Thursday, 25 February 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (SUPERFLUOUS WORDS)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING

In competitive examinations there are questions of error finding. These questions also relate to use of superfluous or redundant words etc.in sentences. These sentences sometimes appear to be correct and thus it becomes difficult to find out these mistakes. Articles are missing in sentences and these are used where these are not required. So proper use of articles in sentences becomes essential to attempt such questions correctly.

.Following sentences illustrate this fact.
Today he returned back from his office very late.
This sentence appears to be correct but returned in itself contains the meaning of back. Return means to come back. So the word back is superfluous and s not required here.

The man is mortal.

The article 'the' in this sentence is not required here because it is used for specific items whereas 'man' is used here in general terms. So the correct sentence is - Man is mortal.


SUPERFLUOUS WORDS

1. The train slowed down as it approached near the station.
2. He had to pay fine when he did not return back books to the library.
3. Supposing if you visit him pay my respects to him.
4. My book is relatively better than yours.
5. My friend has sufficient enough money to pay off his dues.
6. All were surprised when he reentered the room again.










Saturday, 20 February 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (INVERSION)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING

Questions relating to error finding are common  in  competitive examinations these days. These questions are mostly based on incorrect use of articles, gerunds, present, past or perfect participles etc. These errors also relate to wrong use of adjectives, adverbs, conjunction and preposition etc. in sentences. These sentences are formed in such a way that it becomes sometimes difficult for candidates to distinguish and recognize errors. Nevertheless practice makes their identification  possible and easy.

 Here follow some examples.

With a Perfect Participle, third form of verb is used.
For example

 Having taken his breakfast, he left for his office.

In this sentence, instead of 'taken', words like 'taking, took or take' are used which is incorrect. 

In these sentences sometimes there are errors of participle and subject disagreement.

 For example
Going by the roadside,  a car hit him.
This sentence gives the impression of car going by the roadside whereas it should be -

 Going by the roadside , he was hit by a car.
OR

He going by the roadside was hit by a car.


Errors also occur while making Inversion in sentences.
 
Inversion means use of verb or helping verb and adverb before Subject in a sentence.

Generally in an assertive or simple sentence, the formation is Subject followed by verb and object. 

While writing an interrogative sentence, helping verb or verb is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject of the sentence.

Simple sentences--

She is singing a song.


Interrogative Sentences-
Is she singing a song? 

Sometimes  to emphasise a particular action in a sentence, verb, helping verb and adverb are used  in the beginning of the sentence before its subject. This is called Inversion.


Inversion takes place in the following cases :

A. When verb is used before the subject.

B. When adverb is used before the subject.

C. In case of conjunction. There are five conjunctions which require inversion with them. These are
Either..or, Neither..nor, Not only ..but also, Hardly, Scarcely...when, No sooner.... than.

D. In case of conditional sentences.

Words or adverbs  like Hardly, Scarcely, never, Not,  Either..or, neither ..nor, Not only.. but also, No sooner ....than etc., when used before subject, take inversion with them. 

But there is no need of inversion when these are used in the middle of the sentence in normal form of the sentence.


For example : 

A simple sentence is - 

He hardly knew about this incident.
In this sentence 'He' is subject, 'knew' verb and 'hardly' is adverb.

 But to put emphasis on action, adverb is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject.
Hardly he knew about the incident. But it is incorrect. 
With adverb, verb or helping verb too will be placed before subject.
The verb 'knew' will break into two parts - knew = Did +know.
 This sentence will be-
Hardly did he know about this incident.

Similarly  in case of this  example:
He knew little about the incident.
This sentence is in simple form. 
But when adverb is used before subject he, it will be-
Little did he know about the incident. 
It is incorrect to say - Little he knew about the incident.


In case of either..or and neither.. nor or Not.. not, neither etc 
there is inversion.


Neither she knows him nor her mother does.

She does not know him nor her mother does.

These sentences are wrong. These should be-
Neither she knows him nor does her mother
She does not know him nor does her mother.

Words like Hardly, Not, So, Too, Never are used as adverbs. Inversion takes place  in a sentence when these are used in the beginning of the sentence before subject.

