Sunday, 17 October 2021

Paragraph--Rearrangement of Jumbled Sentences to make a Meaningful Paragraph --Exercise Based on Questions of Previous years' Examinations.

 


Important Points to note :


1. Generally there is a central point, idea, thought or a personality about which a paragraph is written Try to locate the sentence which contains such matter. Mostly such a sentence forms the first or the last sentence of the paragraph.


2. There are two methods to describe the central idea. First in the opening sentence a central point is mentioned. Thereafter the sentences following that give logical description or details of that and for that some examples are given. In second method some facts are given in the opening sentences of the paragraph and their result is given in the concluding lines. Try to find out the sentence containing the central idea and arrange the remaining sentences accordingly. 


3. Sentences containing proper nouns i.e. names of persons,places or buildings etc. or abstract nouns like qualities i.e. goodness or beauty etc. come in the opening line or in the few starting lines of the paragraph.


4. Sentences containing pronouns like he, his, him, she, her, they, their, them or first or last part of a name come in subsequent part of the paragraph.


5. Pronouns like it, this that, these or those show that these mention about the topic already detailed in the sentences preceding them. So these sentences generally do not form the first line of the paragraph.   


6. Sentences containing words like therefore, But, And, accordingly or resultantly etc. come in the central part of the paragraph. The first sentence of the paragraph may contain introductory details of something and the last line of the paragraph contains conclusions of some logical details.


7. Sometimes words like initially, eventually, finally ensuing, proceeding, following or mentioned below or above in the sentence also indicate the location of that particular sentence in the paragraph.


8. In some paragraphs there are sentences giving statements in favour of or against  an argument. Try to sort out and arrange sentences of both types separately. This helps in framing the paragraph.


9. Besides all these, one has to go by the given options. So check up all the options and strike off which do not fit in these parameters. Out of the remaining options select those which make an appropriate sequence. 

Above all these it is Practice that makes the things go.

Initially, it may not be so easy as stated, but a little practice makes it  possible.


  To explain all this here are some examples.


Q. No. 11  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D and E to form a logical sequence and to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Two of the taller kids stood on the table to accomplish the adventurous job.


B. Then I showed them how to fasten the wire into a hook.


C. I promptly told the children to fetch a broken table and a long and strong              piece of wire.


D. The small thiefs admired my ingenuity and enjoyed themselves running                  around everywhere in excitement.


E. One pulling down the branches with hook and the second picking the fruit              while others passed them down.  


(Answer : CBAED )




Q. No. 12  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Smoke oozed up between the planks.

B. Passengers were told to be ready to quit the ship.

C. The rising gale fanned the smoldering fire.

D. Every one now knew there was a fire on board.

E. Flames broke out here and there.

F. Most people bore the shock bravely.



(Answers: EDCB )






Q. No. 13  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to                     form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Most of the perishable  foods are shipped by refrigerator ships.

B.As the green bananas are loaded, a man watches closely the signs of yellow on them.

C. The cool temperatures keep the bananas from getting ripe during the trip.

D. They are placed in the refrigerated hold of the ship.

E. Some foods such as bananas are shipped before they get ripe.

F. Ripe bananas are poor travellers and even one ripe banana at the start of the trip can spoil a whole shipload of fruit.


(Answer: D E B  C)




Q. No. 15.  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D and E to form a logical sequence and to construct a coherent paragraph.


A.  Whatever the reasons may be, the effects are disastrous leading          to both physical and mental ailments like insomnia, hypertension        and nervous breakdown etc.

B.  According to psychologists it is the result of fear due to                       inexperience,    deprivation, isolation and feeling of inferiority             among them.

C. It is a matter of  grave concern that 'stress' or 'mental pressure'             has    emerged        as a  deadly and silent killer for teenagers of         the day.

D. In order to prevent these catastrophic diseases, children need to         be taught to 'de-stress themselves' through meditation or                     cultural activities and this will inculcate feelings of  self                       confidence in them and inspire them to  face the                                   realities  of life in a  better way.


E. If they are observed closely, this all owes to undue pressure on          their mind due       to unhealthy competitions and sky rocketing          expectations of their parents and        teachers from them.




(Answer: CBEAD)


Q. No. 16.


A. But sometimes, the persons of opposite nature also come closer           fall in each other's company by accident, chance or out of                   ignorance vitiating the above statement to some extent.


B. If a man moves in the  company of good, gentle and noble people,       he is usually adjudged to be a gentleman.


C. It is usual for a man to see company of those who possess tastes,         tendencies and temperaments like his own.


D. On the other side, if he keeps company with evil persons and bad       characters, he is considered to  be a man of bad character.


