attractive.
     b. It boosts the growth process of the plant.
     c. By doing so plants grow in the right direction.
     d. It helps in blossoming the plant rapidly.
     e. It saves the plant from diseases and pests.

5. How can we grow rose plants in the desired form?

     1. A support should be erected with the stem of the Rose plant.
     2. Unwanted and overcrowded canes should be removed.
     3. Rose plants should be grown near walls.

      (A) 1 & 2. (B) 2 & 3 (C) 1 & 3 (D) 1,2 & 3 (E) Only 2

6. Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning to the word ‘Sturdy’                 given in bold as used in the passage.

      a. Feeble b. Strong  c. Rough d. Dependable e. thick

7. Which of the following best describes the author’s view about  uses of rose            plants ?

    a. Rose plants are used for decorating walls of buildings.
    b. Rose plants supply medicinal products to human beings.
    c.  Rose plants  are used for fencing and covering the boundary walls to                       provide greenery, colour and security.
   d. Rose plants are grown to support different structures in a building.
    e. None of the above.

8. What according to the author is the best way to grow good type of rose                    plants?

    a. The soil should be rich nutrient.
    b. Rose plants should be provided with adequate sunlight.
    c. Proper pruning of rose plants should undertaken.
    d. Rose plants should be grown in a shady area.
    1.a,b &c 2. b & c 3. a & c 4. A & b.    

9. What does the author mean by the phrase ‘a tangled mess with fewer flowers’      as used in the passage?

     a. beautiful and decorative bunch of flowers.
     b. Over grown cluster of rose plants.
     c.  Intermingled shoots with lesser number of flowers.
    d. Withered flowers hanging on shoots.
    e.  Shoots of rose plants over laden with flowers.   

10. Which of the following describes the best conditions for rose plants to grow       well?

      a. Rich nutrient soil with adequate supply of sunlight.
      b. Damp  soil with proper system of drainage of water.
     c. Well irrigated land having soil mixed with compost

     (1) a & c (2) b & c (3) a & b (4) a  b & c. (5) a only. 
ANSWERS:  1.d 2. B 3.5  4. c  5. E 6. A  7. c 8. 1 9. c 10.1


Directions  ( Q. No. 66 - 75 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

 Success of an  organisation is the sum total of micro-successes that its employees experience each day. It is important to celebrate such workplace successes as it gives employees a sense of purpose, makes them feel valued and eventually boosts employee morale. Milestone celebrations, both organisational and employee-oriented, should be leveraged as engagement opportunities. Such celebrations should not be considered a perk as these are instrumental in acquiring and retaining talent. Employees get a sense of purpose when they see how their regular deliverables contribute to organisational success. Getting acknowledged gives them a reason to work harder. In longer term, it helps in retaining talent. Moreover, it creates a culture of appreciation within the organisation. Having a robust ‘rewards & recognition’ policy significantly aids in building a positive culture of appreciation. The policy should be designed in a manner that allows managers to reward and celebrate significant as well as smaller team accomplishments. While it may be important to acknowledge and celebrate achievements, these should essentially be linked to well-defined goals. Regularly celebrating with employees the accomplishment of short and long-term goals can be very motivating for them. Spontaneous celebrations with an element of surprise are always received well and create a spirit of camaraderie

Celebrations centered around prominent organisational milestone can also be leveraged as a marketing opportunity to engage internal as well as external stakeholders. PR campaigns aligned with the theme can drive external branding and create awareness among target audience. While in some cases, these might be potential employees, in others it could be business partners. The idea should be to involve the stakeholders, whether internal or external, and make them a part of the celebration to create a sense of ownership and belonging. Doing a press conference engaging the media directly or a digital campaign specifically targeted to the audience is a great way to create buzz around the milestone.A lot of organisations are strategically partaking in CSR initiatives that align with the theme of important milestone celebrations. Supporting societal causes and engaging employees in related volunteer work can inspire trust of the employees and pitch the organisation as a responsible corporate establishment, internally and externally. 

Celebrating personal milestones such as birthdays and work anniversaries is also reflective of a warm work culture. Such celebrations help in maintaining positivity within smaller functional teams and allow employees to develop a personal equity with their co-workers. For a manager, celebrating a team member's achievement by spontaneously inviting him / her for lunch and using the time to discuss his / her career prospects can make the engagement more meaningful.Celebrations don't always have to be fancy and expensive. The key is to celebrate smaller achievements regularly to give employees a sense of belonging and appreciation.