A simple sentence - The traveller was so tired that he could not walk.
Sentence with Inversion-
So tired was the traveller that he could not walk.
The old man is so weak that he cannot stand even.
So weak is the old man that he cannot stand even. 


Sentences starting with No sooner, Scarcely and Hardly also take inversion. 
Hardly had he entered the house when it started raining.
Scarcely had he stepped out of the house when it started raining.
No sooner did he enter the house than the lights went off.
Hardly has she any sense of shame.
Scarcely does he bother about others. 

Errors also occur when changes are made in interrogative sentences during Narration. 
Look at the following sentences in Direct and Indirect forms of Narration.

She said to me," Are you going to your office?"
She said to me," Where are you going?"

These sentences are interrogative sentences in Direct form of Narration. There is Inversion in both of these sentences. But while making indirect form of sentences inversion will be removed and these sentences will be changed into simple sentences. These sentences in their indirect form will be-

She asked me if I was going to my office.
She asked me where I was going.

It will be wrong if these are written as
She asked me if was I going to my office.
She asked me where was I going.

Inversion takes place in case of conditional sentences also. In its simple form a conditional sentence is written as-

If you had worked hard you would have passed.

But to put stress on a particular action helping verb 'Had' is written in the beginning of the sentence before Subject.

Had you worked hard you would have passed.






Here are some sentences relating to inversion for practice.

EXERCISE
Make necessary correction wherever necessary in the following sentences.

1. Never I have read such a beautiful book as this.
2. Never she has gone to see her parents living in the village.
3. Not only he helped him with money but also he gave him food.
4. Seldom he visits them to enquire about their welfare.
5. He did not attend the meeting today nor his friend did.
6. His friend did not attend the office today neither he did.
7. No sooner the child saw the dog it started crying.
8. He does not like sweets nor his brother does.
9. So difficult was the question that no student could solve it.
10.Gone the days are when the children used to play outdoor games.
11.So happy was she on his son's success that she could hardly utter        a word even.

12. No sooner she saw a lizard on the wall than she started crying.

13. Down the building went like a pack of cards.

14. So far the old man went that he was not visible to us.

15. So well planned the arrangement was that the guests did not feel any difficulty in staying there.    







SOLUTION

1. Never I have read such a beautiful book as this.
In this sentence , I is subject, Have read is verb and never is adverb. But to put emphasis on the action, Never has been shifted to the position  before Subject in the beginning of the sentence. For this change  inversion is required. This sentence should be -
Never have I read such a beautiful book as this.


2. Never she has gone to see her parents living in the village.

This sentence is similar to that at Sr. no. 1. This sentence will be 
Never has she gone to see her parents living in the village.


3. Not only he helped him with money but also he gave him food.
In this sentence, adverb Not has been used in the beginning of the sentence before subject. For this inversion of verb 'helped' is required. 'Helped' will break into 'Help' and 'Did'. The sentence will be - Not only did he help me with money but also he gave me food.


4. Seldom he visits them to enquire about their welfare.
In simple form this sentence is -
He seldom visits them to enquire about their welfare. 
But adverb 'seldom' is used in the beginning of the sentence before Subject to put emphasis on the action. For this inversion is required. 
Seldom does he visit them to enquire about their welfare.


5. He did not attend the meeting today nor his friend did.
This sentence describes activities of two persons. So 'He' and 'His friend' are Subjects of two parts of the sentence. 
He did not attend the meeting is the sentence in simple form but the other part with 'nor' before subject 'his friend' requires inversion. This part will be 'nor did his friend.'

6. His friend did not attend the office today neither he did.
This sentence is similar to that at Sr. no 5. There are two Subjects, 'His friend' and 'he'. First part of the sentence in simple form is correct but the part with 'neither' requires inversion. It should be 'neither did he.'

7. No sooner the child saw the dog it started crying.
This sentence in its simple form is 'The child no sooner saw the dog it started crying.' But with 'no sooner' before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. It will be - 
No sooner did the child see the dog it started crying.

8. He does not like sweets nor his brother does.
This sentence is similar to that at Sr, no 5. It will be - 
He does not like sweets nor does his brother.


