Thursday, 19 May 2022

COMPOUND NOUN - CONCEPT, EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. & EXERCISE --- EXAMINATION QUESTIONS

 A word expressing a thing, place, person, quality or state of condition, position or attitude is called a Noun.

In other words a noun is the name of a person, place,thing or a quality. It is generally formed of one word like book, crow or honesty etc.

 But sometimes it is formed of more than one words like Bookworm or Armchair etc. Book and worm separately are nouns and have their meanings but these two combined also form a noun which has a different meaning.

A compound noun is of three words also like Father - in - law.

Besides of two nouns a compound noun is formed of a verb, adjective and preposition with a noun.

A compound noun is formed of  :-

Noun +Noun      

Bathroom, Watermark

Adjective + Noun

Roundtable, Prime- Minister.

Verb + Noun

Playing card,  Moving cart.

Preposition + Noun

Underworld, Overtime.

There is no specific way of writing a compound noun. It can be in either way, sometimes by adding hyphen between two words or without a hyphen in between. 

In case of a noun with more than two words there is a hyphen between words.

For example :
Step-son, take-away, Mother-in-law,  Classroom, Blackboard. 

But while writing, a
 particular method has to be observed. 

For example 
In case of Blackboard and Black board:
These two words have different meanings. 

Black Board means any board which is black in colour. But in case of Blackboard it is a board black in colour which a teacher uses for teaching students. Similarly take away written separately means to snatch away. But take-away has a particular mode of sending things out of the premises where these are stored or are lying.

A particular care has to be taken while changing these compound nouns from singular to plural or vice versa. Of the two or three words forming a compound noun the word giving the sense of a noun or the doer has to be changed. 

As in case of Mother-in-law it is mother the main word making a noun and not in-law. So plural will be of mother and not in-law. Its plural will be Mothers - in - law.
 
But in case of the word only in-law, it will be in-laws.

Some compound words worth studying.

(Singular)
Attorney-in-general
Book- Fair
Carbon paper
Commander-in-chief
Father- in - law
Flower arrangement
Milk-man
Maid-servant
Master copy
On looker
Passer by
Time table
Timeframe
Undercoat
Underpass
underboss
Upper class
Uppercase
Water tank
Youngman
Zebra crossing

These words require consideration while changing their number.


(Plural)

Attorneys-in-general
Book- Fairs
Carbon papers
Commander-in-chief
Father- in - law
Flowers arrangement
Milk-men
Maid-servants
Master copies
On lookers
Passers by
Time tables
Timeframes
Undercoats
Underpasses
underbosses
Upper classes
Uppercases
Water tank
Youngmen
Zebra crossings


Here are some examples of sentences with compound nouns containing errors relating to their number given in an examination.

1. Last year four commander-in-chiefs were promoted.
2. The passer-bys halted and took rest there.
3. The zebras crossing are for the use padestrians.
4. Four stairs-carpet were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four walls clock struck four simultaneously.


ANSWER
1. Last year four commanders-in-chief were promoted.
2. The passers-by halted and took rest there.
3. The zebra crossings are for the use padestrians.
4. Four stair-carpets were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four wall clocks struck four simultaneously.




EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


EXERCISE 1.

Find error in the following sentences.Mark the part which contains the error.

1. Those ladies alongwith/(1) their mother-in-laws have/(2) gone to attend a family function in the city./(3) NE/(4)

2. She was combing her hairs /(1) which had messed up due to /(2) fast moving wind in the ground./(3) NE(4)

3. The company has requisitioned /(1) more troops from its headquarter to /(2) handle the situation in the city./(3) /NE(4)

4. The police is trying to find out /(1)the whereabout of the culprit/(2)  who is still at large./(3) /NE(4)

5. This piece of land is a bone of contention/(1) between two brothers and /(2) they are always at  loggers-head with each other./(3) /NE(4) 


(Answers)

1. (2) 2. ( 1) 3. (2) 4. (2)  5. (3)


EXERCISE 2

Find out error in the following sentences.

