Wednesday, 8 October 2014

Paragraph--Rearrangement of Jumbled Sentences to make a Meaningful Paragraph --Exercise Based on Questions of Previous years' Examinations.




Rearrangement of Jumbled Sentences to make a Meaningful Paragraph -

Important Points to note :



1. Generally there is a central point, idea, thought or personality about which a paragraph is written Try to locate the sentence which contains such matter. Mostly such a sentence forms the first or the last sentence of the paragraph.


2. There are two methods to describe the central idea. First, in the opening sentence, a central point is mentioned. Thereafter the sentences following that, give a logical description or details of that and for that, some examples are given. In the second method, some facts are given in the opening sentences of the paragraph and their result is given in the concluding lines. Try to find out the sentence containing the central idea and arrange the remaining sentences accordingly. 



3. Sentences containing proper nouns i.e. names of persons, places, or buildings, etc., or abstract nouns like qualities i.e. goodness or beauty, etc. come in the opening line or in the few starting lines of the paragraph.


4. Sentences containing pronouns like he, his, him, she, her, they, their, them, or the first or last part of a name come in the subsequent part of the paragraph.


5. Pronouns like it, this that, these or those show that these mention about the topic already detailed in the sentences preceding them. So these sentences generally do not form the first line of the paragraph.   



6. Sentences containing words like therefore, But, And, accordingly or resultantly, etc. come in the central part of the paragraph. The first sentence of the paragraph may contain introductory details of something and the last line of the paragraph contains conclusions of some logical details.


7. Sometimes words like initially, eventually, finally ensuing, proceeding, following, or mentioned below or above in the sentence also indicate the location of that particular sentence in the paragraph.


8. In some paragraphs there are sentences giving statements in favour of or against  an argument. Try to sort out and arrange sentences of both types separately. This helps in framing the paragraph.

9. Besides all these, one has to go by the given options. So check up all the options and strike off which do not fit in these parameters. Out of the remaining options select those which make an appropriate sequence. 

Above all these, it is Practice that makes things go.

Initially, it may not be so easy as stated, but a little practice makes it possible.


  

To explain all this here are some examples.




TYPE - A

Arrange the following jumbled sentences in a meaningful sequence. Select one out of the given options as the answer.  


TEST EXERCISES

ONE

A. Striking a balance is not easy, but we must do it for the sake of the coming generations by formulating and enacting urgent and effective policies.    

B. Their absence, coupled with urbanization and industrialization, can lead to terrible levels of pollution and climate change, which can have devastating consequences.

C. Forests are not merely precious natural treasures, they are also the lungs of a nation and repository of flora and fauna. 

D. Our forests are menaced by fires, timber mafia, and 'Progress' that leads to encroachment, as seems to be happening at an alarming rate in our surroundings.

OPTIONS
1. ACDB  2.DCAB    3.CBDA  4.CDBA


(Answer: CBDA)



TWO

A. The big leap the companies have to make is to provide 'service' with both efficiency of execution and cheaply taking advantage of the lower wages of techies available in India.

B. Experts opine that the digital transformation induced by pandemic is here to stay in the time to come and IT companies in India will capitalise on the new interest in digital technology to survive the pandemic.

C. They are ready and prepared to grab this opportunity by making fresh investments in their manpower and required infrastructure.
D. With fresh budgets to make the digital transformation mainstream, the IT service providers will thrive as their budgets swell and they grow. 

OPTIONS

1. ACDB  2.DCAB    3.CBDA  4. BDCA


(Answer: BDCA)




No. 1.

 A. The plan needs all-around support, and it would take more than a notification or advisory for the transport sector because change has to be driven by a more honest and pragmatic assessment and government-industry interface.


B. For this, the government is also keen on the introduction of onboard sleep detection sensors in commercial vehicles.

C. A study conducted two years ago highlighted driver fatigue, drowsiness, and lack of sleep as the biggest causes of accidents and fatalities on road in India.