9. So difficult was the question that no student could solve it.

In its simple form this sentence is - 

The question was so difficult that no student could solve it.

But with 'so difficult' before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. This sentence is correct as 'was' has been used before subject.


10.Gone the days are when the children used to play outdoor games.
This sentence in its simple form is-
The days are gone when the children used to play outdoor games.
With verb 'gone' used before subject, inversion is required. It will be
Gone are the days when children used to play outdoor games.



11.So happy was she on his son's success that she could                       hardly utter a word even.
This sentence in its simple form is -She was so happy on his son's success that she could hardly utter a word even. But with inversion it will be - So happy was she on his son's success that she could hardly utter a word even.


12. No sooner she saw a lizard on the wall than she started crying.
With 'No sooner' in the beginning of the sentence before subject inversion is required in this sentence. It will be-
No sooner did she see a lizard on the wall than she started crying.

13. Down the building went like a pack of cards.

In this sentence verb 'down' is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject. Inversion is required for this. This sentence will be -

Down went the building like a pack of cards.

14. So far the old man went that he was not visible to us.

This sentence in its simple form is -The old man went so far that he was not visible to us.

But with 'so far' in the beginning of the sentence, inversion is required. This sentence will be -

So far went the old man that he was not visible to us.

15. So well planned the arrangement was that the guests did not feel any difficulty while  staying there.    

In its simple form this sentence is -

The arrangement was so well planned that the guests did not feel any difficulty while staying there. But with verb and adverb shifting to the beginning of sentence before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. This sentence will be -

So well planned was the arrangement that the guests did not feel any difficulty while staying there.








Thursday, 21 January 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (Tense Sequence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 

ERROR SPOTTING

In different competitive examinations, there are questions of error finding in the given sentences. These errors generally relate to use of parts of speech, Subject and object or Subject and Verb combinations, Sequence of Tense, Use of Preposition or Phrasal verbs etc. It becomes a little difficult to trace out  errors if sentences are lengthy. However it becomes possible if proper use of tense, subject, object and verb combinations are checked. So it becomes necessary to verify proper use of tense and  parts of speech in the sentence. 

There are certain important points that need to be considered  while making sentences. For example :

1. 'Have' is a word that is used as a modal verb as well as a main verb. It also joins a helping verb like 'should' to express past tense of 'should'. Following sentence will clear this point.
I have a bag. 
In this sentence 'have' is used as a main verb. It denotes possession. It is therefore a possessive verb in this sentence. 

I have finished my work.
In this sentence 'have' is used as a helping verb. 'Finished' is the main verb in this sentence.
Similar is the case of 'Had'. 'Had' is also used as helping verb as well as a main verb. 
Had can be used as a Helping verb and Main verb both in one sentence.
I had had my breakfast.
It means that I had taken my breakfast. 
'Had' in first place is helping verb and 'had' in second place is main verb being third form of verb 'have'. This sentence is in Past Perfect Tense using 'had' + third form of verb.
Sometime in examination there are sentences with single verb 'had' in error finding questions.
 For example:

If he had had his medicine he would not have fallen ill.


 You should finish your work now.

In this sentence 'should' is a helping verb. This sentence is in present tense as is also evident from the word 'now'. To express past tense of 'should' the helping verb 'have' is used with it.

You should have finished your work by now.
'Should have' in this sentence expresses past tense of should.

'Have ' is used not only as a possessive verb but it is also used as a stative verb. But as a stative verb it is not used in continuous or progressive form.

 So it is incorrect to say He is having a bag. It should be He has a bag.
But 'Having' when used as a noun in the form of a gerund is correct.

Having taken the breakfast, he started for his office.

In this sentence, 'Having' being a gerund is used as a noun. So it is correct use of 'having' here. 

Similarly there are some more verbs which are used as stative verbs and they do not have their continuous or progressive form. These are appear, like, know, see, believe or taste etc. When these words are used as stative verb these are not used in continuous or progressive forms.

It is incorrect to say 'It is appearing that it will rain today'. Here appear is used as a stative verb. It is correct to say 'It appears that it will rain today'. Similarly it is incorrect to say 'He is believing in God'. It should be 'He believes in God'.

