Saturday, 18 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (1) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS




In various examinations there are questions relating to paragraphs containing blanks to be filled with words out of given multiple options. Choice is to be made of the most appropriate and befitting word to be used in the blank. For this it is required to have knowledge of word meaning and grammar rules. In options there are generally words which are confusing in their meanings or spellings etc. Many a time there are words having very close meanings or similar spellings. Appropriate selection can be made only if one has command over word power or grammar rules. 


It is always advisable to make use of elimination,deletion or rejection method of words given as options while choosing the right word.

First and the foremost requirement in these questions is to read the whole paragraph carefully without taking blanks into consideration. This helps in understanding the idea contained in the paragraph and the mood of the author i.e. whether the author wants to convey a positive or negative view on the topic in the paragraph. This is of a great  help in selecting the words. Generally there is a single trend either positive or negative tone of the author but many times there are two as well. First the paragraph starts with one mood and thereafter it shifts to the other.

There are a number of ways that can be tried while choosing the word.

 - Suppose there is an article 'a, an or the' before the blank this gives a clue that the there will be a noun required in the blank. If there is 'a or an' it shows that the  required noun  will be in singular form. Further if it is 'an' the word will start with a vowel i.e. aeiou.

- After blank space if there is a conjunction followed by a noun, it is certain the word will be a noun or if that is a pronoun it will be a pronoun. It is because words preceding and following a conjunction is always in the same part of speech. For example the format will be, Noun -conjunction- Noun. 

- If 'to' precedes a blank and a verb is required in blank it will be in first form of verb only because after 'to' always first form of verb is used.  

- if the blank is followed by a preposition it indicates that it is a part of a phrasal verb and in the blank space a verb is required. For example '.......... to' . It can be 'accede to' or 'lead to' etc.

- a preposition after a blank also helps in rejecting all the verbs in the options which do not have that preposition with them.

- the form of verb following the blank whether it is in singular or plural form also gives a hint about number of the noun or pronoun or vice versa to be used in the blank.

- Words like 'but', 'not only .... but also', 'otherwise' etc clearly tell about change of approach of the author whether he is positive or negative in giving the description in the following portion. Accordingly negative or positive word is selected.

- If a noun or pronoun follows a blank, there is a possibility of adjective to be used in the blank. If blank follows a verb there is likely the blank to be filled with an adverb.  

- the tense of a verb used in the following sentences gives an idea of the tense of verb to be used in the blank.

- if meanings of two options are very similar to each other it is better to read the sentences following the blank more carefully with a view to understand the meaning and approach of the author in the sentences. Select the word according to the meaning and approach used in those sentences. 




EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE 


ONE 


Following is the extract from question Paper of IBPS clerks held on December 6, 2015.

Directions  (26 - 30 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.







Once upon a time, there lived a poor orphan who was an exceptional artist and would often draw pictures of rivers,mountains and people. One day, a fairy gifted him golden paint brush and to his great .........26.........whatever he painted with the brush came to life. His fame  spread and he was brought to the king's .........27..........The king and his ministers took the boy into the fields. ' .........28.........an ocean here! 'ordered the king. The boy protested that it wasn't right and the fields and houses would be .........29........ But the king ordered him to paint the ocean and a  storm. the boy painted ............30.......... and the storm was so violent that the boat in which the king and his ministers were overturned, killing them.

26. 1.doubt 2. surprise 3. miracle 4. sorrow 5. problem.
27. 1. favour 2. dilemma 3. court 4. justice 5. riches
28.  1.Sail 2. origin 3. cry 4. create 5. find.
29. 1. damage 2. hurt 3. form 4. destroyed 5. wiped.
30. 1. slowly 2. similar 3. equally 4. skillful 5. accordingly.







SOLUTION

Before reading options go through the whole paragraph and try to understand the meaning and mood of the author in the paragraph. On reading it is observed that the paragraph is of a narrative nature. The author tells in a positive way about an orphan boy painting different pictures. He comes in contact with a fairy and then with a king. The fairy gives him a pen that paints pictures with life. The king gives orders to him to which the boy shows his protest.Then there is a mention of storm in the ocean which kills the king and his men.

Now try blanks and make selection of words from options.
    
26. in this sentence there is mention of some quality of brush. The tone of the author is positive so some positive word is required. It tells further in the sentence about life which was not in the sentence prior to this sentence.The blank space is preceded by an adjective 'great' which shows that there will be a noun in this space. Now move to the given options, these are problem,sorrow,doubt,surprise, miracle. Out of these doubt,problem and sorrow are of negative nature. These cannot be one for the choice. The remaining two words 'miracle' and 'surprise' are of positive nature.'Miracle' means something new or different from normal which is not usual. The sentence does not give any  sense i.e. 'to his miracle' does not fit here. It will be 'to his great surprise'.   

