Monday, 4 May 2020

CLOZE TEST (7) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS

It is of utmost importance that while attempting the question of Cloze Test the most appropriate word out of the suggested options is selected. It can be possible only if the word is selected in conformity with the text of the paragraph. It is therefore essential to understand the subject matter of the given paragraph. Paragraphs generally are descriptive or analytical in nature. The author gives positive or negative aspects of the selected subject. Sometimes it is of a mixed nature also. So the blank spaces are to be filled in according to the tone of the author in that particular part of the paragraph. For this a complete reading of the paragraph is necessary before attempting the exercise. This gives an idea of the essence of the subject matter of the paragraph and the author's mood in writing it. The best method to select a correct option is to use the method of elimination and selection of words out of the options. The apt word is selected only if the candidate sticks to the context and 'selects and rejects' the given words. The idea runs throughout all the sentences of the  the paragraph. So  all the sentences in the paragraph are interconnected with each other. There is a need to understand the underlying idea contained in the sentences and selection of the words is to be made according to the tone of the paragraph.   If the tone of the sentence is positive, all the negative words in the options can be rejected out rightly. This shortens the field of choice. Still if there are some confusing or similar appearing words it is better to read the succeeding sentences carefully and make the choice. 

Vocabulary helps a lot in this process but equally  necessary is knowledge of grammar rules for making appropriate choice of words. However above all continuous practice makes the job easy and convenient. There are small tips of applying grammar rules that are of great help. 

First of all the structure of the given sentence should be understood i.e. all the parts of speech are in their proper places in the sentence. Further what part of speech is required to be filled in the blank space. Its number, gender, and tense etc should be understood. The tense used in the whole paragraph or a part of the paragraph also gives the idea of the word to be selected. The article or a preposition used with the blank space also gives a hint about the word. The corresponding part of the speech used in the remaining sentence also helps. For example number of a noun or pronoun gives the idea of the verb to be used in blank space. The preposition accompanying the verb in case of a phrasal verb also helps. A  preposition 'to' before the blank space shows that only first form of verb is to follow. So all verbs in other forms or other parts of speech can be rejected.    The presence of a noun or a verb before the blank space also gives a hint of an adjective or an adverb to be filled in the blank space.   


EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE


ONE 

Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.


On a huge banyan tree on the bank of a lake there lived a number of birds in nests built by them on its branches. They lived there happily as the tree saved them from 1......................  heat of the sun and rain. Among them there also lived a beautiful peacock . He often used to dance under this tree when the sky was 2........................... with clouds. All the birds saw him dancing there and enjoyed themselves. In the lake there lived a crocodile with his wife. The crocodile often used to come to the bank of the lake and rested there. The crocodile and the peacock became good friends. Once the crocodile and his wife saw the peacock dancing there. Both of them were 3....................... on  seeing him. The wife of the crocodile was much impressed to see the peacock dancing. She told her husband that his friend was very handsome and she wanted to 4.................................... his flesh. She asked him to invite his friend to dinner at their house. Once his friend came there they would not allow him to go back and will have a good feast of his flesh. Next day the crocodile went to peacock and told him that his dance 5.......................  his wife very much and she wanted to host a dinner party in his honour. The peacock accepted his offer and 6.........................  to accompany him. The peacock 7.................................. himself on the back of the crocodile and both started for the house. On reaching in the middle of the lake the crocodile told the peacock that his wife loved him very much and wanted to consume his heart. The peacock saw the crocodile through his 8.............................  that they would kill him on reaching their house. He hit upon a plan. He told the crocodile that he had left his heart on the branch of the tree because he had not told him about this earlier. He requested him to return to the bank so that he could bring his heart from there. The crocodile 9...........................agreed to his proposal and took him to the bank. On reaching the bank the peacock jumped from his back and climbed up the tree. 10...............................on a branch of the tree, he shouted at the crocodile, "You Cheat ! Go back !I am not going to be taken away by your tricks again".


1.parched, burning, inferno,
scorching,vehement.
2.refilled,overcastengraved, bound, hovered.
3. astonished, honoured, delighted, commended, clamoured.
4.devour, afflict, grasp, douse, hobble. 
5.captivate, 
fascinatedenchant, attempted, flayed.
6.greeted, abide, proposed, joined, consented.
7.alighted, descended,mounted,attached, supported.
8.habit,
trick, tactical, deceive, ployed. 
9.willing, rejoice, readily, fully, playfully. 
10.posed, rested, backed,Perched, raised.




SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION



The paragraph is of descriptive nature. The author describes that there lived birds in their nests on the branches of  a tree on the bank of a lake. There was a peacock among them also. It danced when it was cloudy. There lived a crocodile with his wife in the lake. The crocodiles made a plan to kill the peacock and eat his flesh. But the peacock with the help of his wit saved himself. The author writing in the past tense has given a good description of the whole incident.


