Sunday, 3 May 2020

CLOZE TEST (6) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS

A thorough reading of the paragraph and understanding its contents  is very essential before attempting the question "Cloze Test". This gives an opportunity to peep into author's mind. It makes clear what the author wants to convey in the paragraph. The whole paragraph is interwoven around that particular idea. All the sentences of the paragraph are interconnected with each other. They are closely related to the main idea. So the given blank spaces are also required to be filled in according to the idea contained in the paragraph. The tone of the author prevalent in the paragraph also helps in selecting words out of the given options. In the options there are words of both positive and negative moods. By reading the paragraph it becomes convenient to select appropriate words for the given blanks. A strong vocabulary undoubtedly helps but good knowledge of grammar also is very necessary for this exercise. There are certain small tips about use of grammar that make the job more convenient. To quote here are a few tips that can be useful.

Generally a Sentence has a Subject, Verb and an Object. But sometimes Object is missing in a sentence. A Noun or a Pronoun is used as a Subject or an Object. A noun, Pronoun and a verb have their numbers i.e. they are used in singular and plural forms. Sentences have their active and passive forms. A form of the verb used in a sentence gives the idea whether that sentence is in active or passive form. In a sentence having more than one parts, these parts joined together are necessarily to be  in the same voice. There are certain words that tell about change of the mood of the author in a particular part of the sentence. 'Although', 'But' and 'otherwise' etc are words which determine the change of the mood, positive to negative or negative to positive, of the sentence. Further use of an article before a blank indicates that a noun is to used in the blank. A verb following such a blank gives an idea of the number i.e. in singular or plural form of a noun to be filled in the blank space. Nevertheless, it is practice that makes the attempt of this exercise convenient and easy.      


EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE



ONE 

Directions: (1 - 12 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.





Education not only makes a man wise and intelligent but also 1......................him to find out a suitable source of his livelihood. It is an important medium of acquiring 2.............................. knowledge and skills. It brings about a change in a man’s life by 3............................... his vision.It also creates 4.............................. in him. It sharpens his wits and grooms his acumen. It helps a man to lead a 5........................................ life with 6...................................... earning opportunities. It is an old saying that “the more a man learns, the more he knows how ignorant he was.” These days education 7................................... researchers and scholars only. It does not produce better human beings who are kind and generous with their fellow beings. It teaches a man only how to 8.................................. with other man and not how to 9.................................... his feelings with others. Most of the people take education as a 10.............................. of earning their livelihood only. They 11................................. education so that they may get better chances of their earnings and thus amass a lot of wealth and power. In this process they spend a 12....................................... part of their life to gain quantitative instead of qualitative education only.


1.prompted, enables, made, creates, persuades.
2. overt, adequately, virtual, durable.essential.
3. adding, enhance, expanding, elevate, running.
4.  significance, conscious, prominence, awareness, attention.
5. disciplined, maligned, tainted, foster, blessed.
6. improve,enhanced, balance, ameliorate, engrossed.
7. sifts, garners, selects, produces,developing
8. stay, halt, deal,flow,feeling
9. share,carry, parting, manage, control.
10. agency, instrument, means, source, cause.
11. reach, acquire,  effort, secure, provide.
12.  enlarged, growing, lasting, trivial, significant.




SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION



The author describes in this paragraph how education benefits a man. It enhances his intellect and makes him wiser. It also helps him providing wider range of opportunities for his livelihood. The paragraph starts with a positive note that education develops personality traits of a man. He not only leads a better life but also earns  better livelihood for himself. But the author points out that these days  effects of education are disappointing as it produces academicians and researchers but not good human beings. There is a great need of education that inculcates humane traits among human beings. Education should  be acquired not with a motive of earning money, wealth or power only but it should produce good qualities among people.  People should be taught to be compassionate towards fellow beings. The paragraph ends with a positive note that education should inculcate good qualities among human beings.    