D. Efforts are afoot to frame a policy to fix the driving hours of commercial drivers, much like for airline pilots.


OPTIONS
1. ACDB  2.DCAB    3.CBDA    4.CDBA


(Answer: CDBA)

EXPLANATION
Out of the four options two start with C and one each with D and A. A tells about coordination or link between the actions on the part of the government and people concerned with those. Options B and D tell about actions by the government. The words 'for this' in B suggest some action prior to this sentence. So B should come after D. The articles like A, An, and The also sometimes suggest the position of the sentence. The sentences starting with A and An generally are the first sentences in the sequence. The sentence with 'the' comes after that sentence. So C is the first sentence and D and B follow this sentence. A is the last sentence.



No. 2.

A. It is therefore a fact that there is no mythical paradise, no magic land, it is only here and now that we can find meaning or an experience of beauty and love.

B. Love does not require a diamond ring; nor does it demand the ceaseless circulation of Facebook images of togetherness.

C. And it is also not impossible to find the ecstasy of love in what appears to be 'ordinary' say in the rhythmic relationship between a couple of a real-life path-breaking story.

D. Love is also not the monopoly of the rich and the powerful,              rather the burden of inflated egos of the rich obstructs the flow of love.


OPTIONS 

1. DACB 2. BDCA 3. ABDC 4.BCDA



No. 3.

A. The project, which had been facing hindrances because the two state governments had been trying to find a consensus on sharing water from it, will cost Rs 44605 crore.   

B. After approval of this project, the inhabitants of the water-scarce      Bundelkhand region spread over thirteen districts of Uttar Pradesh      and Madhya Pradesh can hope to see greener pastures within ten        years.

C. The project is expected to help irrigate 10.62 lakh hectares of             land and provide drinking water to 62 lakh people apart from             generating 103 MW of hydropower and 27MW of solar power           annually.

D. The Ken-Betwa Link Project which aims to join these two                   tributaries of the Yamuna river has finally been cleared by the             Union cabinet.


OPTIONS
1. BACD 2. BCAD  3. DBAC 4.CDAB


EXPLANATION
The given two options start with B and one each with C and D. 
The sentence B starts with 'the inhabitants'. The statement tells about an effect of some action on inhabitants of the area. So this is not likely to be the first sentence. So 1 and 2 have fewre chances of being the answer.

The sentence C also starts with the project. It tells about benefits of a project which has been referred to in other sentences. So 4 too can not be the answer.

The sentence D starts with the name of a particular project. This has been referred to in other sentences. This can be the first sentence. So 3 can be the answer. Check this option. B tells about effects of project mentioned in D on inhabitants of the area. A  tells about circumstances which caused delay and C tells about benefits of it after it starts. So answer is 3 DBAC. 



No. 4.

A. The man had to struggle hard to make the cat leave the car as it           was not ready to move out but finally it left unwillingly.  

B. But he was surprised when  on his return he found another fellow       enjoying more comfortable 
     climate with his dog in his car.

C. A businessman parked his car in a mall and went 
     for shopping leaving his air-conditioned car open  to keep his dog       cool in the heat.

D.  A small cat had joined his dog and was sitting very comfortably          with the dog sharing the cool climate of the car.


OPTIONS 

1. BADC 2. CBDA 3. DA



No. 5.


A. Though beauty pageants were designed with beneficial                       intentions, corruption eventually ensued, such contests are                 frequently replicated  for profit and means of fundraising. 
B. Throughout history, mankind has promoted excellence through
     primitive rituals and community events. Beauty pageants                     represent one of these efforts in their endeavor to define                     femininity, its grace and ever-changing gender roles in society.

C. While some believe these to be harmless social events while               others suggest that such competitions confuse societal morals,             exploit women and instill insecurity in young girls worldwide. 

D. Since their conception, these  have helped in providing                       educational  advancement, supporting for charities and                       encouraging a form of confidence in their participants.