1. The world of today is divided into the groups of haves and haves not.

2. Girls students always excel boy students in the examination.

3. Men after men went to the mall to purchase goods.

4. The committee is looking into the criterions required for the new post.

5. Books fairs are organised these days to inculcate habit of reading books among people. 



(Answers)

1. haves and have-nots
2 Girl students
3. Man after man
4. Criteria
5. Book fairs




EXERCISE 3

1. The sales-man went doors - to - doors to sell his goods.

2. Soon a five stars hotel will be constructed near this mall.

3. She has gone to attend her sister's-in law marriage.

4. We went to John's and Lucy's house yesterday but it was locked.

5. Trees after trees were felled to construct a housing colony.

6. The mother was feeding the child by putting spoonsful of
    pudduing in its mouth.

7. Two man servants of the hotel were on leave on that day.

8. She gathered some twigs and handsful of rose flowers.

9. Piles after piles of debries were removed from the site.


(Answers)

1. door -to -door
2. five star hotel
3.  sister in law's
4. John and Lucy's 
5. Tree after tree was
6. spoonfuls
7. men servants
8. handfuls
9. Pile after pile ....was












Contd.......

Friday, 21 January 2022

Error Spotting (Verb - Proper Position of Verb in a Sentence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 

ERROR SPOTTING --- Proper Placing of a verb in a Sentence

A verb has an important place in a sentence. It is necessary that an appropriate form of a verb is used at a proper place in a sentence. It is because other words like subject, object or adverb etc.  in the sentence relate to a verb in the sentence. 

The importance of a verb can be judged from the fact that if one is to write a sentence of one word, that sentence  is of a verb. For example, 'Go' is a single word that carries all the meaning in itself and forms a sentence in imperative form.  

In competitive examinations, there are questions of errors relating to the incorrect form or position of a verb in a sentence.

Here follow some illustrations of it.

In negative or interrogative sentences, there is an error in the use of a singular first form of the verb with do or does.
 Similarly. with did the second form of the verb is used. e.g.

He does not goes to school.
Does he goes to school?
He did not went to school.
Did he went to school?

Inappropriate use of modal verbs with main verbs. 

e.g. He has went with his brother. 

Some verbs like need and dare are used both as a modal verb and main verb. In their cases, s or es and infinitive are not used with them when these are used as a modal verb.

There are errors of  --

-- the use of an abstract noun in place of a verb, 

-- the use of inversion of a verb in the case of a simple assertive sentence.

-- the  use of a participle in place of a verb.


-- incorrect use of a form of a verb of Voice or Narration in a sentence.

For example 
He told that he is on leave that day.
This poem is wrote by a famous poet.


These errors require to be identified for their  rectification. 


Here follow some sentences with such errors for understanding and error rectification.


 TEST EXERCISE

1. The father could not understand why was his daughter so sad.

2. On entering the room, I found all the books lie on the floor.

3. I would have called him if I had saw him there.

4. You should be presented this box to him.

5. He need to understand your problems.

6. You may need hire a taxi to reach your destination.


  ANSWERS 

1. Inversion in this sentence, 'why was his daughter' is incorrect. It being an assertive sentence, this part should be 'why his daughter was.....' .
2. In this sentence, 'I' is subject, 'found' is its verb, and 'all the books object. Lie is a verb without any subject. It describes the noun 'books' but the verb cannot describe a noun it should be an adjective, it should be a participle as an adjective 'lying'.
3. This is a conditional sentence, In the conditional part of a sentence, third form of verb is used with 'had' So it should be '...if I had seen him..' 
4. This sentence with the verb 'be presented' is in passive form. But is should be in active form. So it is 'You should present this box to him'. 
5. Need in this sentence is a modal verb like should, can or would etc. With a modal verb an infinitive is not used. It is 'He need understand your problems.  

6. In this sentence, 'Need' is used as a main verb. 'May' is a helping verb. With main verb, need, an infinitive, 'to hire' is required.




EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE 


ONE

Find out errors in the following sentences and rectify them.

1. On reaching there, I found that the house of my friend is situated in the farthest corner of the village.

2. He told her that if he goes to his office he would take her along with him.

3. The labourer while digging earth found a pitcher full of coins bury under the ground.

4. The passerby asked the young man which road did lead to the nearest market.

5. He preferred to join his father's business instead of joining a government job after he completes his education.

ANSWERS 

1. .....my friend was situated...  2. ...if he went to.....  3.....coins buried under...   
4. ....which road led to.....  5. ......after he completed. 




