Saturday, 25 April 2020


  While attempting  exercise of 'Cloze Test', method of 'elimination and selection' of the suggested choices should be adopted. There are various hints or tips that help in making correct choice of  words. It requires application of grammar rules to make selection. One should try to find out the part of speech that fits suitably in the blank. The word next or prior to the blank also helps in finding out the word. Just as an adjective is used to describe a noun or a pronoun. An adverb describes words other than a noun and a pronoun, It also describes a verb. Identifying and selecting an appropriate preposition with a verb also helps in finding out verb to be filled in blank space. 

Number of a noun or a pronoun, whether it is in singular or plural number, placed as Subject or Object also helps in selecting the corresponding verb that fits according to the subject.  

Identifying voice i.e. active or passive voice of a sentence also helps in completing the sentence by checking proper placement of subject, object and verb in the sentence.

Identifying infinitives, participles and gerunds etc. and their appropriate use in the sentence is also very helpful in this process. Use of a gerund and a participle as a noun usually creates a confusion. For this understanding these terms is very necessary. 

A thorough reading of the paragraph is very essential before attempting exercise. This gives an idea of  subject matter and theme of the stanza. One gets a view of the author's approach whether he is writing in a positive or a negative note. This makes elimination and selection process of the suggested words much easier.

Undoubtedly above all these it is practice that is the best guide and teacher. One needs continuous practice to get good results.



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.

Advertising is a form of communication intended to(1) ........................... potential customers to purchase or to consume a commodity or service of a particular brand. Commercial advertisers often seek to (2) ......................  increased consumption of their products or services through method involving repetition (3).......................... of an image or product name in an effort to associate related qualities with the brand in the minds of consumers. Different types of media are used to (4).........................  these messages, including (5) such as newspapers, magazines, television, radio, out door or direct mail; or new media such as websites and text messages.
In the current era of (6)......................... competition each marketer has to prove himself to be better than his competitors. The cut-throat competitive market (7)............................  has made the advertising field very experimental and hence advertisers are (8).......................different measures to (9)............................ the attention of their target customers. They try to present their advertisements in such a way that catches instant customer attention. For this, they use a blend of message appeals like rational, emotional, ethical, etc. to make a positive (10)...........................on the target audience. They engage the minds and touch the hearts of the target audience, and ultimately motivate a response.                                 
                                                                               (Adapted Source Internet)

1. a)solicit, b) action, c)  persuade, d) impart,e) deter
2. a) existence, b)  generate, c) incite, d) creation, e) supply
3. a) performance, b) repose, c) solace, c) interjection, d) exert.
4. a) favour, b)  promote, c)  enhance, d) deliver, e) occurrence.
5. a)occasional, b) traditional, c) foundation, d) orthodox, e)coarse.
6.a)tough, b)endure, c) aggression, d)violent, e)baffle.
7. a)practise, b) setting,c) surround,d) environment,e) decor
8.a)feeling, b) adopting, c) invoking, d) sticking, e)assume
9.a)divulge, b)govern, c)variance,d) attract, e)divert
10.a)strike, b) roles, c) impact, d) impress, e)interact


Directions  (111 - 120 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.

We have worked really (111) ............ on helping those at the very bottom, but is that enough? Imagine how different the world would be if the (112)............... of much aid spending was not "ending $1.25 dollar-a-day poverty "but (113)................ a fairer and more equitable world". Inequality is about much more than income and that is why it is such a valuable (114) ............ If we took the wealth of the world's richest and used it to double ,treble or even quadruple the incomes of the world's poorest three billion people, would that be enough? It would make a big difference but those people would still be relatively poor and (115).............of better, fuller lives.Inequality, as a focal point for campaigns, (116) ........... us to accept and explain that building a better world is slow and perennial (117)................ Delivering a world where the quality of education, healthcare and national infrastructure available to every person is sufficient to bestow on them meaningful hope and ambition is hopefully the aim of 'development'. It is not possible without (118) ............. inequalities. Goals and targets will help us to keep moving forwards but achieving them will not (119) ................ success, which is why (120) .............. its important role as an inspiration- we shouldn't be so belligerent about zero poverty and specially about whether aid is the tool to get us there.