2. There are errors relating to conditional sentences.

When two parts are joined together in a sentence there can be future tense in both the parts. But if one part of these is a conditional sentence, the conditional part should be in simple tense and the other part in future indefinite tense. 


For example:

In case of two parts in simple form
He will go by bus and I shall go by train.
These two are simple parts and are joined by 'and' so both can be in  future tense. 

In this case sense and tone of both parts of the sentence is the same. But if one part contains contrary tone 'but' in place of 'and' is used. 
He will go by bus but I shall go on foot.

In case of conditional sentence, one part is dependent on the other. One part containing condition will be in simple present tense and the other part will be in future tense. 
It will be incorrect to say - If he will go by bus, I shall go by train.
It should be - If he goes by bus I shall go by train.

The above conditional sentence can be in past tense also as-
If he went by bus I would go by train.
These both actions relate to past and one action is dependent on the other.

These conditional sentences can be in perfect tense also for example:
If he had gone by bus I would have gone by train.

In this case the conditional part has 'had and third form of verb' and the other part is 'would have and third form of verb'.
Just as there cannot be future tense in both the parts of the sentence, similarly there cannot be 'would have' in both the parts of the sentence. The part containing condition will have 'had and third form of verb' and in other part 'would have and third for of verb'. For example :

If he had come I would have helped him.

Some examples of above cases:

He will work hard and he will succeed.
If he works hard he will succeed.
If he worked hard he would succeed.
If he had worked hard he would have passed.


Here follow some sentences of this type on pattern of questions of competitive examinations duly solved with explanation. 

ERRORS DUE TO USE OF TENSE

EXERCISE NO 1

   1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.

   2. We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.

   3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.

   4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.

 5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.

   6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.

   7. When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.

   8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to     hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.

   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but  she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    


8







1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.


In this sentence ‘does not like’ is in present tense. ‘to seek’ is infinitive and it is correct. ‘Seek ..from’ a phrasal verb is also correct. ’But’ is a conjunction it is a negative conjunction so after this tone or sense of the sentence will change. after ‘his father advised him’ is in past tense. ‘should’ is a modal verb and it has no effect of any tense on it. ‘she invites him’ is in present tense. It should be, according to the tense of ‘advised’, ‘if she invited him’ is correct.

 
2.We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.


In this sentence, ‘had planned’ is correct as this action took place in the past. ‘so that we could’ is also correct as it is an imaginary action supposed to have taken place in the past. ‘he had completed’ is also correct as this action had already taken place in the past. ‘but we reach there’ is in present whereas it should be in the past tense as this action also took place in the past. So ‘we reached there’ is correct in place of ‘we reach there’.


 
3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.


In this sentence ‘had been working …..for the last ten years’ is correct. ‘A couple of months back’ is correct denotes action occurred in the past and was complete in the past. Similarly the action, ‘had left the job’ also occurred in the past and was complete in the past. It did not continue for a span of time in the past. It should be ‘he left the job’.

 
4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.


‘My friend opined ‘ is I past tense, accordingly ‘he would ensure’ is correct. ‘Although his son did not like’ is correct according tense. Similarly ‘preferred to start his ……’ is also in correct form of tense. But ‘his son gets a good job’ is in present tense. It also should be in past tense according to ‘opined’. ‘His son got a good job’ is correct here.

 
5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.


In this sentence ‘is working’ is in present continuous tense and is correct. ‘to get through’ is a phrasal verb and is correct. ‘she hopes’ is also in present tense and is correct.’by this time’ denotes action in future time. ‘will take’ also is in future tense. But it is an imaginary situation which may or may not happen in future. For this instead of future indefinite tense , future perfect tense is used. So ‘she will have taken’ is the correct version.

 
6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.


 
In this sentence, ‘yesterday’ denotes past time and for this ‘I went’ is correct. With this ‘to the market to purchase ‘ is also correct. ‘that I wanted to purchase’ qualifies a particular type of pen. ‘I chose’ and ‘I purchased’ denote action in the past. ‘is leaking since’ denotes that action started in the past and continues up to present. For such an action perfect tense instead of indefinite tense is used. So ‘it has been leaking since’ is correct here.