TWO

Find out errors in the following sentences and mark their relative part as answers. Mark NE in case there is no error.

1. The general flanked by a large(1) number of armed soldiers was (2) headed towards the enemy's post.(3) NE(4).

2. His father assured his son that he need (1) not to worry about the money (2) required by him as he possessed enough of it with him.(3) NE(4)

3. The children felt much amused (1) when they saw a juggler (2) while played in the garden in the evening.(3) NE (4)

4. I came across, at the hindermost corner of the street, (1) a dandyish appearing young man who wears (2) a flamboyant yellow and green suit and a black coloured hat.(3) NE (4)

5. Having gather the required information, (1) the investigating team got engrossed in preparing its report (2) for its presentation to the chief investigation officer. (3) NE (4)


ANSWERS 
1. 3. ....heading towards....  2. .....not worry.....  3. (3) .....while playing...  4. ....who wore...   5.  (1) Having gathered.....


THREE

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences by selecting appropriate word out of given options. 

1. Once one catches bad cold, it takes about one week or so when one................( (a) recovers/ (b) recovered) from it. 

2. Since he .........((a) is not/(b)has not been) doing this job for some time back, he will not be able to show his performance well at this time.

3. For the time at his disposal is very short, it is advisable for him that he should wind up his work as early as he ....... ( (a).is/ (b)can be) able  to. 

4.The proceedings of the meeting of today were marked by the repeated exchange of .......... ((a) hot/ (b) heated ) arguments among the members. 

5. As it had been raining since morning, we have decided to spend our time ........ ((a) stay/ (b) staying) at home. 

ANSWERS 
1.a.  2.b.  3.a.  4.b.   5.b.


FOUR

1. As the house is lying vacant for some time, it needs repair and renovation before you start living in it.

2. Children felt very happy when they saw an aeroplane flown in the sky above their heads.

3. Coleridge could not accompany Shakespeare and Dorothy as hot tea fell on his foot and he burn his foot

4. The little child soon falls sleep when his mother sings lullaby and rocks the cradle.

5. The superintendent instructed that students appear in the examination should affix an attested photograph on their Hall entry card.


CONTD.



This has reference to your editorial 'India holds its own' The Tribune March 24, 2022. India really really deserves appreciation for its approach in th currently on- going Russia Ukraine conflict turned war. Right from the first day of its independence, India has adopted a balanced policy towards the various sects of countries of the world. It has never provoked and helped any country to attack or bully any other country. It is because it never wanted any war against any country nor does it want to usurp any part of any other country. 

India whereas respects its autonomy at the same time honours autonomy of each and every country of the world whether it is a small or big country. It never wants any interference or intrusion by a country into other. It has always treated  its friends and foes equally keeping in view humanitarian interest of the people of the country.

The USA that is calling India 'Shaky' should realise that India is not shaky but is 'Steady' in its relation with other countries. USA should recall relations between two countries when it brought its seventh fleet in India's waters. Then also India showed it's patience and never indulged in any war against any country. It should realise how India has improved its relations with USA and has always gone a step ahead in helping them. India is known for making good relations with warring  countries whether those be Iran- Iraq, Israel- Egypt, or even USA- China.
It is because India has no enmity against any country and it has no intention to provoke any country against any other country. It has always gone to help a country keeping in view the interest of people of that country. The live example of Afganistan should open eyes of the USA where it used its arms and military to bring peace but failed because its intention was not so pure and pious but India always found new ways and methods to help people of that country with its services,food and goods backed by its good intentions behind its actions. USA should instead emulate India and come forward with India to bring peace in that area because innocent people should be saved whether they are in Ukraine or Afganistan. A country should help other country with an intention for development of its people and area and not use as a tool against any other country as USA has been doing in Pakistan against India. 

Tuesday, 18 January 2022

Error Spotting (Subject Identification in a Sentence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING --- Identification of Appropriate Subject in a Sentence

In a sentence, Subject, Verb, and Object are its  most important parts. All other parts of speech in the sentence are written in consonance with them. For example Verb, relative pronoun or possessive pronoun used in a sentence are according to its subject. Their variances cause errors. For this reason identification of the proper subject in a sentence is of utmost importance.