1. In this sentence 'Education' a noun and is a subject, 'makes' a verb and 'a man', a noun, and is an object. Further in second part of the sentence 'Education' is subject, 'him' a pronoun is object. To complete this part of the sentence a verb is required in the blank space. As 'makes' is singular verb in present tense, here too a verb in singular in present tense is required. Out of the given options 'made' and 'prompted' are verbs in past tense. 'Persuades', creates and 'enables' are verbs in singular and in present tense. Persuades means to encourage or induce to do something, 'creates' means to generate or to produce. These two words do not fit here.   Education does not persuade or induce and create or generate to find out anything. It makes a man capable.  'Enables' means to make  someone capable. This  is the correct word here.



2. In this sentence 'knowledge' 'skills' are nouns. To describe them an adjective should precede these words. 'adequately' is an adverb. 'Overt' and 'virtual' are negative words but here a positive word is required. 'Durable' is an adjective but it is sued with usable goods.'Essential' meaning necessary is the appropriate word here.



3. The sentence implies that there should be action in respect of ' his vision' so ' that 'change in life' happens.        Here a word doing action with 'vision for a change in life' is required. 'Life' is a noun followed by conjunction 'by'. So in blank also a noun is required because on both the sides of a conjunction same part of speech is required. 'Enhance' and 'elevate' are verbs. 'Running' and 'adding' are present participles used as adjectives. But 'by adding or running vision' does not fit well here.'Expanding' means to enhance or increase is the correct word. 


4. In this sentence 'It' a pronoun is a subject, 'creates' a verb and in blank space a noun as object is required. 'Conscious' is an adjective. The remains options are nouns. 'Significance' means importance, 'prominence' means fame, 'attention' means care. all these words do not it here according to the context. 'Awareness' means cognizance or awakening fits here.  


5. Life is a noun and in blank space an adjective is required to describe it. A past participle is also used as an adjective. 'Foster' is a verb. It is also used as an adjective as in 'foster child'. But life cannot be foster. 'Blessed' means something holy or sacred. 'Maligned' and ;tainted are negative words. These all do not fit here. 'Disciplined' meaning controlled or orderly is the correct word here.

6. 'Opportunities' is a noun and to describe it an adjective is required, 'Improve' 'ameliorate' 'balance' are verbs. 'Engrossed' means awfully  busy. These all do not fit here. 'Enhanced' means added or increased is the correct word.


7. 'Education' a noun, is Subject, 'researchers' a noun is an object.In blank space a verb is required. 'Developing' a present participle does not fit here. 'Education' a singular noun requires a singular verb in present tense. All the remaining for words are verbs in singular and in present tense. But education does not sift (meaning to separate) or garner ( meaning to reap or harvest). It also does not select. So 'produces' is the correct word here. 




8. A preposition precedes the blank space. It indicates possibility of a verb here. With 'to' first form of verb is required. 'Feeling' is present participle. 'Halt' and 'stay' mean to stop. These are negative words and do not fit here. 'Flow' means movement of a fluid. This also does not fit here' 'Deal' is the appropriate word here.Besides this there is a preposition 'with' after the blank which fits with this verb. 'To deal with' is the correct phrase used here.



9. In this blank space also a verb is required. With this verb also there is a preposition 'with'. 'Parting' is a present participle.To 'carry'  'control' or 'manage' with others does not fit well hare. 'Share with' is the correct word. 

10. In this sentence 'earning' is a participle and a noun here, 'of' a conjunction and another noun is required in the blank space. 'agency' means some activity to support, instrument means some device or implement, source means some basis from where a thing originated, 'cause' means to be reason of something. All these words do not fit here according to the context. 'Means' is the correct word.

11. 'They' a pronoun is Subject here and 'education' a noun is Object. To complete the sentence a verb is required. 'Effort' is a noun. 'Reach' is a verb but it meaning to arrive does not fit here. 'secure' means to obtain also does not suit here. 'Provide' means to give to someone else. It also does not fit here. 'Acquire' is the correct word.


