Tuesday, 21 April 2020

CLOZE TEST (2) --PARAGRAPH - FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH WORDS OUT OF GIVEN OPTIONS



 In an examination 'Cloze Test' plays a vital role in securing good marks for the candidate. Nevertheless there is variation in  its level that makes the difference. In some cases it is of simple to moderate level whereas in others it is of a good standard. Performance of the candidate in this regard counts accordingly. However it is practice only that helps in bringing good results. 

Instead of using a 'hit and trial' method one should attempt 'elimination and selection' method. First of all go through the whole paragraph without taking blank spaces in to consideration. Try to understand the underlying theme or the substance that the author wants to convey through these lines.The tone of the author, it is positive or negative, helps a lot in selecting words to be filled in blanks. If the paragraph carries a happy or pleasant note, all the positive words are  used. And for a melancholy note negative ones are  selected.

It is important to read and understand words around and near the blank space. This helps and gives a hint in choosing a word to be filled in the blank. 

For example:


An article 'a,an, or the' before a blank indicates possibility of a noun. 

Article 'an' before a blank tells that the word to be used in it starts with a vowel. 

Article 'a' or 'an' before blank shows that noun in blank will be in singular form.

A verb before a blank tells about possibility of an adverb in the blank space.

Number of verb i.e. in singular or plural form shows that noun too will according to that verb.

A preposition after a blank shows that there is possibility of a phrasal verb in blank space.  

A preposition after a blank space also helps in selecting a verb out of given options by eliminating those with which that preposition does not fit. 

A noun after a blank space gives a hint of an adjective in the blank space.      


A number of times there are chances that words may have very proximity in their meanings or spellings. For this one needs to apply one's common sense according to the meaning of the subject matter.  

Never try to select words without reading and understanding the paragraph. It is very necessary to first of all read the whole paragraph thoroughly and carefully. It helps to understand the underlying meaning.  

Always adhere to the subject contained in the paragraph and do not try to guess meanings of own. 

All the sentences are linked with each other. If one sentence is not clear, try to understand it with the help of  those next to that. 

A good knowledge of vocabulary and grammar aids much in this exercise. Above all this, it is practice that teaches how to handle the given situation.





EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE 


ONE 



Directions  (1 - 10 ) : In the following passage, there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank  appropriately. find out the appropriate word in each case.




In order to make the country a fully developed country, women empowerment is an (1)....................... tool to get the goal of development. Many programmes have been (2)........................ 
 and run by the government  in order to bring (3)............................  in the society about the true rights and value of the women in the development of the nation. Women need to be progressed in a number of  (4)....................... The real meaning of the women empowerment is to make them well educated and leave them (5).............................  so that they can be (6).................... to take their own decisions in any field. India (7)..................................to take some advance steps to (8)..................................... women's position in the society through the proper health, higher education and economic (9)...................................... Women empowerment needs to take full speed in right direction instead of being in (10)......................... stage.





OPTIONS


1. a.inimical, b. durable, c. essential, d. sacredly, e. majority. 
2. a.perform, b. governed. c. executed, d. implemented,e. approve.
3. a.knowledge b.awareness c. familiar d. fluent e.expert.
4. a.focus b.issues c. topics d. centre  e.spheres.
5. a.open b.independent  c.liberal  d.free e.ideal.
6. a.strong b. capable c. definitely d. fluently e. distinct.
7. a.feel b. endure c. called d. beckon e. needs
8. a.upgraded b.ascend c. rose d. improve e.initiate
9. a.participate b.emancipation c.creative d.inclined e.development.
10. a.ancient b. growth c.nascent d.ultimately e.modern.



SOLUTION
&
EXPLANATION 




Before trying to select words to be filled in blanks read the whole paragraph without considering any blank space. The author tries to convey a message about empowerment to women. It is necessary if a country is develop. For that many steps have been taken. Women need to be educated. They should be able to take their decisions themselves. These should be undertaken in a better and stronger way so that women are able to get better education and health facilities. The whole paragraph is written in a positive note. All the words to be selected are to be positive ones.


1. 'An' before blank is related to the noun 'tool'. 'An' and singular noun 'tool' are in correct combination. Before a noun an adjective is required in this blank. Out of given options, 'majority' is a noun, 'sacredly' is an adverb. So these two do not fit here. 'Inimical' meaning harmful is in negative sense so it also does not fit here. the remaining two 'durable' meaning lasting for long time which does not fit here. 'Essential' means necessary is the correct word. Besides 'essential' starting with vowel 'e' is also correct according to the article 'an'.  