E. Generally, the character and conduct of a person  is gauged by the       kinds of people he mixes and moves with.



(Answer:   EBDCA)



Q. No. 17.
 A. Such a man goes on working hard and even if he fails he is never       downcast.
B. It is therefore, the man who labours hard with a strong resolution        and an unshaken will, who achieves success and makes his                 fortune.

C. In turn failures make him all the more determined and                          resolute and he persists in his task till he attains the desired                 success.

D. A man who possesses a strong will and firm determination finds           all difficulties solved.

E. To him there are a thousand ways open to steer clear of all                   dangers and difficulties. 




(Answer :DEACB).

(Explanation : The sentences A,B,C and E contain pronouns like he or him etc. So these have lesser chance of being  first or last sentences. Only the sentence D starts with a noun 'A man' . This can be the starting sentence of the paragraph. The sentence 'E' tells further about the man mentioned in 'D'. The words like 'Such' 'therefore' and 'In turn' show that these sentences will follow the above sentences. 'Such' explains further about 'the man'.  The sentence 'C' explains further about 'fails' mentioned in sentence 'A'.  The word 'therefore' gives conclusion of the details given in the foregoing sentences. In this sequence the logic of the paragraph is complete.



Q. No. 18  

Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A.  Man cannot survive except through his mind. He comes on this          earth unarmed.


B.  Man has no claws, no fangs,no horns and no great strength of              muscle.


C.  Animals  obtain food by force.


D.  He must plant his food or hunt it.


E.   His brain is his only weapon.


F.   To plant he needs a process of thought; to hunt he needs                 weapons  and to make weapons --the process of thought.



(Answer : E C B D )



Q. No. 19


A. The belief in evil spirits, though still common, is probably less        wide spread than it was. 



B. They live in terror of germs and practise  elaborate antiseptic rites       in order to counteract their influence.


C. Evil spirits being out of fashion, it must therefore find expression       in other beliefs.


D. With many people especially women, bacilli have taken the place       of spirits and microbes for them are personification of evil.


E. But the human tendency to oversize its sense of value is still as           strong as ever.



F.  The forms change but the substance remains.


(Answer :  A EBDC F )




Q. No. 20  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. Speech was the first means of conveying information.

B. Thirdly printing helped in dissemination of knowledge in a                   permanent form.

C. Then writing as a means introduced a capacity for storing                   information.

D. Computer is the only medium that cannot only store but analyse         information to make decision.

E. However all these are passive media.

F. Therefore computer is hailed as the fourth information revolution.



(Answer: CBED)




Q. No. 21  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D and E  between the sentences A & F                           to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.





A. Those are fortunate people who have good, true and faithful friends.


B. It is a sacred attachment or a bond of interest between two persons of a congenial mind.


C. True friendship increases our happiness in prosperity and diminishes our misery in adversity.


D. Friendship often springs from similarity of taste, feelings and sentiments. 


E. However true friendship should be based on truth and such vices as selfishness,greed and falsehood should be kept out of it.


F. It must be borne in mind that prosperity breeds and multiplies friends and adversity tests them.





(Answer:DBEC )





Q. No. 22.


Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D,E and F to form                            a logical sequence  &   to construct a coherent                               paragraph.



A. While their trappings and forms and authority are sought to be zealously protected, their spirit and substance have been steadily slipping
B. Perceived to be corrupt, arrogant, self serving and insensitive, the executive has become the butt of ridicule
C. Our parliamentary democracy has come under heavy stress and strain often leading us to wonder what is becoming of our hallowed institutions of governance.
D.The Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary have been part of the process of decay often competing with each other in destroying the spirit of parliamentary democracy.
 E. Perpetuating unconscionable delays in administering justice caught in archaic processes of its own making and turf war, the judiciary too has lost much of its majesty.
F. The presence of alleged bandits and criminals besmirch our legislative bodies and erode their credibility.
 (Answer :CADFBE)



Q. No. 23.  Arrange the sentences A,  B, C,D and E to form                                a logical sequence  &   to construct a coherent 
                   paragraph.

A. So basically, we should  communicate when the time is                    right, to the right recipient, sending the right message                        using the right channel with utmost care because                              ultimately the success of our message depends on the                        result we achieve after the communication.

 B. Nowadays, workforce is mostly multicultural, i.e. teams                    have players with different cultural backgrounds and                        this makes the scenario all the more difficult for                                selection of communication channels and contents.

C. Experts suggest that humour should be strictly avoided                      because it is like a perfume and you never know when                      and who it will hurt.  But one should be cautious that                        the image is not damaged even if our recipients do not                      get our humour.

