Thursday, 21 May 2020



A sentence without a verb is not possible. If a sentence is to be of one word, it  is a verb only that forms a sentence. A verb is an essential part to form a sentence. A verb can be of one word or more than one words. 

For example :

Following sentences are of one word only -
Go. Stop. Look. 

These sentences contain one word and that is a verb. 

In the following sentences  verb is of  two words -

The child is crying. 

In this sentence 'crying' is the main verb and the main verb is supported by a helping verb 'is'. 

Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. 

A Modal verb is  an auxiliary Verb  used to express  mood  or attitude of the main verb.

 Main modal verbs are
Will, shall, should, would,May, Might, Must,Need,Ought to,Used to etc. 

Modal verbs express actions relating to ability, willingness, permission, request and possibility etc. 

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs and these do not function as main verbs. A modal verb takes with it a main verb  in its first form.
Here follow some examples to explain it.

We should help the poor.
You must look after them.
He would play cricket in school days.
She used to sing songs in her college days.

In these sentences should, must, would, used to are modal verbs accompanied by their respective main verbs. 

A Modal Verb always takes first form of verb with it. It never acts itself as  main verb in a sentence.

Here follow some Modal verbs explained.



The modal verb 'should' is used to express some activity of  advice suggestion or duty etc. 

For example :
You should obey his orders.
One should do one's duty.
You should take medicine daily.
He should consult a doctor.

With modal verb 'should', bare first form of verb is used. It is used to express activity of present time. For an activity of past time, the words 'have and third form of verb ' are to used with it.

For example :
He should have finished his work.

In the above sentence with the modal 'Should' first form of verb 'Have' is used. But 'Have' always takes third form of verb with it. 
So the third form 'Finished' is used with it. Here 'Has' or 'Had' cannot be used in place of 'Have'. Even if the subject is third person singular i.e. He or She, 'Has' instead of 'Have' is not to be used. 


The modal 'Ought to' has the same meaning as the modal 'should' has. But its use is a little different from that of 'should'. Unlike 'should' it always takes 'to' with it. 

With this modal also bare first form of verb is used.

'Ought to' is used for the following main purposes.

It is used to express a moral duty.

 For example :
We ought to obey our parents.
People ought to follow rules of the road.

It is used to express a strong necessity. 

For example:
Crops are under a long dry spell, it ought to rain now.
The patient has suffered a lot, he ought to cure now.

The modals 'Should' and 'ought to' are interchangeable with each other.

'Ought to' is also used for action in the present time. To express actions of past time, 'have and third form of verb' are used with it. 

For example :
He ought to have finished his work. 

Modal Verb 'Must' is used to express compulsion, necessity, result or conclusion. 

For example: 

You must leave now. - Compulsion.
They must be ready by now. - Conclusion.
He must consult a doctor. - Necessity. 
Rains must have damaged the crops. - Result

'Must' always takes first form of verb with it.

With 'Must' also to express past action 'have and third form of verb are used. 
For example :
He must have accomplished the job.
They must have prepared a plan to do it.


'Had better' is also a Modal Verb like other modal verbs 'shall,will, should, would, may, might'.   It is used in the same way as other modal verbs are used. It comprises of two words 'Had' and 'better' and these both are to be used together. It has the same meaning as the Modal Verb 'Should' has. This modal verb is used to express moral duty, obligations, advice or suggestion.

The formation of a Modal Verb  cannot be changed. It can't be 'Has or Have better'.  It has its meaning as that of a modal verb only if it is used in that particular form. 

In this case the words 'Had' and 'Better' if used separately have different meanings. 'Had' is the Past Tense and Past Participle of the verb 'Has' or 'Have'. It is used as a helping verb as well as main verb.

For example : 
He had a book. - Main verb
He had gone to the market. - Helping Verb
In this sentence 'gone' is the main verb.

The other part of this Modal Verb 'Better' is comparative degree of adjectives 'Good' and 'Well'. 

When these two words 'Had better' used together as a modal verb has the same meaning as 'Should' has. 'Had' can be changed into 'have' and 'has' but 'had better' cannot be changed into 'Has or Have better'.

Like other modal verbs, 'Had better' is also an auxiliary verb and it   takes bare first form of verb with it. It is used for Present Tense.

For example :
She had better take rest.

'Had better' is a modal verb here and a bare first form of verb 'take' is used with it. It cannot be 'had better taken' considering that had takes third form of verb with it. Although it is correct to say 'She had (or has) taken rest. 

He had better finish his work.
They had better take an expert's advice.
The teacher had better reprimand him.
The lady had better not follow his advice.
She had better go to the doctor.


 Choose the correct option out of the given ones to substitute the underlined part in the following sentences.

1. The president must take this decision in a hurry otherwise he had not suffered such a loss.  

a)  must have taken  b) should have take   c) ought to taken d) No change.

2. The young man had  better stopped drinking to save his deteriorating  health.

a) ought to stopping b) had better stop c) should stopped d) No change.

3. The teacher had better encouraged the students to take their test.

a) must encouraged b) should encouraged c) ought to encourage d) No change.

4. All the members of the committee had better appreciated his action rather than criticising him.

a) must appreciated b) should appreciated c) should have appreciated d) No change.

5. The authorities should taking  all the field workers into confidence before making any amendment in rules. 

a) should take b) ought to taken  c) must taken d) No change.

6. The mother should not worry about her son because he should reaching home before it was dark.

a) ought to reach b) should had reached c) must have reached d) No change.

7.  They all ought to leave  for their destination before it is late. 

a) must left b) ought to leaving c) should have left d) No change.

8. The old lady must avoided interfering in the affairs of the other family as it is creating problems for all of them.

a) should avoid b) must have avoided c) ought to avoided d)No change.

9. The family ought to take this decision much earlier and this had saved all the members from so many problems.  

a) must had taken  b) should take c) ought to have taken d) No change.

10. The authorities should had taken all the necessary precautionary measures for safety from floods before the rainy season set in.

a) must taken  b) had better taken c) ought to taking  d) No change.

Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,

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