 
7.When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.


In this sentence, two actions of past have been described. In such a case one part is in past indefinite tense and the other is in past perfect tense. The earlier action is in past perfect tense and the other in past indefinite tense.  ‘we had already done’ is correct but instead of ‘they had arrived’ should be ‘they arrived’.

8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to

      hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.


      In this sentence, 'she' is subject, 'decided' is verb in past tense, 'to    

     host' infinitive, 'an exhibition' is an object. In 'following of art      

   lovers' of is a conjunction, followers and lovers are noun. art is  adjective describing lovers. 'A huge' is an adverb describing an adjective online which in turn describes following a noun a gerund. 'Having' is perfect participle with this a third form of verb is used. In the case of  a perfect participle, an action takes place and another action follows that. But here with perfect participle 'Having' 'amass' is incorrect it should be third form of verb 'amassed'.


   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    In this sentence, the girl is subject, was a verb and 'frightened' is adjective, she is subject, 'saw' is verb 'a snake' is object. In the part, 'she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone' 'She' is subject, 'killed' is verb in past tense but 'gathering' is verb in continuous form, 'and' is a conjunction but with this on both sides of it there should be verb in past tense. 'Gathering' should also be in past tense as 'killed'. It should be '..but she gathered her courage and killed the snake with a stone.' 


   10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    

   In this sentence there are two actions one happening after the other,

    namely 'we went' and 'he arrived'. In such a case the first action is in 

   perfect tense and the second in indefinite tense. So the first action 'he

   arrived' should be in perfect tense and the other'we went' in indefinite

    tense. So instead of 'he arrive' it should be 'he had arrived.'

    

   




 








Monday, 4 January 2021

PARTICIPLES -- PRESENT , PAST AND PERFECT PARTICIPLES - USAGE AND COMPARISON EXPLAINED IN SENTENCES.

 PARTICIPLES - Types, Usage And Comparison

Verbs are of two types -- Finites and Non-Finites , the former change with person, number of Subject and tense used in a sentence whereas the latter don't have any effect of these on them.

For Example:

He often sees him playing in the ground.

I often see him playing in the ground.

We often see him playing in the ground.

I saw him playing in the ground.

In the sentences written above, the verbs sees, see, and saw are changing with the change of  person from he to I or we and tense from present to past tense. But the second verb in these sentences 'playing' remains constant in all these sentences. Verbs like 'Playing' which do not have any effect of any change of person, number or tense on them are called Non-finite verbs.

Non- Finites are also called Double Parts of Speech because these are verbs but act as Noun, Adjective or Adverb. These are also called Verbal-nouns or Verbal-adjectives etc.

 

TYPES OF NON - FINITES

Non-finite verbs or Non - finites are of three types.


1. Gerund - A verb used as a noun is called a Gerund.

2. Infinitive - First form of a verb preceding with 'to' used as a noun is called infinitive.

3. Participle -  is formed by adding 'ing' to first form of verb i.e. doing, carrying etc. 


Participles are of three types.

Present Participle

Past Participle 

Perfect Participle 


PRESENT PARTCIPLE

Present Participle is formed of first form of verb and 'ing' for example : breaking , carrying etc. It denotes continuity of action or  incomplete or unfinished action. It acts as an adjective. It is also called 'Verbal Adjective'.

For example : 

I saw him going in the street.                       ........1

They kept us waiting.                                   ........2 

 The verbs 'going' and 'waiting' in the sentences written above denote continuity of action and unfinished action.

In the first sentence the verb,( go +ing) 'going' is basically a verb but it describes the pronoun 'him' prior to it and as such acts as an adjective. So it is Present Participle. Similarly 'Waiting' in the second sentence is also a verb acting as an adjective describing pronoun 'us'.

Growing children need nutritious food.            ......3

In this sentence 'growing' is a verb and describes noun 'children'. It is a verb acting as an adjective and is called Present Participle.  

In the sentences 1 and 2 Present Participle is in Predicative position whereas in 3 it is in attributive position. 

God willing, you will win.                        .........4

The weather being fine, we went out for a walk.       .........5

In sentences 4 and 5 the verbs 'willing' and 'being' are acting adjectives but these are independent of verb of the sentence. These are not subject, object or complement in these sentences. These are Absolute Present Participle.