D. Globalization and liberalization of economy has created                    another challenge for professionals besides those                              inherent in the phenomenon of communication to                              decide when to communicate,what to communicate and                    who to communicate.

E. Communication etiquette differs from culture to culture                    and therefore in order to make our communication                            effective, we will have to understand the cultural                          background of our recipients and be sensitive to that.




(Answer : DBECA)




Q. No. 24  Arrange the sentences  B, C,D,E,F and G  between the sentences A &                        H to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.




A. The British successfully established world class universities like Cambridge and Oxford in England.

B..These affiliating bodies, rather than emerging as facilitators, act as inspectors and interfere in curricula dictating physical layouts of the institutions and student intake etc.

C. It has become imperative now that India resurrects its technical education by exploring path of  “innovation” comprising of deep rooted technical skills and super managerial knowledge.

D. However, India was left grappling with the after effects of Macaulay’s minute on English education and after all we were the hapless inheritors of their legacy.

E.  Although India freed herself from the shackles of the British empire nearly seven decades ago, she remains imprisoned in the mesh of affiliating bodies.

F. As a result, India despite being the youngest nation, with the largest pool of technical and scientific workers, is unable to fulfill the current industry needs.
G.  British education did not emphasize upon education for the masses but catered only to the schooling needs of the elite.
H. Besides all this, the need of the hour is to break free from the fetters of affiliations and allow the institutions to function in an autonomous manner.  

(Answer : DGEBFC)

( Explanation - The opening lines tells about British education system.Next connecting lines are D G telling about its impact on Indian education in the past.Moving to present condition of Indian education system come Sr. nos EB. Then comes about the impact of education on present industry and its workers moving to F. Then it tells that there is a need to bring a change in it thus Sr. no. C.  







Q. No. 25.  Arrange the sentences  A,B, C,D,E  and F  between the sentences                      form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.



A. Despite occasional outbreaks of waterborne infection still arising from contamination of drinking water and chlorination of water has  saved millions of lives, nevertheless, it is also proven fact that adverse effects can arise from chemicals added to the water.

B. Although pesticides can and do leach into water, there is no evidence that the current standards for water quality are inadequate in this respect, yet most standards are based on evidence other than human epidemiology which in this context is extremely difficult to conduct. 

C. As regards microbiological hazards in water substantial improvements in the health of the population have resulted historically from the supply of drinking water free from disease causing organisms such as cholera.


D. There is good epidemiological evidence that contaminated drinking water can have a relatively small but measurable harmful effect especially on neurological function even at levels hitherto considered "acceptable".

E. Similar improvements can be expected in the health of the inhabitants of developing countries if microbiologically safe water is provided by avoidance of contamination, and appropriate purification including disinfection (usually by chlorination).

F. Some concern has been raised about possible increased cancer risks in association with chlorinated water but there is as yet no proof that a causal association between the two exists.





(Answer: DCEAFB)

(Explanation :These lines give details about causes of waterborne diseases.D and C start with the problem. E explains how these diseases can be prevented.A tells that the  pesticides used to get rid of diseases too are  hazardous for human beings. In the concluding line B it is explained that it is a belief but not so easy to prove it with evidence. )



TYPE C


Arrange the following jumbled sentences in a meaningful sequence. Mention the alphabets marked against each sentence in order as answer.

Q. No. 1.


A. With the passage of  time, vices become more apparent and                 virtues become objects of  jealousy and envy, thereby causing             contempt and hatred in the hearts of each  other.


B. They become familiar with not only strengths but also                         weaknesses of each other's characters.


C. Generally people think that familiarity should breed love, mutual         understanding and tolerance.


D. They expect that coming together of two persons should bring
             them closer and forge the bond of kinship between them. 


E. But when two persons come closer, they come to know not only
         strengths but also weaknesses of each other's character. 




(Answer : CDEBA)


Q. No. 2.


Arrange the sentences A,  B, C, D and E to form a logical sequence and construct a coherent paragraph.

A. Then we come to classical Sanskrit which is also very good.


B. Instead of being inspired by good idea, we have even lost what           we had.  


C. However it gradually deteriorates and there is no vitality left it in       it.


D. We start with magnificent literature.   


E. The process of decay through centuries can be traced in our                 literature.



(Answer: EDACB)




Q. No. 3. 

 Arrange the sentences A,  B, C and D to form a logical sequence  & to construct a coherent paragraph.


A. It must be viewed, as some new epidemic would be viewed, as a         common peril to be met by concerted action.


B. If we are to think wisely about the new problems raised by                 nuclear weapons, we must learn to view the whole matter in a            quite different way.