But it needs a great care to use this two edged weapon. Looking at the flipside of it, having a recognition programme  or  award programmes like “Employee of the Month” and “Top Sales Club” might be reducing firms’ overall productivity. These seemingly innocuous non-financial award programmes  can sometimes upset the status quo and influence perceptions of equity and fairness. These awards decrease motivation and productivity for internally-motivated workers, suggesting these employees were unhappy because of fairness and equity concerns.In total, motivational awards can be costly to firms, rather than beneficial as there is a possibility of demotivating some of their best employees.

66. Which of the  following can be inferred from passage?

a. By celebrating small successes of its employees an organization gets the benefit of boosting its profits.

b. Celebrations of employees’ achievements by an organization help in sharpening talents of the employees.

c. Exaltation of employees’ achievements cause  a sense of purpose among them giving a reason to work harder.

d. Appreciation of employees’ achievements create a sense of belongingness amongst them.

67. Why according to the author, is it important for an organization to celebrate its employees’ successes on different occasions?

a. It is to create a sense  of ownership or belongingness among all the concerned inside or outside the organization.

b. It is to makes the organization capable enough to compete with its rivals.

c. It is to help the organization to set its targets and their achievement.

d. It is to encourage employees to achieve different goals  set by the organization.

68. Choose the  word which is most nearly the same in meaning to the word 'Perk' given in          bold as used in the passage.

a. benefit b. Increase c. valuable d. entitlement e. claim

69. Choose the  meaning of “ perceptions of  equity and fairness”.

a. Just and impartial opinion b. Bold and true idea c. Progressive and forward thoughts. 
      d. Frank and fair view.

70. According to the passage, which of the following is/are true about                            appreciating achievements made by its employees?

A. It aids in building a healthy and positive culture of appreciation among employees within       the organization.

B.  It helps in making a just and fair relationship between different employees of the                      organization.

C. It boosts confidence of investors to make investment in the organisation.

(a.) Only A  (b.) Only B  (c.)  A. B and C ( d.)  A and C (e.) B and C 

71. According to the passage, what loss can an organization suffer, if due precaution is not observed about appreciating achievements of employees?

a. It can cause loss to the organization as  talented personnel will leave the organstion to join some other.

b. It can bring a feeling of demotivation among employees and thereby decreasing  productivity.

c. It can bring a bad name for the organization among other competitors of the organization.


72.. Which of the following is the central theme of the passage?

a. Celebrations of employees’ achievements by a company helps to boost morale of its employees and increase their productivity.

b. Celebrations of employees’ achievements help in retaining and attracting good talented persons to the company.

c. Celebrations of employees’ by a company may sometimes cause a negative effect on its employees and demoralize already good working people.

1. a only  2. a & b 3. All a,b &c 4.b & c 5. None of a,b & c.

73.Choose the  word which is most opposite in meaning to the word 'Camaraderie' given in bold as used in the passage.  

a. Bravery b. Amity  c. Cowardice d. enmity e. courageous 

74. What does the author mean by the words “seemingly innocuous”?

a. Apparently decorative b. Apparently offensive c. Appearing to be respectable d. appearing to be beneficial d. none of these a,b,c &d

75. What can be a suitable title of the given passage?

a.  “How to increase productivity of a company by boosting its employees, morale”

b. "Celebration of employees’ achievements to increase a company’s productivity– an effective measure ”

c. "Celebrate employees’ achievements and increase productivity of the organisation."

d. "Celebrating employees achievements – Motivating & De-motivating effects on employees of an organization."