In various competitive examinations, there are questions of errors arising due to incorrect identification of  subject and /or other parts of speech relating to it. The identification of an appropriate subject and its relation with other words in the sentence is very essential to find out these errors. 

To explain the point further here follow some illustrations.

In case of a sentence starting with a gerund as its subject singular verb is used e.g.

Playing games like cricket or football is very amusing.

In this sentence,  'Playing' a gerund and used as a noun is subject and words  'games like cricket or football' give further information about it. 
Here 'Playing' is subject. It should not be confused with 'games like cricket or football'.

So verb 'is' according to  a singular subject, 'Playing' , will be used.

Either he or his brothers are at fault.
Neither he nor his friends are at fault.

In the case of either..or, neither ...nor sentences, subject is the noun or pronoun nearer to the verb.

In these cases, they are 'brothers' and 'friends'.

Here verb will be used according to part of the subject nearer to the verb. In the two sentences written above plural verb 'are' will be used according to 'brothers' and 'friends'.

In the case of 'one of the' or; none of the' a plural noun is used after these words.

 For example, 'One of my friends' 'One of those' or 'one of the proposals', etc. 

The verb in this case is used according to the subject. It may be singular or plural as the subject is

Look at the following sentences.

One of my friends has gone abroad.

None of his proposals was accepted.
In these sentences, pronouns 'one' and ' none' are subjects. These should not be confused with friends and proposals.


He is not one of those who shirk work.

This is one of the boxes which were empty.
In these sentences, relative pronouns, ' who' and 'which' describe words immediately prior to them i.e. who describes those and which boxes. So verbs will be used according to these.


Here are similar sentences extracted from question papers of different competitive examinations. 
(Please note that these all are adapted.) 


EXERCISE

1. To be a king and wear a crown are more glamorous to see than to bear.

2. I am fully aware that my boss is one of those who is totally dedicated to their work.

3. To participate in the contest and win a prize are his ambition.

4. The Principal fined those two students but neither of them were at fault. 

5. Lack of ingredients in appropriate quantity in food lead to its bad taste.  



(All the sentences are adapted from source and  extracted from different question papers of competitive examinations ) 


 ONE

Find out the error in the following sentences and rectify them.

1. He is one of the borrowers who has not repaid the loan amount.

2. A group of constables were chasing the thief.

3. Neither the students nor their teacher were present in the classroom at that time.

4. Paucity of funds have hindered the smooth working of the project.

5. I want each members of this office should contribute some money for this noble cause.

6. The company had to bear much losses during the previous year.
   
7. A number of farmers expects rich crops due to good rain fall this year. 

8. It have been only through his help that I am  able  to complete my project.
    
9. He has got job in one of the biggest enterprise of the country.

10. There is a sect of people in the society that do not believe in such things.


TWO


1. All religions teaches to believe in God and do the right but none advocates to do an evil.

2. Modern facilities has made the life of a common man very comfortable but sedentary and lazy. 

3. Harvesting of crops have already been started by farmers during the first week of this month.

4. As thieves in the darkness of night was not visible, they managed to run away.

5. The students and the teacher is planning to go out for a picnic next Sunday.

6. The jury is divided in its judgement. 

7. One of the workers working in the factory have fallen ill and is absent today. 

8. Most of the chapters taught to us by our teacher during this session relates to a single topic.

9. An addition of twenty buses in the local bus service fleet have  improved its service in the city substantially.

10. A group of fifty students of our school have decided to go to nearby villages and undertake job of their cleanliness.


THREE 

1. The scheme which will be launched during the next two years require an additional investment of one hundred crore

2. These companies have been asked to furnish their financial details and information about its board members.

3. While banks almost always meets the overall target, keeping up with the sub-targets was getting difficult for banks with limited expertise in certain sectors.