1.In the sentence containing first blank space the author describes in past tense about birds living on the tree and their living condition. The tree saves the birds form rain and heat of the sun. ‘The tree’ a noun is Subject, saved is verb and ‘them’, a pronoun is an object. ‘Heat’ is a noun and the word in the blank space describes this noun. Here an adjective suitable with ‘heat’ is required. ‘Vehement’, an adjective, meaning strong or fervent does not fit here. ’Parched’, an adjective, means dry or dehydrated, ‘Inferno’, a noun, means big uncontrolled fire, ‘Burning’ a gerund is also used as a noun,  meaning something under the effect of fire. All these words do not fit here. ‘Scorching’ an adjective means sweltering, raising temperature. This is the correct word.

2. The word in blank space is to describe ‘sky’ having effect of clouds on it. ‘Bound’ means something encircled or surrounded on all sides, ‘engraved’ means written on material like stone or metal, ‘hovered’ means to fly in the sky. ‘Refill’ means to fill something empty. All these words do not fit here according to the context. ‘Overcast’ meaning ‘covered with’ clouds. It is the correct word to be used here.


3. ‘Felt’ is a verb and to describe it an adverb is required in the blank space. ‘Astonish’ means to surprise, ‘honour’ means to show respect, ‘commend’ means to praise, ‘clamour’ means to shout or make noise. Birds on seeing the peacock dancing do not astonish or honour, or commend or clamour. All these words do not fit here. ‘Delight’ meaning to be happy is the most suitable word.


4. After preposition ‘to’ first form of a verb is used. All the words given as options are verbs in first form. ‘Afflict’ means to cause pain, ‘grasp’ means to understand or to hold. ‘Douse’ means to extinguish, ‘hobble’ means to stumble or to stagger, ‘devour’ means to gulp or gobble. All the words except ‘devour’ do not fit here. ‘Devour’ is the correct word.


5.‘His dance’ is subject and ‘his wife’ is object, a verb is required in the blank space to complete this part of the sentence. As the paragraph is written in the past tense, here too verb in past tense is required. ‘Captivate’ and ‘enchant’ mean ‘to attract’ but these both are in present tense. ‘Flayed’ means ‘criticised’, ‘attempted’ means ‘tried’, both these words do not fit here according to the context. ‘fascinated’, verb in past tense means attracted. This words fits here.

6. Here ‘consented’ is a verb in past tense, ‘and’ is a conjunction and after this conjunction a verb in past tense is required in the blank space. The sentence tells that the peacock agreed to his proposal and he further expresses his concurrence. ‘Greet’ means ‘to welcome’, abide, a verb in present tense, means ‘to agree’, ‘proposed’ means ‘to offer’. ‘Joined’ means ‘to unite’ or ‘to merge’. All these words do not fit here according to the context. ‘Consented’ a verb in past tense meaning ‘agreed’ is the appropriate word here.

7. ‘The peacock’ is subject and ‘himself’ is object and a verb is required to complete it. ‘Alighted’ means ‘to descend’, ‘descended’ means ‘to come down’, ‘attached’ means ‘to tie with’. All these words do not fit here. ‘Mounted’ means ‘to ride’ is the appropriate word.

8. The peacock is subject, ‘saw through’ is a phrase meaning to come to know about someone’s act of mischief or deceit, In the blank space some word, a noun, with negative tone is required. ‘Deceive’ is a verb in present tense, ‘Ployed’ is a verb in past tense, ‘tactical’ is an adjective or an adverb. All these words do not fit here. ‘Habit’ and ‘Trick’ are nouns but habit is a positive verb whereas ‘trick’ is a negative word. So ‘trick’ is the correct word here.

9. ‘The crocodile’ is subject, ‘agreed to’ a phrasal verb and ‘his proposal’ is object. In the blank space an adverb describing the verb ‘agreed’ is required. ‘Willing’ is a gerund and noun, rejoice is a verb, ‘fully’ ‘playfully’ and readily are adverbs. ‘Playfully’ does not fit with verb ‘agreed’. Out of ‘fully’ and ‘readily’, ‘readily’ is the most appropriate word here.

10. Sometimes to put stress on a certain part of the sentence this part is moved to the beginning of the sentence. Here the sentence is ‘ He, ……. on a branch of the tree, shouted at the crocodile…’ The word to be used in blank space describes the subject, pronoun, ‘he’. A verb in third form i.e. the past participle also works as an adjective. All the options are the past participles of verbs. ‘Raised’ means ‘elevated.’ and posed and backed mean positioned. All these words do not fit here. ‘Rested’ means ‘reposed’ or ‘relaxed’ This word also does not fit here. ‘Perched’ meaning ‘having settled’ or ‘sat’ is the correct word here. This word is used for birds to sit on branch of a tree.




TWO 



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.