1. a 2.b 3.c 4. b or d  5.d


ANSWERS : 66.(3) 67.(a)68.(a) 69.( a) 70.(c) 71.(b) 72. (3)73. (d) 74.(d) 75. (5)


Directions  ( Q. No. 1 -13 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

One of the tedious requirements of the job profiles of a manager is to regularly review and communicate about the performance of his subordinates. A lot of doubts have surfaced over the years, questioning whether or not yearly assessments are the right way to go about, and whether or not the current system of performance management is effective. Some companies have even done away with written systems of performance assessment, and are shifting their focus more towards informal and regular meetings to enhance communication between the supervisor and his team members.
While the essence of performance assessment lies in effective interaction between the assessed and the assessor, there are nevertheless some important aspects that need consideration. These considerations come from putting the larger interest of the organisation in perspective, and not take performance assessment as a one off administrative procedure.
However, preparedness of the manager is the most important aspect of this assessment. This preparedness is not limited to being ready for the one-on-one at the end of a period, or on the conclusion of the task. It involves high levels of clarity of thought on part of the manager, at all stages of execution of the job, or job responsibilities through a period.
Whether it is at the beginning of a new financial year, or the beginning of a new project, it is extremely important for the team members to clearly understand what exactly, according to the manager, is expected from them. For this, the Supervisor should analyse and be eloquent in benchmarking the output levels - whether they are performance based or behavior related. The employees should have a clear understanding of what is work well done. The manager should lucidly explain and justify why his demands are such, for which it is extremely important for him to have clear thought-out, specific and achievable goals. Once the expectations are laid, it is easy for the employee and for the Manager to keep a tab on the progress, and work on shortcomings wherever necessary.

If competency is lacking, performance will be poor. But then, in the interest of your organization, why wait for poor performance to surface? Define and delegate a job as per the capabilities of the employee. Once the competency is defined, it is  important to move ahead with the employee as he goes about his responsibilities, guiding him at intervals so that he proceeds in the right direction.

Whether at the beginning or even along the way, your subordinate should get the feeling that you are there to help him achieve the necessary targets, rather than just make comments over the execution. The help can be in the form of an additional hand, or perhaps pushing any interdepartmental dependency, or even providing technical support, if required. Your endeavor will find a positive breakthrough in your leadership skills, and ease the way for you to voice critical comments to your employees to better their performance.
 To set a measurable target is his perhaps  one of the more complicated needs, because it requires extensive thinking on the part of the manager. But keeping vague milestones like work half done, or partly done can create confusion in the minds of both the manager and the employee. But specific milestones like- achieving “7 outlined points out of 12” gives a fair sense of direction to the employee and is a good pointer for the manager to make further suggestions for improvement.
It is a matter of experience, a manager who has the clarity of thought is constantly looked up for regular guidance. And once his preparedness is thorough, it goes without saying that any amount of his interaction with the employee or team member will only yield fruitful results. Such a manager need not be caught in the administrative system of Performance Assessment. And neither will he ever have to worry about how he can deliver the unpleasant news to an employee; he makes the best Performance Assessor- at all times!
(Adapted : Source The Tribune 11117)

Q. 1 According to the passage a manager assesses performance of his subordinates keeping in view

a. capacity of the subordinate to work.
b. communication proficiency of the subordinate.
c. the larger interest of the organization.

Q. 2. The author avers that performance of a worker involves
a. job responsibilities of the worker.
b. execution of job by the worker.
c. clarity of thought on the part of manager.

A. a & b  B. b & c  C. a,b & c.

Q. 3. According to the passage assessment of performance of subordinates by manager
a. is necessary for communication and interaction with his subordinates.
b. has an adverse impact on the working capacity of his subordinates.
c. is to review regularly and communicate about performance of subordinates.

Q. 4. In the passage, it is stated that the yearly assessment of subordinates by manager
a. is the right way to assess their performance.
b. is full of doubts and is not an effective method.  
c. is sure to depict their overall performance.

Q. 5. What is the meaning of the word ‘eloquent’ as used in the passage?
a. Shrewd  b. ambiguous c. expressive d. incredible

Q. 6. How is it suggested in the passage to a manger to tackle the problem of incompetency of employees?
a. Job should be delegated to employees according to their competency.
b. Fixing of goals in the institution should be avoided.
c. Incompetent employees should not be recruited in the institution.

 Q.7. According to the passage, for smooth functioning of the institution, a manager should
a. not interfere unnecessarily with the work of employees.
b. not voice his critical comments to his employees.
c. understand problems of employees and help solve them.

Q. 8. The words “have done away with” as used in the passage imply that
a. have used extensively
b. have stopped using
c. have recommended to use

Q.9. A manager with clarity of his thoughts is
a. regular source of guidance for his employees.
b. helps in accomplishing job of the employees.
c. boosts the morale of his subordinates.