4. Not only the students but also the Principal were laughing at the joke, he cracked.

5. The sowing of summer crops such as rice and soybeans and corn have been lagging as a result.

6. Seldom has the discoveries of the world's greatest discoverers like    Copernicus and Galileo been forgotten. 

7. The flood situation in the eastern region of the country remain grim for the fifth day.

8. How many does the cricket bat cost?

9. There was many people who voted for him.

10. Much people attended the feast hosted by the village panchayat.



FOUR

1. Playing in the park is one of the thing that small children really love.

2. Findings by the investigating team has been sent to the chief investigation officer for his consideration and orders.  

3. My visiting to my family are few and far between.

4. The mother, as well as her children were brought to the police station for interrogation.

5. This coffee is not available in any of the shop in the neighbourhood market.

6. Virat Kohli is one of the best batsman that the world has seen.

7. After a heated argument they went to their respective place.

8. A large number of people opines that devaluation was not in the interest of the country. 

9. Many people thinks to migrate to other states where ther are enough job opportunities for them.

10. Despite my repeated requests he went out in rain and have caught a cold. 




Sunday, 17 October 2021

Paragraph--Rearrangement of Jumbled Sentences to make a Meaningful Paragraph --Exercise Based on Questions of Previous years' Examinations.

 


Important Points to note :


1. Generally there is a central point, idea, thought or personality about which a paragraph is written Try to locate the sentence which contains such matter. Mostly such a sentence forms the first or the last sentence of the paragraph.


2. There are two methods to describe the central idea. First, in the opening sentence, a central point is mentioned. Thereafter the sentences following that give a logical description or details of that and for that, some examples are given. In the second method, some facts are given in the opening sentences of the paragraph and their result is given in the concluding lines. Try to find out the sentence containing the central idea and arrange the remaining sentences accordingly. 


3. Sentences containing proper nouns i.e. names of persons, places, or buildings, etc,. or abstract nouns like qualities i.e. goodness or beauty, etc. come in the opening line or in the few starting lines of the paragraph.


4. Sentences containing pronouns like he, his, him, she, her, they, their, them, or the first or last part of a name come in a subsequent part of the paragraph.


5. Pronouns like it, this that, these or those show that these mention about the topic already detailed in the sentences preceding them. So these sentences generally do not form the first line of the paragraph.   


6. Sentences containing words like therefore, But, And, accordingly or resultantly, etc. come in the central part of the paragraph. The first sentence of the paragraph may contain introductory details of something and the last line of the paragraph contains conclusions of some logical details.


7. Sometimes words like initially, eventually, finally ensuing, proceeding, following, or mentioned below or above in the sentence also indicate the location of that particular sentence in the paragraph.


8. In some paragraphs there are sentences giving statements in favour of or against an argument. Try to sort out and arrange sentences of both types separately. This helps in framing the paragraph.


9. Besides all these, one has to go by the given options. So check up all the options and strike off which do not fit in these parameters. Out of the remaining options select those which make an appropriate sequence. 

Above all these, it is Practice that makes things go.

Initially, it may not be so easy as stated, but a little practice makes it possible.


  To explain all this here are some examples.


Q. No. 11  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C, D, and E to form a logical sequence and to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Two of the taller kids stood on the table to accomplish the adventurous job.


B. Then I showed them how to fasten the wire into a hook.


C. I promptly told the children to fetch a broken table and a long and strong              piece of wire.


D. The small thiefs admired my ingenuity and enjoyed themselves running                  around everywhere in excitement.


E. One pulling down the branches with hook and the second picking the fruit              while others passed them down.  


(Answer : CBAED )




Q. No. 12  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Smoke oozed up between the planks.

B. Passengers were told to be ready to quit the ship.

C. The rising gale fanned the smoldering fire.

D. Every one now knew there was a fire on board.

E. Flames broke out here and there.

F. Most people bore the shock bravely.



(Answers: EDCB )






Q. No. 13  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to                     form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Most of the perishable  foods are shipped by refrigerator ships.

B.As the green bananas are loaded, a man watches closely the signs of yellow on them.

C. The cool temperatures keep the bananas from getting ripe during the trip.

D. They are placed in the refrigerated hold of the ship.

E. Some foods such as bananas are shipped before they get ripe.

F. Ripe bananas are poor travellers and even one ripe banana at the start of the trip can spoil a whole shipload of fruit.