Books are a great source of 1...................... for a man who
is in the habit of reading books. These  not only provide him knowledge but also act as a 2......................... of recreation. These provide him life-long company. A man never feels lonely, 3...................... or anguished in the company of books. He 4..............................feels 5......................... in their company. He enjoys his leisure time in reading. He derives a unique type of pleasure from reading them. Blessed is the man who 6.............................the habit of reading books at a young age because he thus accumulates a huge 7........................of knowledge with him when he grows up. This treasure never diminishes but goes on 8................................ as he grows further in years. Reading books 9.......................... a man’s knowledge and awareness. By 10.....................he experiences immense inner joy and happiness.



1. a) enjoy, b) appreciation, c) disillusion, d) relaxation,
e) Inspiration.
2. a) reason, b) cause, c) ground, d) source, e) root.
3. a) forsake, b) afraid, c) desolate, d) bleak, e) mild.
4. a)ever, b) always, c) occasionally, d) rarely, e) never.
5. a) occupied, b) relief, c) liberty, d) safe, e) protected .
6. a)enjoy, b) cherishes, c) favours, d) inculcates, e) dares.
7. a) source, b) treasure, c) assembly, d) hoard, e) casket.
8. a) increasing, b) lifting, c) addition, d)ascending, e) arising.
9. a) engross, b) engages, c) enhances, d) entails, e) ensues.
10. a) reciting, b)listening, c)looking, d) reading, e)speaking.







SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION


In this paragraph, the author gives uses of reading books to readers. Books enhance knowledge of the reader. These are also a source of recreation for him. These inspire the reader to do good activities. A reader always remains busy in reading books. He enjoys reading books. He gains experience of life as he gathers knowledge from books. He spends his life with pleasure and happiness due to the knowledge gathered by him from books. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note. 

1. In this sentence, 'a source' is a noun followed by a conjunction 'of  '. This shows that a noun is required in the blank space. Out of the given options, 'enjoy' is a verb. The remaining words are nouns. 'Appreciation' means to praise. It also means an increase. Both these meanings do not fit in this context. 'Relaxation' means freedom from some activity, this word also does not fit here because by reading books one does not get freedom from activity. 'Disillusion' is a negative word. 'Inspiration' is the appropriate word. Reading books inspires a man. 



2. This blank space precedes by an article 'a' and a preposition 'of' follows it. It means that a noun is required in this space. 'Reason' ,'cause' and 'root' mean that books give rise to recreation. This is not in the right sense of the context. Rather it gives out a sense that 'recreation' comes out of the activity of reading books. So 'source' is the right word here.



3. This sentence is in a positive note as a negative word 'never' is followed by negative words like 'lonely, and anguished'. With these negative words a negative word is required in the blank space. These all words describe the noun 'a man'. 'Forsake' 'afraid' and 'mild' are not appropriate words here. 'Bleak' means dark or gloomy. 'Desolate' means deserted or without any shelter etc. This is the correct word here.  

4. In this blank space a word describing the activity of 'feeling' of 'he' is required. 'Occasionally', 'rarely' and 'never' are negative words. These do not fit here. Out of 'ever' and 'always' is the appropriate word. It means all the time and on all instances. This shows continuity of an activity. 

5. In this space a word describing 'he' is required. 'Relief' and 'liberty' do not give any sense here. 'Liberty' means freedom and 'relief' means to reduce intensity of something unpleasant or miserable. With reference to the context of books, these do not provide protection or safety to their readers. 'Occupied' means being busy suits here with the context. Books keep the reader busy.  



6. In this sentence, 'the man' is singular subject, so in the blank space a singular verb is required. 'Enjoy' is a plural verb.  'Cherish' means to show fondness, 'favours' means to show kindness, 'dare' means to challenge to do something dangerous. All these words do not fit well with the object 'the habit'. 'Inculcates' means to develop is the appropriate words 'The man who develops the habit' is blessed one.


7. In this sentence 'he' is subject, 'accumulates' is verb and 'knowledge' is object. In the blank space a noun is required.
 'Hoard' and 'casket' are negative words. 'Source' means something from where a thing starts. 'Assembly' means a group of persons,  
 All these words do not fit here. 'Treasure' meaning a valued possession, is the right word here. Besides, this word is used by the author in the next line also.



8. In this sentence 'this treasure' is subject and 'diminishes' is verb. It is followed by 'but' which denotes that a verb in opposite meaning to the verb 'diminishes' is required in the blank space. According to this, the appropriate word is 'increasing'. 



9. 'Reading' is subject and 'knowledge and awareness' is object. A verb is required in the blank space to complete the sentence. As the subject is singular, a singular verb is required. 'Engross' is a plural verb. 'Engross' means to make busy or to absorb, 'entails' means to follow as a consequence, 'ensue' means to happen after  as a result,'engage' means to involve or catch attention. All these words do not fit here. 'Enhance' meaning to increase is the correct word to be used here. 


10. In this sentence the author continues to tell about benefits of reading of books. So in the blank space a word relating to books is required. 'Recite' means to speak from memory, 'listening' means to hear carefully, 'look' means to see, and the last word is speaking. All these words do not fit with books. 'Reading' books is the correct word in the blank space.


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