Thursday, 23 May 2013

PAST PERFECT TENSE



PAST PERFECT  TENSE

Past Perfect Tense is used to express an action that has already happened and is over now. It is used in sentences with words like 'Already, by the time, by the end of or at the time of etc.' For example : I had already finished my work. By the end of March we had left the city.

Past Perfect Tense is used in Complex Tenses. When two activities take place one after the other and are related to each other, for the activity occurred earlier, Past Perfect Tense is used and for the activity occurred later, Past Indefinite Tense is used. For example : The patient had died before the doctor came. It had stopped raining when I reached home.  

.AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In this Tense work has already been completed in  previous time. It is  over now.


For the action taken place earlier, Past Perfect Tense is used i.e. with' had' third  form of  verb is  used for all the persons.


For example :
  • Girls had sung a song before we reached there.
  • We had finished  our  work when you arrived.
  • I had already taken my food. 
  • You had taken your examination by the end of the month.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In these sentences 'not' is used between 'had' and third form of verb. Third form of verb is used for all persons.


For example :
  • She had not prepared food by then.
  • I had not met him before.
  • You had not left the room when they arrived.
  • They had not  made any mistake.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In these sentences 'had' is used  before  subject and third form of verb is used for all the persons. 

If the sentence contains the word 'before' the principal clause is in interrogative form and it starts with 'Had' followed by subject and third form of verb. The second sentence is in Past Indefinite Tense. 

For example :  Had you finished your work before I reached there? I

If the sentence contains the word 'After', 'Did' is used in it. The sentence starts with'Did' followed by Subject and first form of verb. 


For example : 


Did you receive a call after you had submitted your application for job?

A sign of interrogation is used at the end of the sentence.


For example :


  • Had you gone to the market when they reached there?
  • Had the boys played a match on that day ?
  • Had we taken our food before you arrived?
  • Had he gone out for a walk?

Similarly in interrogative negative sentences Had is used before subject and not is  used before third  form of verb.



For example :
  • Had she not helped you?
  • Had you not taken your examination seriously?
  • Had the house not elected him president?

In interrogative sentences starting with 'Wh', the sentence starts with the word 'Wh' followed by 'had' and subject and third form of verb. 



For example :  

1.Why had she not taken her food yesterday?


2. Why had you not paid your dues in time?


3. Why had you not closed the door before you slept?


4.  When did the mother give milk to the child after he had wept?


5. What did she gain after she had quarrelled with him?


6. Where had the thief gone before the police came?


7. Whom had he cheated before he escaped from the scene?


8. What had he purchased from the market before he returned?


9. Why had you not taken milk before you slept?


10. Where had the thief gone after the police came?

 



EXERCISE NO  1


Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.


1. It   ........ (stop) raining before the sun........ (rise).


2. The crowd   ....... (disperse) before the police ....... (come).


3. The train ............ (leave) before we ...... (reach) the station.


4. The servant .........(cook) food before the master ......(arrive).


5. She .......... (finish)  her work before we .........(reach) there.




EXERCISE NO  2


Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.



1. She ..................( not learn) her lesson before the examinations......(start).


2. The child..... (not take) food before he......... (sleep).


3. She.......... (not leave) for her home before we ......(reach) there.


4. They ............(not receive) your letter till today.


5. We ...........(not see) such a scene before.




EXERCISE NO  3


Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.


1. ......... they ........... (take) their meals before you .......(reach) there?

2. ........... the boys ........(finish) their game before the sun ........(set) ?

3. ........... you ..........(reach) your home before it ......(start) raining?

4. ........... the farmers ........(return) home before the night .......(fall)?

5. ..........the mother.......... (give) the child milk before he......(weep)?




EXERCISE NO 4



Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.


1. Why .......... you .......(not leave) the home before they ..........(arrive)?

2. Why .........they not ........(get) ready ........ before the guests .....(come)?

3. What ........ the child ........(take) before he ..........(sleep)?

4. Where ........she ........(go) when her mother ..........come?

5. Where .......... you .........(go) when the teacher .......(take) attendance?



CONDITIONAL SENTENCES


1. In some sentences out of two actions one is dependent on the other.

If you had worked hard, you would have succeeded.



EXPLANATION :


In this sentence, action in respect  of verb 'work' was to be done in past and its effect was to be seen in present time i.e. work hard related to past whereas action of verb 'succeed' related to present time.


In this, in the main part of   sentence, third  form of  verb with had is used  In the second part with would have,third  form of verb is used.


If you had walked faster, you would have caught the train.


The first part of the sentence can also be written in this way :


Had you worked hard , you would have succeeded. 


Had you walked faster you would have caught the train.

  

Here " Had you worked hard " = " If you had worked hard".





EXERCISE NO 5



Rewrite   the following sentences  using Past Perfect Tense form of verb wherever required. 



   A monarch had gone  to the forest for hunting.He procured a new gun for hunting. He took one of his ministers with him. He started his journey for the forest early in the morning. After travelling for half an hour he saw a little hut. He saw a sage with his flowing white beard sitting in the hut. On seeing the monarch, the sage came out of his hut. He welcomed the monarch with his folded hands. He requested him to come into his hut. The monarch went nearer to the sage. He asked him about his well being but refused to go inside the hut. The monarch asked the sage to give him some water to drink. The sage brought water in an earthen pot for the monarch. The monarch happily drank the water and thanked him. He then took leave of the sage and started for his onward journey.  The sage's behaviour full of simplicity and sincerity impressed the monarch very  much. The sage turned the monarch into a noble man
















(ANSWERS)

EXERCISE NO  1

Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.

1. It   had stopped raining before the sun rose.

2. The crowd  had dispersed before the police came.

3. The train had left before we reached the station.

4. The servant had cooked food before the master arrived.

5. She  had finished  her work before we reached there.


EXERCISE NO  2

Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.

1. She had not learnt her lesson before the examinations started.

2. The child had not taken food before he slept.

3. She had not left for her home before we reached there.

4. They had not received your letter till today.

5. We had not seen such a scene before.



EXERCISE NO  3

Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.

1. Had they taken their meals before you reached there?

2. Had the boys finished their game before the sun set ?

3. Had you reached your home before it started raining?

4. Had the farmers returned home before the night fell?

5. Had the mother given the child milk before he wept?

EXERCISE NO 4

Fill in the blanks using appropriate form of given verb in Past Perfect Tense.

1. Why had  you not left the home before they arrived?
2. Why  had they not got ready  before the guests came?
3. What had the child taken before he slept?
4. Where had she gone when her mother came?
5. Where had you gone when the teacher took attendance?








EXERCISE NO 5



Rewrite   the following sentences  using Past Perfect Tense form of verb wherever required. 



A monarch had gone  to the forest for hunting. He had procured a new gun for hunting. He had taken one of his ministers with him. He had started his journey for the forest early in the morning. After travelling for half an hour he had seen a little hut. He had seen a sage with his flowing white beard sitting in the hut. On seeing the monarch, the sage had come out of his hut. He had welcomed the monarch with his folded hands. He had requested him to come into his hut. The monarch had gone nearer to the sage. He had asked him about his well being but had refused to go inside the hut. The monarch had asked the sage to give him some water to drink. The sage had brought water in an earthen pot for the monarch. The monarch happily had drunk the water and had thanked him. He then had taken leave of the sage and had started for his onward journey.  The sage's behaviour full of simplicity and sincerity had impressed the monarch very  much. The sage had turned the monarch into a noble man.





( Note such exercises are only for understanding the tense formation only though it may not be so clear in meaning).










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