(Answer: D E B  C)




Q. No. 15.  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D and E to form a logical sequence and to construct a coherent paragraph.


A.  Whatever the reasons may be, the effects are disastrous leading          to both physical and mental ailments like insomnia, hypertension        and nervous breakdown etc.

B.  According to psychologists it is the result of fear due to                       inexperience,    deprivation, isolation and feeling of inferiority             among them.

C. It is a matter of  grave concern that 'stress' or 'mental pressure'             has    emerged        as a  deadly and silent killer for teenagers of         the day.

D. In order to prevent these catastrophic diseases, children need to         be taught to 'de-stress themselves' through meditation or                     cultural activities and this will inculcate feelings of  self                       confidence in them and inspire them to  face the                                   realities  of life in a  better way.


E. If they are observed closely, this all owes to undue pressure on          their mind due       to unhealthy competitions and sky rocketing          expectations of their parents and        teachers from them.




(Answer: CBEAD)


Q. No. 16.


A. But sometimes, the persons of opposite nature also come closer           fall in each other's company by accident, chance or out of                   ignorance vitiating the above statement to some extent.


B. If a man moves in the  company of good, gentle and noble people,       he is usually adjudged to be a gentleman.


C. It is usual for a man to see company of those who possess tastes,         tendencies and temperaments like his own.


D. On the other side, if he keeps company with evil persons and bad       characters, he is considered to  be a man of bad character.


E. Generally, the character and conduct of a person  is gauged by the       kinds of people he mixes and moves with.



(Answer:   EBDCA)



Q. No. 17.
 A. Such a man goes on working hard and even if he fails he is never       downcast.
B. It is therefore, the man who labours hard with a strong resolution        and an unshaken will, who achieves success and makes his                 fortune.

C. In turn failures make him all the more determined and                          resolute and he persists in his task till he attains the desired                 success.

D. A man who possesses a strong will and firm determination finds           all difficulties solved.

E. To him there are a thousand ways open to steer clear of all                   dangers and difficulties. 




(Answer :DEACB).

(Explanation : The sentences A,B,C and E contain pronouns like he or him etc. So these have lesser chance of being  first or last sentences. Only the sentence D starts with a noun 'A man' . This can be the starting sentence of the paragraph. The sentence 'E' tells further about the man mentioned in 'D'. The words like 'Such' 'therefore' and 'In turn' show that these sentences will follow the above sentences. 'Such' explains further about 'the man'.  The sentence 'C' explains further about 'fails' mentioned in sentence 'A'.  The word 'therefore' gives conclusion of the details given in the foregoing sentences. In this sequence the logic of the paragraph is complete.



Q. No. 18  

Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A.  Man cannot survive except through his mind. He comes on this          earth unarmed.


B.  Man has no claws, no fangs,no horns and no great strength of              muscle.


C.  Animals  obtain food by force.


D.  He must plant his food or hunt it.


E.   His brain is his only weapon.


F.   To plant he needs a process of thought; to hunt he needs                 weapons  and to make weapons --the process of thought.



(Answer : E C B D )



Q. No. 19


A. The belief in evil spirits, though still common, is probably less        wide spread than it was. 



B. They live in terror of germs and practise  elaborate antiseptic rites       in order to counteract their influence.


C. Evil spirits being out of fashion, it must therefore find expression       in other beliefs.


D. With many people especially women, bacilli have taken the place       of spirits and microbes for them are personification of evil.


E. But the human tendency to oversize its sense of value is still as           strong as ever.



F.  The forms change but the substance remains.


(Answer :  A EBDC F )




Q. No. 20  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Speech was the first means of conveying information.

B. Thirdly printing helped in dissemination of knowledge in a                   permanent form.

C. Then writing as a means introduced a capacity for storing                   information.

D. Computer is the only medium that cannot only store but analyse         information to make decision.

E. However all these are passive media.

F. Therefore computer is hailed as the fourth information revolution.



(Answer: CBED)




Q. No. 21  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F                           to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.





A. Those are fortunate people who have good, true and faithful friends.


B. It is a sacred attachment or a bond of interest between two persons of a congenial mind.


C. True friendship increases our happiness in prosperity and diminishes our misery in adversity.


D. Friendship often springs from similarity of taste, feelings and sentiments. 


E. However true friendship should be based on truth and such vices as selfishness,greed and falsehood should be kept out of it.