12. 'Part' is a noun and to describe it an adjective is required. 'Lasting' shows durability of a thing. 'Trivial' means petty is a negative word.'Enlarged' means protruded or extended. 'Growing' means developing. All these words do not fit here according to the context. 'Significant' meaning substantial is the correct word to used here.




TWO 


Directions  (131 - 140 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



He was a charismatic leader, an entrepreneur and a highly effective manager all rolled into one. As a leader, he(131 )................ the company's growth plan in a dedicated manner and he never (132).............. focus. The cement industry in those days was doing badly (133)........... to everyone's expectations he sanctioned an additional plant in (134) ............ time. He was (135)............ that since the cement industry was cyclic in nature, by the time the plant was (136)................. the market would have improved. It happened and the decision brought rich (137)............. when the plant was commissioned. Not only was he a great entrepreneur but he also (138).............. all his senior people to be 'practising entrepreneurs'. I have seen a similar example at the Asian Institute of Management, which allows its professors to (139)............ their own business. This made their lectures more practical and less theoretical. It is the (140)................ of the institute's success.

                                                                  (Adapted Previous Question Paper)


131. (a) achieved (b) implemented  (c) visualised  (d)persevered  (e) aimed
132. (a)moved  (b) shifts (c) missed (d) charges  (e) lost
133. (a) contrary (b) opposite (c) yet (d) obedient (e) different
134. (a) any (b) mean  (c) short (d) no (e) less
135. (a)known  (b) calculating (c) certain (d) dreamt (e) surely
136. (a) operational (b) install (c) use (d) produced (e) new
137. (a) supply (b) diversity (c) rewards  (d) pay  (e) knowledge
138. (a) thought  (b) tried  (c) wished (d)  encourage (e) wanted
139. (a) expand (b) function (c) choose  (d) run (e) risk
140. (a) responsibility (b) secret  (c) guarantee (d) prize  (e) value






SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION





The author starts writing the paragraph with a positive note. He is describing good qualities of a person. He tells about various aspects of his personality. He tells that he has qualities of a good leader a good entrepreneur and above all these he possesses a good decision making capability. He visualized position of the industry during the years to come and made his plans  according to that. That decision helped him a lot and he was benefited due to this. By doing so he was recognised as a great entrepreneur. 

131. A careful reading of the paragraph is always of a great help in finding out the solution. The first sentence is in past tense This indicates possibility of the sentences following it to be in past tense. This sentence tells about the quality of good leadership of the person. 'He' a pronoun is Subject and 'the company's growth' a noun is object in this sentence. To complete it a verb in past tense is required. The words 'in a dedicated manner' show that some action has been taken by the person concerned. So according to this view the word is to be selected out of the given options. The verbs 'visualised', 'aimed', 'achieved' and 'persevered' are static verbs and not action verbs. 'Implemented' therefore is the correct option here.     

132. 'He' a pronoun is subject, 'focus'  a noun is object and to complete the sentence a verb is required. Before blank space 'never' is a negative word. So to make the verb positive by combining two negative words, a negative verb in past tense  is required in the blank space.'Shifts' and 'charges' are not verbs in past tense. 'Moved' 'the focus' does not give any sense. 'Lost' is a negative verb in past tense. It means something gone that cannot be gained or found. 'Never lost focus' also does not fit well here. 'Missed' means failed to catch is the correct word here.  

133. In this blank an adjective describing the noun 'everyone's expectations' is required. But 'to' before the blank must fit well with this word. The word 'Different' takes preposition 'from' with it. 'yet' or'obedient' to expectations do not give any sense. Out of the remaining 'Opposite' and 'Contrary' opposite is used more in physical sense like on the opposite side of the road or building. But 'contrary' means opposing in nature, character or purpose. So 'contrary' is the correct word. Preposition 'to' also fits well with it. 'Contrary to'.

134. 'Time' is a noun here and an adjective to describe it is required in the blank space. In 'any' time or in 'mean' time do not fit according to the context. 'Less' a comparative word also does not fit here.'Short' is mostly used for length. But when used for time it tells about small span of time to come. Here 'no' meaning 'immediately' or without 'delay or loss of any time' is the correct word.