27. In this sentence words 'his fame spread' gives a positive impression so a positive word will be used. 'King's' is a possessive word so next to it will be a noun. It will be relating to king. Out of the options 'dilemma' being a negative word is out rightly ruled out. 'brought to justice or favour' also does not give any sense because the next sentence tells that the king and his ministers took him to fields.There is nothing described about riches or any such result out of king's riches in the following lines. Out of the remaining 'riches and court' 'court' is the appropriate word because court is a place where the king and his ministers hold meetings. 

28. This sentence is in direct form of speech. It shows that the king is giving orders to the boy. The reported speech indicates that there should be a verb in first form in accordance to tone of 'ordered the king.' To understand it in better way one needs to read the next portion of the sentence. The sentence 'But the king ordered him to paint the ocean.......' It indicates these are repeated orders of the king so a word similar in meaning to this is required here. Out of the options 'origin' is a noun so it does not fit here. Out of the remaining 'sail' and 'cry' do not give any sense in the sentence. 'Find' means 'to search'.  Out of the remaining two'find 'and 'create'  'create' has more proximity to the word 'paint'. 'Create' is the correct option.


29. The words ' the boy protested that it wasn't right' show that here the tone of the paragraph has changed here. So some negative word will be required in this blank. The helping verb 'would be'  shows that a main verb is required next to the helping verb. After 'would be' there is always third form of verb. Out of the given options 'damage' and 'form' are first form of these verbs. The remaining three are third form of these verbs. But 'hurt' does not give any sense here. Out of the remaining 'wiped' and 'destroyed' wiped the houses and fields is not so well fitting as 'destroyed' is. So correct word is 'destroyed' '


30. In the sentence prior to the blank there is mention of 'ocean and storm' and the same 'storm' is mentioned again in the sentence following the blank. This shows that the word required in the blank will be relating to these words. further a verb 'painted' prior to the blank is a verb. There is a need of an adverb in the blank to describe verb 'paint'. But words 'similar' and skillful' in the options are adjectives. 'slowly' and 'equally' do not give any sense in this sentence. Only the option 'accordingly' is the most befitting word here.











TWO 




Directions  (1 - 7 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



Operation Flood was  (1) ..................... with the primary 

objective of  (2) .................. rural milk producers with 

urban milk consumers, by (3) ............. viable producer 

cooperatives  in milk sheds and thus (4) ..................

rural milk producers to earn higher income from milk. 

The programme (5) .............. some 72 lakh members in 

nearly 61000 village societies (6) ..............over diverse 

ecologies in 174 milk sheds. The cooperatives procure 

an average of 90 lakh milk a day to (7)  ..................

with the ever growing urban demand for fresh milk from

 the country.   



OPTIONS 


1. A)  Abound B) Launched C) Created  D) Floated

2. A)Hinder   B) Linking  C) Identifying  D) Grow

3.A) Pulsating  B) Generating  C) Provision  D) Creating 

4.A) Enabling   B) Halting  C) Justification  D) Activating 

5.A) Covers  B) Rotates  C) Follows  D) Motivates 

6.A) Spread B) Distributed  C) Assembled  D) Situated 

7.A) Satisfy  B) Control  C) Meet  D) Attend






SOLUTION

EXPLANATION :


First of all read the paragraph carefully and try to find out the message the author wants to convey through this paragraph. These lines describe about collection of  milk from rural milk producers and  supplying the same among urban consumers. For this purpose a programme called 'operation flood' has been initiated. Further benefits of this initiative to both rural and urban people have been explained. 


1. This sentence shows that it is in passive voice. The object 'operation flood' an object is used in the beginning of the sentence. 'Was' is a helping verb with this a main verb is required. In passive voice with 'was' a third form of verb will be used. Out of the given options 'abound' meaning filled with does not give any sense. 'Created' means to make out of some solid or abstract material. This also does not fit here. Float also gives a negative meaning and does not suit here. Generally for starting a programme we use 'launch'. It is the right word.