F. It must be borne in mind that prosperity breeds and multiplies friends and adversity tests them.





(Answer:DBEC )





Q. No. 22.


Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D,E and F to form                            a logical sequence  &   to construct a coherent                               paragraph.



A. While their trappings and forms and authority are sought to be zealously protected, their spirit and substance have been steadily slipping
B. Perceived to be corrupt, arrogant, self serving and insensitive, the executive has become the butt of ridicule
C. Our parliamentary democracy has come under heavy stress and strain often leading us to wonder what is becoming of our hallowed institutions of governance.
D.The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary have been part of the process of decay often competing with each other in destroying the spirit of parliamentary democracy.
 E. Perpetuating unconscionable delays in administering justice caught in archaic processes of its own making and turf war, the judiciary too has lost much of its majesty.
F. The presence of alleged bandits and criminals besmirch our legislative bodies and erode their credibility.
 (Answer :CADFBE)



Q. No. 23.  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D and E to form                                a logical sequence  &   to construct a coherent 
                   paragraph.

A. So basically, we should  communicate when the time is                    right, to the right recipient, sending the right message                        using the right channel with utmost care because                              ultimately the success of our message depends on the                        result we achieve after the communication.

 B. Nowadays, workforce is mostly multicultural, i.e. teams                    have players with different cultural backgrounds and                        this makes the scenario all the more difficult for                                selection of communication channels and contents.

C. Experts suggest that humour should be strictly avoided                      because it is like a perfume and you never know when                      and who it will hurt.  But one should be cautious that                        the image is not damaged even if our recipients do not                      get our humour.

D. Globalization and liberalization of economy has created                    another challenge for professionals besides those                              inherent in the phenomenon of communication to                              decide when to communicate,what to communicate and                    who to communicate.

E. Communication etiquette differs from culture to culture                    and therefore in order to make our communication                            effective, we will have to understand the cultural                          background of our recipients and be sensitive to that.




(Answer : DBECA)




Q. No. 24  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D,E,F and G  between the sentences A &                        H to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.




A. The British successfully established world class universities like Cambridge and Oxford in England.

B..These affiliating bodies, rather than emerging as facilitators, act as inspectors and interfere in curricula dictating physical layouts of the institutions and student intake etc.

C. It has become imperative now that India resurrects its technical education by exploring path of  “innovation” comprising of deep rooted technical skills and super managerial knowledge.

D. However, India was left grappling with the after effects of Macaulay’s minute on English education and after all we were the hapless inheritors of their legacy.

E.  Although India freed herself from the shackles of the British empire nearly seven decades ago, she remains imprisoned in the mesh of affiliating bodies.

F. As a result, India despite being the youngest nation, with the largest pool of technical and scientific workers, is unable to fulfill the current industry needs.
G.  British education did not emphasize upon education for the masses but catered only to the schooling needs of the elite.
H. Besides all this, the need of the hour is to break free from the fetters of affiliations and allow the institutions to function in an autonomous manner.  

(Answer : DGEBFC)

( Explanation - The opening lines tells about British education system.Next connecting lines are D G telling about its impact on Indian education in the past.Moving to present condition of Indian education system come Sr. nos EB. Then comes about the impact of education on present industry and its workers moving to F. Then it tells that there is a need to bring a change in it thus Sr. no. C.  







Q. No. 25.  Arrange the sentences  A,B, C,D,E  and F  between the sentences                      form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.



A. Despite occasional outbreaks of waterborne infection still arising from contamination of drinking water and chlorination of water has  saved millions of lives, nevertheless, it is also proven fact that adverse effects can arise from chemicals added to the water.

B. Although pesticides can and do leach into water, there is no evidence that the current standards for water quality are inadequate in this respect, yet most standards are based on evidence other than human epidemiology which in this context is extremely difficult to conduct. 

C. As regards microbiological hazards in water substantial improvements in the health of the population have resulted historically from the supply of drinking water free from disease causing organisms such as cholera.


D. There is good epidemiological evidence that contaminated drinking water can have a relatively small but measurable harmful effect especially on neurological function even at levels hitherto considered "acceptable".