OPTIONS

1. DBCA  2. CBAD 3. ABDC 4.BDCA
 


EXPLANATION

These lines tell about beauty contests. How these beauty pageants originated and what their purpose and utility to the society was. Some people consider these beneficial for the society whereas others think that these have harmful effects on society particularly young persons. The concluding line says that these contests were started with good motives like educating people and inculcating confidence in them but these have been nowadays a source of earning profit and promoting different products without taking into consideration their adverse effects on the society.

All the options start with different alphabets like  ABCD. In D and C , pronoun 'these' describes beauty pageants so these cannot be first sentence. Options 1 and 2 are ruled out. First there should be description about beauty contests which is in B. D describes about their uses to society since they started. C describes different opinions of people about them. A concludes that these were started with good motive but they have deviated from their path now.
So in this sequence, option 4 , BDCA is the answer. 
It can be checked.




TYPE - B




In the following exercises first and last sentences of the sequence are

 given. Arrange the remaining four sentences between these two in a

 meaningful sequence.



ONE


X. Glass is an inorganic transparent product made from silica sand, limestone, soda ash and sodium carbonate. It differs in colour, density and quality based on further chemical composition.


A. Tempered glass, in particular, is being employed in roofing                    applications as well as in manufacturing of glass windows. In              developing countries, tempered glass is replacing standard glass          in roofing applications on account of its high strength properties.

B. It has its utility in small, medium and hi-tech applications ranging
 
     from household mirrors, solar panels, optical fibre to radiation

     shielding glasses in nuclear facilities.

C. Its properties of transparency, scattering, absorption and thermal         response allow multiple applications.

D. It is perhaps most widely known for its extensive use in houses           and offices in glass windows. It is increasingly being used in               construction applications.

Y. Nowadays, even waste glass in the powder form is gaining               usage as part replacement of cement in concrete, a trend set         to gain momentum over the coming years.


OPTIONS

1. ACBD  2. BCAD  3. CBDA  4.CDBA



EXPLANATION


Two of the given options start with C and one each with A and B. No
 
option starts with D.


Sentence X describes about structural and physical properties of

 glass. Sentence Y describes about the latest trend of use of glass in 

construction work.


Sentence A describes about the latest trend of use of a particular

 type of a glass, tempered glass, in construction work. This sentence

 indicates its link with sentence Y. 


Sentence C starts with a pronoun 'its' which describes the noun

 'Glass' in sentence X. X describes about structure and properties of

glass and C describes about multiple applications of glass according

 its properties. C thus follows X. Answer should start with C.


Sentence B gives further details of application of glass according to

 its structure and utility. Words 'its properties...allow to multiple

 applications' link it further with words ' it has ....high-tech 

applications ' in B.   B should follow C. 



Sentence D tells about use of glass in construction work. Sentence A

 gives details of a type of glass being used in construction work these

 days. So A should follow D. 


It means options 1 and 2 cannot be answer. Out of 3 and 4. Further D

cannot follow C and A cannot follow B. So option 4 too cannot be

the  answer. 


Option 3 CBDA is the correct answer. This sequence can be verified.







TWO

X. A true woman is one who takes pride not just in her own                achievements but in the achievements of her family as well.            She laughs with you, she cries for you and

A. her ambitions on the back burner so she can help her family with      theirs. She takes pride in your achievements and holds your hand        through your disappointments. Yes, that is the true woman. You          will find her

B. when the whole world has turned back on you she will still be            standing right behind you. She loves you beyond reason and                forgives you time and again unconditionally. She puts

C. her son a pair of socks instead. You will find her son at a cricket        match even when she can't understand the first thing about the            game.

D. not at a beauty pageant but at the supermarket shopping for                groceries, probably dressed in something sturdy or at a                        departmental store reaching out for a vial of cream or to buy

Y. You will find her helping the blind cross the street. You will          find her at a Sunday mass singing herself. Yes that would be          her the real, true woman.


OPTIONS 

1. ABDC 2. BADC 3. DABC 4. BACD

EXPLANATION

Two options start with B and one each with A and D.