Q.10. According to the author basics of employees’ performance assessment lies in
a. effective coordination among employees.
b. complete subordination of employees.
c. effective interaction of employees with manager.

Q.11. One of the hindrances in the performance assessment process is
a. poor coordination among his subordinates.
b. weak understanding between manager and his subordinates.
c.Ambiguous target fixing causes confusion among manager and employees

Q. 12.The performance assessment of employees should mainly be linked with
a. the total output of the organization.
b. the tangible annual results  of the organization.
c. consideration of larger interest of the organization.

Q. 13. Choose a suitable title of the passage.
a. Essentials of Job profile of a Manager
b. Making performance assessment of employees.
c. Essence of Performance assessment of employees
d. Method of Performance assessment of employees.  

(Answers : 1.c   2. C   3.c   4.b   5.c   6.a   7.c   8.b   9.a    10.c   11.c   12.c   13.d)



Directions  ( Q. No. 1 -15 ) : Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions. Certain words/phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

China, in  recent time, has converted a large number of rocks across the South China Sea into islands, where it has based missiles, armed personnel and military aircraft, using its military might.
The Obama Administration took virtually no action in response to Chinese belligerence against the Philippines — a longtime military ally. Worse still, the US recently acquiesced in the seizure of one of its unmanned underwater vehicles close to the Philippines. Chinese belligerence is paying off. President Duterte of the Philippines has quietly acquiesced to Beijing’s territorial demands. ASEAN countries like Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand and Cambodia are following suit. Myanmar is being pressured by China, by permitting Chinese territory to be used by armed ethnic groups from Myanmar’s bordering Shan and Kachin states.
It is clear that a belligerent China is no longer prepared to tolerate any challenges to its dominance and hegemony across Asia. Agni IV, currently operational, with a range of 4,000 km, can hit targets in southern China, while Agni V, with a range of 5,500-8000 km, can hit even at the farthest points in China. The submarine-launched Sagarika missile, currently operational, has a range of 750 km. Its variants — under development — can hit across China from the Bay of Bengal. China, in turn, has transferred the designs and knowhow of the Shaheen range of missiles to Pakistan. These missiles can hit targets across India. Moreover, Karachi and Gwadar will be used, not only to base the eight submarines China is supplying to Pakistan, but also serve as bases for Chinese nuclear and conventional submarines that are now venturing increasingly into the Indian Ocean. The range of missiles being developed by India clearly signals to China that it will find any effort to use Pakistan as a nuclear proxy against India very costly and perhaps unaffordable. Agni V is virtually invulnerable as it is mobile and housed in canisters.
New Delhi needs to be far more active in insisting that a comprehensive nuclear dialogue with China is essential for strategic stability across Asia. China is loathe to enter into such a dialogue as it evidently wishes to not formally accord recognition to India’s nuclear weapons status, even as it peddles nuclear weapons and ballistic missile designs and materials to Pakistan, while helping Pakistan to develop both uranium and plutonium-based nuclear weapons. These transfers to Pakistan are in total disregard of China’s responsibilities under the nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty. India has been far too defensive and avoided exposing the Sino-Pakistan nuclear/missile nexus in important world capitals, notably Washington, London, Paris, Moscow and Tokyo. A far more determined effort on this score would be necessary once the Trump Administration assumes office and settles down to looking at the world.
Within Asia, Chinese hubris and arrogance would need far closer consultations and dialogue with countries like Japan, Vietnam and Indonesia. There appears to be a sentiment growing slowly in Tokyo that in the face of Chinese territorial and geopolitical ambitions, Japan should review its nuclear policies. The incoming Trump Administration has also indicated that allies like Japan need to do more to defend themselves, rather than depend excessively on the US. A nuclear-armed Japan can certainly play a key role in moderating Chinese behaviour and hubris. This is an issue that needs to be looked at carefully. All this has to be combined with a vigorous dialogue with China, which includes maintenance of peace and tranquility along our borders, expanding equitable trade and economic ties and promoting peace and stability across the entire Indo-Pacific Region.

(Adapted - "China frets and fumes" - Article by G Parthasarathy)

Q.1. What Changes China has made in South China sea in the recent past?
  1. China has increased its military exercises in South China Sea.
  2. China has objected to trespassing of US vessels In South China Sea.
  3. China has stationed missiles, military personnel and aircrafts in South China Sea.