C. These conflicts are so virulent and so passionate that they                   produce a wide spread inability to understand even very obvious         matters.


D. It is a profound misfortune that the whole question of nuclear            warfare has become entangled in the age-old conflicts of power          politics.




(Answer: DCBA)







(Extracted from question paper IBPS clerk examination held on December 6, 2015)

F
Directions  (1 - 5 ) : Rearrange the following five sentences (A), (B), (C), (D) and (E) in a proper sequence so as to form a meaningful paragraph and then answer the questions given below:  

A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet there and started talking to herself.

B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she had never noticed it before and she began thinking.

C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and began crying.

D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she  happened to look up at the ceiling and saw a mallet ( a kind of wooden hammer) stuck in one of the  beams.

E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son, and he was to grow  up to be a mn, and come down into the cellar,  like I am doing now and the mallet was to fall on his head and kill him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"

  1. Which of the following should be the LAST (FIFTH) sentence after the rearrangement ?             (1) A (2) E (3) C  (4)  D (5) B
      2. Which of the following should be the FIRST sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5)  E

      3. Which of the following should be the THIRD sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A (2) B  (3) C  (4) D  (5) E

       4. Which of the following should be the  SECOND sentence after the rearrangement ?
           (1) A  (2) B  (3) C  (4)  D (5) E

        5. Which of the following should be the FOURTH sentence after the rearrangement ?
             (1) A (2) B ( 3) C  (4) D (5) E



(ANSWERS) :

Generally in such a question , a statement is given in a sentence and other sentences are there to support or negate it or in favour of it or against it. There are two methods of writing a paragraph. The sentence containing the statement is written at the top and other sentences follow it. The other method is sentences supporting or negating the statement are given first and the concluding or the last line gives the statement. The candidate is to link all the sentences according to one out of the above two patterns in the examination.
In the given question, there is a sequence of occurrences with a lady who suddenly saw something at the ceiling and her mind started working and she acted accordingly.

The sequence will be as under :
First      D. One evening when Mia had gone down to the cellar, she h happened to look up at                     the ceiling and saw a mallet ( a kind of wooden hammer) stuck in one of the                               beams.

Second  B. It must have been there for a long time but somehow she had never noticed it                             before and she started thinking.

Third    A. She thought it was very dangerous to have that mallet there and started talking to                     herself.

Fourth E. She said "Suppose I was to be married, and have a son, and he was to grow  up to  be a man, and come down into the cellar,  like I am doing now and the mallet was to fall on his head and kill him, what a dreadful thing it would be!"

Last C. Saying all this, she threw her tools, sat herself down and began crying.



So the answer will be : 1. (3)  2. (4) 3. (1)  4. (2) 5. (5)



















Wednesday, 13 October 2021

Sentence Arrangement -7. Competition Examination Questions Based Exercises-- Solution & Explanation


 Generally in Sentence Arrangement Questions in examinations there are options given and the correct one out of those is to be selected. Undoubtedly practice is the most effective tool for solving the question but there are certain tips which help in arriving at  the result easily and quickly. A few of these are listed below.

These sentences relate to one theme, topic, idea or place or thing of description. Their link as to how they describe it is required to be identified.

Some words like pronouns and  prepositional phrases are very helpful in locating relation between sentences.

Sentences containing nouns are arranged prior to those containing pronouns. 

In the examination questions going by the given options makes finding out the answer very convenient. Sense and meaning of sentences in the sequence of options needs to be verified and the correct one to be identified.


Following examples illustrate the point.


In the following exercises first and last sentences of the sequence are given. Arrange the remaining four sentences between these two in a meaningful sequence.


ONE

X. Glass is an inorganic transparent product made from silica sand, limestone, soda ash and sodium carbonate. It differs in colour, density and quality based on further chemical composition.

A. Tempered glass, in particular, is being employed in roofing applications as well as in manufacturing of glass windows. In developing countries, tempered glass is replacing standard glass in roofing applications on account of its high strength properties.

B. It has its utility in small, medium and hi-tech applications ranging from household mirrors, solar panels, optical fibre to radiation shielding glasses in nuclear facilities.

C. Its properties of transparency, scattering, absorption and thermal response allow multiple applications.

D. It is perhaps most widely known for its extensive use in houses and offices in glass windows. It is increasingly being used in construction applications.

Y. Nowadays, even waste glass in the powder form is gaining usage as part replacement of cement in concrete, a trend set to gain momentum over the coming years.


OPTIONS
1. ACBD  2. BCAD  3. CBDA  4.CDBA

EXPLANATION

Two of the given options start with C and one each with A and B. No option starts with D.