Selection of sentences in case of such an exercise is a little easier because the sentences are to be linked according to their starting or ending lines or words.

In case of X the ending line is incomplete but begining is complete.

In case of Y both beginning and ending are complete.

Opening sentence in all the sentences ABCD are incomplete. Endings in all except C are incomplete. Now ending words of sentences are to be linked with starting words of other sentences. C can be the last sentence linking with Y as it has a complete ending. Three options 1,2 and 3 end with C. So 4 can be ruled out as answer.

Sentence X ends with a conjunction 'and' , before this there is a complete sentence, so after conjunction also there should be a complete sentence. All sentences except B and Y start with incomplete sentences. This doesn't fit with Y. So B can be the first sentence of the sequence. 

B ends with 'she puts'. With this D doesn't fit but A and C can fit. Out of these two A appears to be appropriate. 'She puts  her ambitions on the back burner'. 

A ends with ' you will find her' it links with D ' not at a beauty pageant'. 

So answer is 2.BADC.



THREE


X. ISRO originally intended to launch Mars Orbiter Mission

    with its Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle but the

    GSLV failed twice in 2010 and still had issues with its

    cryogenic engine.


P. The initial planned orbit raising manoeuvers were completed with

 nominal results, while a subsequent supplementary manoeuver

 managed its successful transit to Mars.


Q. Since the vehicle was not powerful enough to place Mars Orbiter

 Mission on a direct-to-Mars trajectory, the spacecraft was planned

 to be launched into a highly elliptical Earth orbit.


R. The launch was rescheduled, the satellite was placed into Earth

 orbit with revised perigee and apogee. 


S. The unsuccessful attempts did not deter their enthusiasm but

 waiting for the new batch of rockets would have delayed the 

 Mission for at least three years, so ISRO opted to switch to the less-

powerful Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV).


Y. Thus the Indian agency successfully executed a Mars mission

 in its first attempt; and this brought laurels for India and for

 The Mars Orbiter Mission team of India.


OPTIONS

1. SQRP 2.PRSQ 3. RQSP 4. QSRP


EXPLANATION


All the answer options start with different words i.e. PQRS. 

Sentence X tells about beginning of the Mission to Mars whereas Y

 tells about successful accomplishment of the mission.


X tells about failure of launching vehicle and S continues the same

 thing further saying that these failures had no effect. So X and S can

 be together.


S ends with shifting to a less powerful vehicle. 


Q further tells about the vehicle. P tells about successful launching of

 vehicle and the same thing is continued in Y. 


So S and Q can be together. P and Y can be together. 


The remaining option R tells about relaunching it can be before P.

So sequence SQRP is the answer.






FOUR


X. Fairy tales, one of the favorite forms of literature, are a                mystical fantasy of creatures and animals that everyone                wishes they could be a part of.  They have been around for            hundreds of years and create an escape for people.

A. Something really liked about these tales is the characters, they            always represent something more than just a person in a story.             They   can represent happiness, sadness, ambition, the options are       endless.

B. Through their characters these tales often help represent something that cannot really happen in real life. People like seeing the things that happen in fairy tales as it inspires them.

C. These tales are crucial for the growth of young as well as older people who need to take a break from the drudgery of real life. They feel enjoying the world of their fantasy and liking.

D. They have therapeutic values to them and help readers to cope through their fears and to remove themselves of aggressive feelings and destructive desires.

Y. The aspects in the stories have always been known to inform readers of all the perspectives of life that relate to fairy tales and they help model behavioral codes and developmental paths, even as they provide us with terms for thinking about what happens in our world.


OPTIONS

1. CDAB 2. ABDC 3. CDBA 4. BDAC


EXPLANATION

Two options start with C and one each with A and B.

Sentence X tells that fairy tales are fantasy and these serve for people as an escape from harsh realities of life. Sentence Y tells about various aspects of life related to fairy world and their relation with what happens in this world.

Sentences A and B tell about characters of fairy tales and fondness of people for these tales. 