2. In these lines the tone of the author is positive. 'Objective' is a noun and it is followed by conjunction 'of'. A conjunction always takes the similar word after it as is before it. So here in the blank also there will be a noun. 'Hinder' and 'grow' are verbs. 'Linking'  and 'identifying' are participles and are used as nouns also. 'Identifying' meaning recognising does not give any sense here.'Linking' is the correct word. 
3. 'Consumers' is a noun and 'by' a conjunction and it will be followed by a noun. 'Pulsating' (meaning to energise)and 'Provision' ( noun of verb to provide) have no sense in this context. 'Generate' means to produce as electricity is generated. 'Create' is the correct word here.
4. Halting is a negative word so it is not correct. Justification also does not give any sense. 'Activating' means to enliven which does not give any sense here. 'Enabling' is the correct word.
5. In this sentence 'the programme' is Subject and  '.....members' is Object.Between these two a verb is required to complete the sentence. 'The programme' is singular, a singular verb is required. All options are singular verbs. So selection of the word is to be made according to its meaning. 'Rotates' and 'follows'  have meanings different to the context. 'Motivates' is always  followed by preposition 'to' which is missing in the sentence. 'Covers' is the correct option.
6. The preposition 'over' gives indication of a phrasal verb to be used in the blank i.e. a verb having preposition 'over' with it.Situated is a verb meaning positioned it has preposition 'at' with it and not 'over'. Similarly 'assembled' meaning gathered also has preposition 'at' with it. 'Distributed' meaning divided has 'among' and 'between' as prepositions with it. 'Spread' meaning 'stretched or extended across' is the word that  has 'over' as preposition with it. It is the correct word.
7.Here the word 'to' indicates that a phrasal verb s to be inserted here and the the verb should have 'with' as preposition with it. 'Attend' has 'to' as preposition with it.'Control' has 'over' as preposition with it. 'Satisfy' and 'meet' have 'with' as preposition with them. 'Satisfy' is used to fulfill expectation or craving etc. 'Meet' is the correct word here. 
  


THREE 




Directions  (1 - 6 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.



National Integration is a (1) ................ that brings about oneness, brotherhood and social unity among people in a country. It (2)............... people of the country together irrespective of their caste, creed, religion or gender. It plays a (3).............. role in making the country as one. It helps to keep the country (4).................  and strong from within despite the diversities. This happens only by uniting every section of society and providing an equal opportunity for each citizen. It also offers an equal platform in terms of social, cultural and economic (5)............. It principally aims at providing a better (6)........... for the people of a country so that they can develop themselves in all the aspects. 





OPTIONS 



1. A) Strength B) Force C) Believe  D) Requirements E) Dreams

2. A) Provide  B) Divides C) Encounter D) Collects E) Binds


3. A) Common B) Reality C) Motion D)Dynamic  E) Static


4. A) Feeble  B) Diverse C) Growth  D)Unified  E) Dominant



5.A) Dearth B) Development C) Result  D) Real E) Depends 



6. A) Treatment  B) Deal  C) Environment  D)Encounter  

    E)  Ascent





SOLUTION

EXPLANATION :



First of all read the whole paragraph without considering any blank space. The author writes about features of national integration, its requirement, uses and benefits to a country. The tone of the author is positive throughout the stanza. It indicates that words with positive sense will be used in filling blanks. The author tells about a general truth as such the whole paragraph is written in Present Indefinite Tense.

1. An article, 'a' precedes this blank. It means that a noun is required in this blank. 'A' also denotes that it is in singular form. The tone of the sentence is positive. Out of the given options, 'believe' is a verb. Requirements and dreams are in plural. So these words do not fit here.National integration is a 'strength' does not fit here. So 'Force' is the correct word.

2. In this sentence 'it' is a Subject (Pronoun). 'People of the country' is object. In the blank space a verb is required to complete the sentence.'It' Subject is singular accordingly a singular verb is required. Encounter and Provide cannot be correct here.Divides is a negative word it cannot fit here. The word 'collects' means to get things or money etc. In the sentence  further there is an adverb together which suits with the word    'binds' . 'Binds together' means to bring or unite together.

3. In this sentence 'it' is a Subject. 'plays' a verb and 'role' is object. In the blank space an adjective to describe the noun 'role' is required. 'Reality' and 'motion' are nouns as such do not fit here.'Static' is a negative word here. It is not a correct word. 'Common' means equal for all. It also does not fit here. 'Dynamic' is the correct word.

4. In options 'feeble' meaning weak and 'diverse' are negative words. Growth is a noun. These words do not fit here. 'Dominant' means having hegemony which is not according to the meaning of the paragraph. 'Unified' is the correct word.

5. 'Social, cultural and economic' are adjectives. After these a noun is required in the blank space. 'Real' is adjective. 'Depends' is a verb. 'Dearth' is a negative word. With 'social or economic' the noun 'result' does not fit here. 'Development' is the correct word.

6. 'Better' is an adjective and with this a noun is required in the blank space. 'Deal and encounter' are verbs. 'Better ascent' does not fit proper here because ascent means height. In case of 'national integration' 'treatment' also does not fit proper. 'Environment' is the correct word.




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