135. 'Was' is a helping verb. With this one main verb is required. With 'was or were' there is possibility of third form of a verb  or a present participle. 'Certain' is used as adjective or an adverb. 'surely' is an adverb. 'He was dreamt' does not fit well. 'He was known' should be followed by preposition 'as' or 'by' and the word 'that' does not fit well with it. 'Calculating' a present participle meaning that he was assessing is the correct word. 


136.'The plant' is a noun and in the blank a word to describe it is required. With 'was' 'install' and 'use' do not fit. 'The plant was produced or was new'  also do not fit because the plant would have already existed by then. It is an imaginary situation of the time to come. 'Operational' is the correct word. 'by the time the plant was operational.....'. The words ' the plant was commissioned...' in the next sentence also give a hint about this word to be inserted here.

137.'The decision' a noun is subject, 'brought' is a verb, 'rich' is an adjective. A noun as object is required in this part of sentence. 'Supply'  is used as verb as well as a noun. With 'supply' a noun, preposition 'of ' is required which is missing here. Similarly 'knowledge' and 'diversity' also do not give any sense here. 'Pay' is a verb. 'Brought rich ' 'rewards' is the correct answer.  


138. In a sentence with 'Not only.... but also' both parts of the sentence are to be in the same form. As first part is in past tense, the other part also will be in the same tense. Here a verb in past tense is required. 'Encourage' is not in past tense. 'Thought', 'Wished' and 'tried' do not fit well according to the meaning of the sentence. 'Wanted' is the correct word here. He also wanted all his senior people to be.....

139. The sentence next to this one says more 'practical and less theoretical' shows that some action has taken place. The blank is preceded by preposition 'to'. It shows that first form of verb is required in the blank space. 'Risk'a negative word does not fit here. 'Expand' and 'function' also do not give any sense. Out of 'Choose' and 'run' , 'run' is the appropriate word. 'Practical' will be only when some action is done so out of two 'run' shows practical aspect.



140. In this blank space a noun is required which should fit well with the portion 'of the institute's success' . The words 'value' 'prize' 'responsibility' and 'guarantee' do not fit well with these words. Only the word 'secret' with this part of the sentence gives any meaning. It is the secret of the success of the institute's success.  

Although there is no foolproof formula for selecting appropriate words yet there are certain  small tips which help in selecting these words. Practice makes the attempt easy and certain of doing it accurately. 




THREE 


Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.


Faith is the 1…………………. on which structure of true friendship 2………………………. . It is the bond that 3…………………. two individuals together. It is a 
feeling in the minds of the two individuals sharing the 
pious bond that 4……………………..  them to be true
 to each other. It 5………………………..  the individuals 
to be 6…………………………  in their actions 7............... 
each other. One cannot 8…………… one’s feelings from 
those of the other nor can one suppress those feelings. These feelings are to be shared in such a way that these do not 9……………………  those of the other partner sharing
 friendship. True friend ship is a balm of life. It is a time tested phenomenon and does not 10………………. with time and distance.



1. support, relation, reality, foundation, edifice.
2. moves, grow, rests, lying, hinge.
3. holds, takes, move, growing, position.
4. need, feeling, compels, resists,urges.
5. reminds, prompts, drags, beckons, encouraging.
6. translucent, responsive, transparent, favour, above.
7. beyond, towardsbehind, pointing, covering.
8. attach, show, growth, separate,deprive.
9.develop, decry,  hinderprevention, chase.
10. fervent, impede, descend, fade awayexpel.





SOLUTION WITH EXPLANATION





The paragraph is in present tense as it tells about some universal reality. It tells about traits of true friendship. It tells how friendship grows between two individuals and how it has effect on their lives. True friends share their feelings between themselves. They act in the interest of each other and develop true feelings in their minds for each other.