E. Similar improvements can be expected in the health of the inhabitants of developing countries if microbiologically safe water is provided by avoidance of contamination, and appropriate purification including disinfection (usually by chlorination).

F. Some concern has been raised about possible increased cancer risks in association with chlorinated water but there is as yet no proof that a causal association between the two exists.





(Answer: DCEAFB)

(Explanation :These lines give details about causes of waterborne diseases.D and C start with the problem. E explains how these diseases can be prevented.A tells that the  pesticides used to get rid of diseases too are  hazardous for human beings. In the concluding line B it is explained that it is a belief but not so easy to prove it with evidence. )



TYPE C


Arrange the following jumbled sentences in a meaningful sequence. Mention the alphabets marked against each sentence in order as answer.

Q. No. 1.


A. With the passage of  time, vices become more apparent and                 virtues become objects of  jealousy and envy, thereby causing             contempt and hatred in the hearts of each  other.


B. They become familiar with not only strengths but also                         weaknesses of each other's characters.


C. Generally people think that familiarity should breed love, mutual         understanding and tolerance.


D. They expect that coming together of two persons should bring
             them closer and forge the bond of kinship between them. 


E. But when two persons come closer, they come to know not only
         strengths but also weaknesses of each other's character. 




(Answer : CDEBA)


Q. No. 2.


Arrange the sentences A,  B, C, D and E to form a logical sequence and construct a coherent paragraph.

A. Then we come to classical Sanskrit which is also very good.


B. Instead of being inspired by good idea, we have even lost what           we had.  


C. However it gradually deteriorates and there is no vitality left it in       it.


D. We start with magnificent literature.   


E. The process of decay through centuries can be traced in our                 literature.



(Answer: EDACB)




Q. No. 3. 

 Arrange the sentences A,  B, C and D to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. It must be viewed, as some new epidemic would be viewed, as a         common peril to be met by concerted action.


B. If we are to think wisely about the new problems raised by                 nuclear weapons, we must learn to view the whole matter in a            quite different way.


C. These conflicts are so virulent and so passionate that they                   produce a wide spread inability to understand even very obvious         matters.


D. It is a profound misfortune that the whole question of nuclear            warfare has become entangled in the age-old conflicts of power          politics.




(Answer: DCBA)


(Extracted from question paper IBPS clerk examination held on December 6, 2015)


F
Directions  (1 - 5 ) : Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below:  

A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet there and started talking to herself.

B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she had never noticed it before and she began thinking.

C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and began crying.

D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she  happened to look up at the ceiling and saw a mallet ( a kind of wooden hammer) stuck in one of the  beams.

E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son, and he was to grow  up to be a mn, and come down into the cellar,  like I am doing now and the mallet was to fall on his head and kill him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"

  1. Which of the following should be the LAST (FIFTH) sentence after the rearrangement ?             (1) A (2) E (3) C  (4)  D (5) B
      2. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5)  E

      3. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4) D  (5) E

       4. Which of the following should be the  SECOND sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A  (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5) E

        5. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement ?
             (1) A (2) B ( 3) C  (4) D (5) E



(ANSWERS) :

Generally in such a question , a statement is given in a sentence and other sentences are there to support or negate it or in favour of it or against it. There are two methods of writing a paragraph. The sentence containing the statement is written at the top and other sentences follow it. The other method is sentences supporting or negating the statement are given first and the concluding or the last line gives the statement. The candidate is to link all the sentences according to one out of the above two patterns in the examination.
In the given question, there is a sequence of occurrences with a lady who suddenly saw something at the ceiling and her mind started working and she acted accordingly.

The sequence will be as under :
First      D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she h happened to look up at                     the ceiling and saw a mallet ( a kind of wooden hammer) stuck in one of the                               beams.

Second  B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she had never noticed it                             before and she started thinking.

Third    A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet there and started talking to                     herself.

Fourth E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son, and he was to grow  up to  be a man, and come down into the cellar,  like I am doing now and the mallet was to fall on his head and kill him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"

Last C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and began crying.



So the answer will be : 1. (3)  2. (4) 3. (1)  4. (2) 5. (5)