Sentence C tells about effect of fairy tales on people as these relieve them from stress of hardships of life. Sentence D tells further about positive effect of fairy tales on life of people.

Words ' create and escape' in sentence X and  'break from drudgery' in Sentence C show link between these two sentences. D explains this fact further. So the sequence starts with C followed by D.

Options 2 and 4 are ruled out. 

Sentence B follows A as these two explain about characters.

Option 3 is ruled out. Answer is 1 CDAB. This sequence can be checked








TYPE C




Arrange the following jumbled sentences in a meaningful sequence. Mention the alphabets marked against each sentence in order as answer.

Q. No. 1.


 Arrange the sentences A,  B, C, D and E to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.



A. He was not just a visionary CEO but also a magician who turned labour into capital and gave it back to the very same labourer.

B. He was also a wealth creator who made thousands of villages prosperous while ensuring that villagers retained ownership of their means of wealth.

C. Nobody deserves the honour of being called the jewel of India more than the nation’s milkman, Kurien, who turned a milk deficient country into world’s number one producer.

D. Of course magicians are mere tricksters so Kurien should rather be called social reformer who created a farmer-owned behemoth while empowering rural women producers by handing them cash for milk.

E. A grateful nation feels indebted to the greatest Chief Executive Officer it has ever produced, Kurien, for building a formidable brand, Amul, competing with the best in the world –Nestle, Unilever and GlaxoSmithKline. 


(Answer : CADBE )





Q. No. 2.


A. With the passage of  time, vices become more apparent and                 virtues become objects of  jealousy and envy, thereby causing             contempt and hatred in the hearts of each  other.


B. They become familiar with not only strengths but also                         weaknesses of each other's characters.


C. Generally people think that familiarity should breed love, mutual         understanding and tolerance.


D. They expect that coming together of two persons should bring
             them closer and forge the bond of kinship between them. 


E. But when two persons come closer, they come to know not only
         strengths but also weaknesses of each other's character. 




(Answer : CDEBA)


TYPE - D


Directions  : 

Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below:  


A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet there and         started talking to herself.

B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she had               never noticed it before and she began thinking.

C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and began           crying.

D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she h                   happened to look up at the ceiling and saw a mallet ( a kind of           wooden hammer) stuck in one of the  beams.

E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son, and he            was to grow  up to be a man, and come down into the cellar,  like        I  am doing now and the mallet was to fall on his head and kill            him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"


1.Which of the following should be the LAST (FIFTH) sentence           after  the rearrangement ?          

   (1) A (2) E (3) C  (4)  D (5) B

2. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the           rearrangement ?

     (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5)  E

 3. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after the         rearrangement ?
 
      (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4) D  (5) E

 4. Which of the following should be the  SECOND sentence after           the rearrangement ?
          
      (1) A  (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5) E

5. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the      rearrangement ?

     (1) A (2) B ( 3) C  (4) D (5) E



(ANSWER) :

Generally in such a question , a statement is given in a sentence and other sentences are there to support or negate it or in favour of it or against it. There are two methods of writing a paragraph. The sentence containing the statement is written at the top and other sentences follow it. The other method is sentences supporting or negating the statement are given first and the concluding or the last line gives the statement. The candidate is to link all the sentences according to one out of the above two patterns in the examination.
In the given question, there is a sequence of occurrences with a lady who suddenly saw something at the ceiling and her mind started working and she acted accordingly.

The sequence will be as under :

First      D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she                happened to look up at  the ceiling and saw a   mallet ( a kind              of wooden hammer) stuck in one of the beams.

Second  B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she                had never noticed it before and she started thinking.

Third    A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet                     there and started talking to herself.

Fourth  E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son,                   and he was to grow  up to  be a man, and come down into                   the cellar,  like I am doing now and the mallet was to fall on               his head and kill him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"

Last      C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and                  began crying.



So the answer will be : 1. (3)  2. (4) 3. (1)  4. (2) 5. (5)















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