1.The author says that true friendship is based on certain values. The word ‘the’ indicates that in the blank space there will be a noun. All the given options are nouns. The words ‘reality and relation’ do not it here because friendship cannot be realty or relation. ‘Edifice’ means a building. Friendship cannot form its base on a building. Similarly it cannot form its base on ‘support’. Friendship has its foundation on faith. ‘Faith’ is appropriate word.



2. Structure is a noun and Subject and in the blank space a verb is required to complete the sentence. As structure is singular, a singular verb is required. ‘Grow’ and ‘hinge’ are singular verbs, ‘lying’ is a present participle. Friendship does not ‘move’ but it ‘rests’ on faith.



3. ‘The bond’ is subject in singular form and ‘two individuals’ is object. As the subject is in singular a verb in singular is required to complete this part of sentence. ‘Move’ and ‘position’ are verbs I plural. ‘Growing’ is a present participle. These do not fit here. ‘the bond’ does not ‘take’ but ‘holds’ together. ‘Holds’ is the correct word.


4. In this sentence, ‘a feeling’ is subject, ‘them’ is object and in the blank space a verb is required. Here a singular verb is required as ‘a feeling’ is a singular noun. ‘Need’ is a plural noun. ‘Feeling’ is a present participle. As the tone of the author in the paragraph is positive, a positive word is required in the blank space. ‘compels’ and ‘resists’ are negative words. ‘A feeling urges them’. ‘Urges’ is the correct word here.



5. ‘It’ a pronoun is a subject. ‘The individuals’ is a subject. Here a singular verb in positive tone is required. ‘Encouraging’ is a present participle. ‘Drags’ is anegative word. These do not fit here. ‘Reminds’ meaning to recap and ‘beckons’ meaning to call also do not fit here.’Prompt ’ is the correct word. ‘It promps the individuals.’


6. In this sentence ‘the individuals to be ….. in their actions’, something describing individuals is required. Here a word in positive tone is required. ‘Translucent’ means something giving out light or gleaming, ‘responsive’ means someone reacting or alert etc., ‘favour’ means action of kindness or goodwill etc., and above means something overhead. All these words do not fit as the word ‘transparent’ fits here. ‘to be transparent in their actions means ‘to be clear’ in their actions.




7. In the sentence ‘the individuals to be transparent in their actions ..............each other’ after actions some preposition is required. Out of the given words, ‘covering’ means wrapped, ‘pointing’ means indicating, ‘behind’ means on the rear side, ‘beyond’ means at a distance or farther from. ‘Actions’ with the words ‘covering, or pointing, or behind, or beyond each other’ does not fit well. ‘Towards’, however , is the correct word. Actions towards each other.


8. In this sentence ‘one’ is subject, ‘one’s feelings’ is object and ‘cannot’ is helping verb, main verb coinciding with helping verb ‘cannot’ is required. This word should be according to the latter part of the sentence i.e. ‘nor can one suppress’ This word also should be negative as ‘suppress’. ‘Growth’ is a noun. ‘Show’ ‘attach’ are not negative words. ‘Deprive’ is a negative word. ‘Deprive’ means lacking or to be ‘devoid of ’ but one cannot deprive one’s feelings. ‘One cannot attach one’s feelings’ also does not fit in this context. ‘Separate’ is the appropriate word.



9. In this sentence ‘these’ is subject, ‘those’ object and do not is helping verb and with it main verb is required. ‘These’ denote feelings of one person and ‘those’ denote feelings of the other person. ‘Prevention’ is a noun. ‘Decry’ means ‘to criticize’, ‘Chase’ means ‘to follow’. Feelings do not develop, feelings do not decry, feelings do not chase, So these words do not fit here. ‘Hinder’ means ‘to obstruct’. Feelings of one person should not ‘hinder’ feelings of the other person.

10. In this sentence ‘it’ denotes ‘friendship’ . In this blank space a verb with helping verb ‘does not’ is required. ‘Fervent’ meaning ardent is an adjective. ‘Impede’ means to obstruct, ‘descend’ means to come down, ‘expel’ means to extricate. All these words do not fit here. ‘Fade away’ meaning to become weaker is the most appropriate word here.









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