                                              (Adapted Source Competitive Examination.Question Paper)

111. a. lot b. much c. hard d.fortunately e. abysmally       
112.a. aiming b.limitation c. surrounding d. focus e. control 
113.a. creating b. spreading c. touching d. heightening e. populating 
114.a.frame b.resource c.portion d.dimensions e.remark 
115.a.want b.desolate c.absent d.deserving e.lamenting 
116.a.let b.makes c.pushed  d. pulls e.allows 
117.a. account b. endeavour c. causes d. method e.wisdom 
118.a.prevailing b.current c.talking d.tying e.tackling 
119.a. result b.arrest c. equal d.station e.figure b. despite c. although d. while e.technically 



On reading the given paragraph the reader finds that the author is describing poor condition of the people at the lowest level. There is mention of attempts being made to make improvement in their condition. Of course they  need money and material help  but for them more important than this is improvement in their living conditions like better education and healthcare facilities. Monetary aid is important  but there should not be so anxiety about it. Rather more stress should be on removing inequality among  people. This will certainly pave way for development.  The paragraph is in double note. First part of the paragraph is in negative note but the latter part has a positive tone. The author is hopeful by bringing some change.  This helps in making selection of words to be filled in blanks. 

111. In this sentence, 'We', a pronoun, is Subject, 'have worked' a verb and after a verb an adverb is required. Fortunatel and abysmally by their meanings do not fit here. 'Lot' and 'much' are used for a quantity. 'Hard' is sthe correct word here. 

112. 'Aid' is a noun here and 'of' is a conjunction. a conjunction takes the same part of speech word on both sides, so a noun is required in the blank. "Aiming' is a verb but as agerund it can be used here as a noun.'Limitation' 'surrounding' and 'control' are nouns but none of these fits well with '.....of ..aid'. 'Focus' is the correct word here. 

113.In this sentence 'but' is a word that changes the tone of the sentence. The author is talking of ending poverty but this does not satisfy him and he given another option of making the atmosphere better.Here as a verb is required, 'creating' is the correct word. 

114. In this sentence the author talks in a positive tone. He considers removing  inequality better than providing more income to the poor.The words 'remark' 'dimensions' and 'portion' do not fit here according to the context. The author is not talking here about any source of income but money is to be provided to the poor. So 'resource' is also not correct. 'Frame'( meaning thereby spread of action) is the correct word here. 

115.This sentence is also divided by the word 'but' view prior to 'but' is different from that after it. It will make a difference but people will be still poor and will require better living conditions. An adjecting  'poor' describing 'people' is joined by conjunction 'and'. So in blank space there also will be a noun. 'Want' is a verb.'Desolate' 'lamenting' and absent are negative words and do not fit here. 'Deserving' is the correct word here.

116. The paragraph is in present tense.'Pushed' is incorrect word. 'Pulls' also does not fit here. 'Inequality', a noun is Subject  and 'us'
a pronoun is object. A verb is required to complete a sentence. Inequality is singular so a singular verb is required. 'Let' is plural verb. Out of 'allows' and 'makes' allows is the correct word.

117. 'Building', a gerund, a noun is subject and 'slow and perennial' is adjective and in blank space an object (singular according to verb 'is')  a noun is required.'Causes' is verb as well as a plural noun. 'wisdom' and 'account' are nouns but all these do not fit here. 'Method' and 'endeavour' are nouns. Out of these two 'endeavour' meaning an attempt to try, is the correct word. 

118. As the author is talking about removing inequalities, out of all the suggested words only 'tackling' is the correct word. 

119.In the preceding sentences the author is comparing benefits of providing monetary help to the poor  with those of  removing inequalities. Targets and goals are necessary to do a work but their achievement is nit the fulfillment. Tone of the sentence before and after is different. 'equal' is the correct word.

120. In this sentence there are two tones of the author but the word that changes the tone is missing. 'As' is used in equal things. 'Technically' an adverb does not fit here.  'While' is used for time and duration. Out of 'although' and 'despite' is the correct word because it joins two contrary thoughts.   


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