Sentence X describes about structural and physical properties of glass. Sentence Y describes about the latest trend of use of glass in construction work.

Sentence A describes about the latest trend of use of a particular type of a glass, tempered glass, in construction work. This sentence indicates its link with sentence Y. 

Sentence C starts with a pronoun 'its' which describes the noun 'Glass' in sentence X. X describes about structure and properties of glass and C describes about multiple applications of glass according its properties. C thus follows X. Answer should start with C.

Sentence B gives further details of application of glass according to its structure and utility. Words 'its properties...allow to multiple applications' link it further with words ' it has ....high-tech applications ' in B.   B should follow C. 

Sentence D tells about use of glass in construction work. Sentence A gives details of a type of glass being used in construction work these days. So A should follow D. 

It means options 1 and 2 cannot be answer. Out of 3 and 4. Further D cannot follow C and A cannot follow B. So option 4 too cannot be answer. 
Option 3 CBDA is the correct answer. This sequence can be verified.



TWO

X. A true woman is one who takes pride not just in her own achievements but in the achievements of her family as well. She laughs with you, she cries for you and

A. her ambitions on the back burner so she can help her family with theirs. She takes pride in your achievements and holds your hand through your disappointments. Yes, that is the true woman. You will find her

B. when the whole world has turned back on you she will still be standing right behind you. She loves you beyond reason and forgives you time and again unconditionally. She puts

C. her son a pair of socks instead. You will find her son at a cricket match even when she can't understand the first thing about the game.

D. not at a beauty pageant but at the supermarket shopping for groceries, probably dressed in something sturdy or at a departmental store reaching out for a vial of cream or to buy

Y. You will find her helping the blind cross the street. You will find her at a Sunday mass singing herself. Yes that would be her the real, true woman.


OPTIONS 

1. ABDC 2. BADC 3. DABC 4. BACD

EXPLANATION

Two options start with B and one each with A and D.

Selection of sentences in case of such an exercise is a little easier because the sentences are to be linked according to their starting or ending lines or words.

In case of X the ending line is incomplete but begining is complete.

In case of Y both beginning and ending are complete.

Opening sentence in all the sentences ABCD are incomplete. Endings in all except C are incomplete. Now ending words of sentences are to be linked with starting words of other sentences. C can be the last sentence linking with Y as it has a complete ending. Three options 1,2 and 3 end with C. So 4 can be ruled out as answer.

Sentence X ends with a conjunction 'and' , before this there is a complete sentence, so after conjunction also there should be a complete sentence. All sentences except B and Y start with incomplete sentences. This doesn't fit with Y. So B can be the first sentence of the sequence. 

B ends with 'she puts'. With this D doesn't fit but A and C can fit. Out of these two A appears to be appropriate. 'She puts  her ambitions on the back burner'. 

A ends with ' you will find her' it links with D ' not at a beauty pageant'. 

So answer is 2.BADC.


THREE

X. Fairy tales, one of the favorite forms of literature, are a mystical fantasy of creatures and animals that everyone wishes they could be a part of.  They have been around for hundreds of years and create an escape for people.

A. Something really liked about these tales is the characters, they always represent something more than just a person in a story. They can represent happiness, sadness, ambition, the options are endless.

B. Through their characters these tales often help represent something that cannot really happen in real life. People like seeing the things that happen in fairy tales as it inspires them.

C. These tales are crucial for the growth of young as well as older people who need to take a break from the drudgery of real life. They feel enjoying the world of their fantasy and liking.

D. They have therapeutic values to them and help readers to cope through their fears and to remove themselves of aggressive feelings and destructive desires.

Y. The aspects in the stories have always been known to inform readers of all the perspectives of life that relate to fairy tales and they help model behavioral codes and developmental paths, even as they provide us with terms for thinking about what happens in our world.


OPTIONS
1. CDAB 2. ABDC 3. CDBA 4. BDAC

EXPLANATION

Two options start with C and one each with A and B.

Sentence X tells that fairy tales are fantasy and these serve for people as an escape from harsh realities of life. Sentence Y tells about various aspects of life related to fairy world and their relation with what happens in this world.

Sentences A and B tell about characters of fairy tales and fondness of people for these tales. 

Sentence C tells about effect of fairy tales on people as these relieve them from stress of hardships of life. Sentence D tells further about positive effect of fairy tales on life of people.

Words ' create and escape' in sentence X and  'break from drudgery' in Sentence C show link between these two sentences. D explains this fact further. So the sequence starts with C followed by D.

Options 2 and 4 are ruled out. 

Sentence B follows A as these two explain about characters.

Option 3 is ruled out. Answer is 1 CDAB. This sequence can be checked.