Q.2. What was response of Obama Government of USA to Chinese hostility towards Philippines?
  1. US sent unmanned water vessels near Philippines in the sea in its defence.
  2. US showed indifference towards Chinese hostility towards Philippines.
  3. US protested to China against its hostile attitude towards Philippines.

3. How is China pressuring Myanmar for submission to its dominance?
  1. China has posted military troops on the border areas of Myanmar states of Shan and Kachin.
  2. China has facilitated tribal rebels of Myanmar to operate against it.
  3. China creates hindrances in South China sea routes for trade by Myanmar.

4. Why are recent Indian military developments acting irritants for China?
  1. China cannot tolerate any challenge to its dominance across Asia.
  2. China considers that India would use these against it or its ally Pakistan.
  3. China is committed to Pakistan to defend it against any attack from India

5. How other ASEAN Countries like Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand reacted to Philippine’s response?
  1. These countries raised their protest to Philippines against its action.
  2. These countries consented and acted in accordance with China.
  3. These countries also sought help and intervention of The US government.

6.What is the purpose of China in acquiring territory of countries like Philippines, Myanmar, Thailand or Malaysia etc.?
  1. China wants to prove its dominance in the South Asia area.
  2. China wants to coerce these counties to promote its trade with them.
  3. China wants to conduct its military operations by using their territory.

7. What does the word “belligerence” as used in the passage suggest?
  1. To act in a manner of dominance or supremacy.
  2. To terrify or cause panic to someone.
  3.  A tendency of being antagonistic towards others.

Q.8.What was the effect of China’s hostility on Philippines?
  1. Philippines succumbed to China’s pressure and accepted its territorial demands.
  2. Philippines vehemently protested to China and took up the matter with US.
  3. Philippines opposed China with the help of countries like Malaysia Thailand etc.

Q 9.How China and Pakistan are deploying their submarines in sea?
  1. Pakistan is allowing its seaports as bases for Chinese submarines for operations in Indian ocean.
  2. China is transferring technical knowhow to Pakistan along with its submarines.
  3. China has moved a fleet of sea war ships in the sea near Pakistan in defence.

Q.10. How the author considers China violating its responsibilities under nuclear non Proliferation Treaty?
  1. China has raised its army and positioned its nuclear missiles in the South China sea.
  2. China has sent unmanned under-water vehicles in the sea to use them against counties like Philippines, Malaysia ,Cambodia and Thailand.
  3. China is aiding Pakistan to develop uranium and plutonium based nuclear weapons.

Q.11. What is the reason that China is not interested in nuclear dialogue with India?
  1. China does not want to lose its dominance in the nuclear field in Asia.
  2. China wants to excel the United States in possession of nuclear weapons.
  3. China avoids to formally recognize India being a nuclear state.

Q.12.What the author considers India needs to do in the wake of recent military activities of China in Asia?
  1. According to the author India needs to have a nuclear dialogue with United States to bring stability in the area.
  2. The author suggests that India needs to have a comprehensive nuclear dialogue with China for stability in Asia.
  3. The author wants India to raise the issue of Sino-Pakistan nuclear nexus with all the important countries of the world.

Q. 13. What is antonym of the word “loathe”?
           a.agreeable b. fondness c, unwilling

Q.14. What is the reaction of Japan being felt in the face of China being overambitious of dominance in the area?
  1. Japan is considering to counter China’s increasing dominance in the area with the help of the United States.
  2. Japan is considering to review its nuclear policy.
  3. Japan is considering to bring all the countries of the area together and pressurize China to change its attitude.

15. What is the central idea of the passage?
  1. China’s over ambitious territorial gaining attitude should be exposed before all the countries of the world and its activities be brought under control.
  2. Close mutual relationship between countries of Indo-Pacific region is necessary to counter Chinese territorial and  geopolitical ambitions.
  3. There is a need for all the countries of Indo-pacific area seek the help of new US government and have vigorous dialogue with China.

(Answers 1.(3)  2.(2)  3. (2)  4.(1)  5.(2)   6.(3)   7. (3)  8.(1)  9. (1)  10.(3)  11.(3) 12.(2) 13.(b) 14.(2) 15. (2) )

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