Seeing a wolf, the child started crying.

This sentence is formed of two sentences combined together. 

The child saw a wolf. He started crying.

The Present Participle 'Seeing' , a verb but acting as an adjective  is used to combine the two sentences. This is Combining Present Participle. 

 

PAST PARTCIPLE

A verb in its third form acting as an adjective i.e. describing a noun or a pronoun is called Past Participle. For Example :

She is a retired teacher.

In this sentence 'retired' is third form of verb 'retire' and describes the noun teacher following it. It is Past Participle.

Time gone never returns.

In this sentence 'gone' the third form of' 'go' acts as an adjective describing the noun 'time'. It is a Past Participle. A Past Participle represents a completed work in the past.

It is also called verbal adjective because it is averb acting as an adjective.

Examples:

1. If the temperature fluctuates, it will cause frozen foods to lose their moisture faster and they will become drier and tough.

'Frozen' in this sentence is third form of verb 'freeze' but is describing the noun 'foods' and acting as an adjective. It is Past Participle.

2. He preferred to pave a new way for himself instead of treading on a beaten track. 

In this sentence beaten is third form of verb beat and describes the noun track and acts as and adjective. It is a Past participle.

3. The burnt child dreads the fire.

In this sentence 'burnt' third form of verb 'burn' acts as an adjective describing noun 'child'. It is a Past Participle.



PERFECT PARTICIPLE

Perfect Participle is used when after completion of one action another action is undertaken. The second action may be continuing or may have finished. 

For this following methods are used :

1. Having + third form of verb.
2. Being +third form of verb.
3. Having been + third form of verb.

1. The subject after doing one work starts another work.
2 & 3. Subject himself does not do any work but experiences work done by another person.


1. HAVING + THIRD FORM OF VERB
In this case the subject does both the works himself . It is written in active voice.

For example :
1. Having finished your work you can go. 
In this sentence both the actions are to be undertaken by th subject you. So it is in active voice.
It can be written in this way also.
You having finished your work can go.

2. Having taken her dinner, she went to bed.
3. Having finished their homework, the children went to play.
4. He having completed his studies, will go abroad.
5. He having taken his breakfast, went to his office.


2. BEING +THIRD FORM OF VERB

In this type of sentences one action is done by the subject and that is written in active voice. But the other action is done by some other person.

For example:

Being indisposed he did not go to office.

In this sentence the action  that he did not go office is done by the subject himself.  This part of the sentence is in active voice. The other action has not been done by the subject he.

This sentence can be written in this way also.

He, being indisposed, did not go to office.


3. HAVING +BEEN+ THIRD FPRM OF VERB

In this case an action is done by subject himself and that part is in active voice but the other is done by some one else. So that part is in passive voice. For example:

Having been injured, he started crying.

The action 'he started crying' is done by the subject and is in active voice. But he was injured by someone else, so it is in passive voice.

Having been forced by his boss, he left the job.

In this sentence the subject did one work and he left the job. This part of the sentence is in active voice. The other action was taken by the boss, tis part of the sentence is in passive voice.

This type of sentences can  be written in negative also.

Not having been taken into custody, the thief managed to escape.

In this sentence the subject the thief did one work himself but the other work was done by other.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Select the appropriate word out of the given options suitable for the sentence.

1. Hearing/heard the loud noise, the child woke up.
2. Having heard/hearing the news all of them rushed to see him.
3. Being/Having been exhausted, he decided to take rest.
4. Fearing/having feared his arrest, the thief took to his heels.
5. Not having been/ Not being  invited to the party, I did not attend it.
6. Having considered/being considered his suggestion, I decided to purchase this house.
7. Having /Being finished his breakfast, he left for his office.
8. Following/having followed the written instructions, I operated the machine.
9. Having been/Being rewarded for his services, he felt elated.
10. I, having been/being cheated by the shopkeeper, I stopped visiting his shop.
14. The institution proposes to implement a scheme under which the defaulting/ defaulted members will have to pay fine on the defaulted/ defaulting amount for the defaulting/ defaulted period.