2. This sentence is in passive voice. 'Many programmes' is an object and 'have been and third form of 'run' are used. In the blank also third form of a verb will be used. 'Approve' and 'perform' are in first form of verb.So these do not fit here. Verb 'Governed' does not fit here according to its meaning. Out of 'executed' and 'implemented' the latter fit well with the other verb 'run'.

3. After 'to bring' a noun is required. 'Familiar, Fluent and expert' are adjectives. These do not fit here. Knowledge is a noun but does not give any sense here. 'Awareness' is the correct word.

4.   In this space a noun is required to be filled. But it should be in plural as indicated by 'a number of'. 'Focus and centre' are in singular. 'Issues' is in negative sense.'Topics' does not fit according to the context. 'Spheres' is the correct word.  

5.This sentence 'leave' is a verb. 'them' is object. An adverb is required. 'Open,independent,liberal and ideal' all are adjectives. 'Free' is a word that can be used both as an adjective and adverb.So 'free' is correct word.

6. Here an adjective relating to the pronoun 'they' is required. But 'definitely' and 'fluently' are adverbs. 'Distinct' does not fit here according to its meaning. 'Strong' and 'capable' are adjectives. Out of these 'capable' fits more because here a word according to mental and not physical power to women is required.

7.After 'to bring' In this sentence 'India' is Subject and 'steps' is object. In the blank space a verb is required. India is singular so a singular verb and that too in present tense is required. 'Feel','beckon',and 'endure'  are plural verbs. 'Called' is in past tense. Only verb 'needs' singular and in present tense is the correct word.     

8. 'to' before blank shows that a verb is required in this blank space. After 'to' there is always first form of verb and that too without 's' or 'es' i.e. verb in plural form is required. 'Upgraded' and 'rose' are not in first form of verb. 'Ascend' means 'to go up' does not suit here.'Initiate' means 'to start' but programmes have already been started so this is also incorrect. 'improve' is the correct word.

9. Here 'proper' is an adjective and 'health' is a noun, 'higher' is an adjective and 'education' is a noun and 'economic' is an adjective and in blank space a noun is required. 'Participate' and 'inclined' are verbs.Creative is an adjective. 'Emancipation' a noun means liberation which does not fit here. With adjective 'economic'  'development' is the correct word. 

10.'Stage' is a noun and in blank space an adjective is required. 'Growth' is a noun, 'ultimately' is an adverb. 'Ancient' means of old times and 'modern' means of present times do not fit here according to the context. 'Nascent' means in primitive stage fits here well. 







TWO 

Directions  (76 - 85 ) : In the given passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered.Against each five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case. 



Many multinationals think they understand and have tried to (76) ............ the serious risks posed by operating in China-intellectual-property-rights violations,corruption, lack of transparency, potential political instability 
(77)...........one of the highest risks of all China's massive environmental degradation -in (78) ...............corporate boardrooms.China's environmental problems are(79).............the point where they could (80)................ its GDP growth. Its State Environmental Protection Administration (SEPA) concluded in 2006 that environmental degradation and pollution  (81) ............... the Chinese economy the equivalent of 10% of GDP annually. This figure is echoed in more specific costs reported in the Chinese press, up to $36 billion in lost industrial output from a lack of water to run factories, $13 billion from the degradation and health impact of acid rain, $6 billion from the spread of desert regions, and the list goes on. 

The effect on the population is (82)  ............Already more than 400000 people die each year as a result of the country's air pollution, according to environmental expert and an estimated 190 million people drink water so contaminated that it makes them sick. Some 40 million people have had to migrate because their local ecology can no longer (83) ........... them. The Chinese leadership is now concerned that environmental (84) ............... is leading to social unrest. The domestic media reported 50000 environmental protests in 2005. Such protests are usually small in scale, but some have engaged upwards of 30000 to 40000 people, some have been violent, and they are increasing in (85).  

                                                            (Adapted source Question paper)
76.a. elevate b. mitigate c.amplify d.cure e.relieve 
77.a.because b. thus c. yet d. till e. until 
78.a. almost b.scanty c. popularly d. just e. barely 
79.a. reaching b.beyond c. arriving d. joining e. coming 
80.a. stay b. drive c. curl d. constrain e. migrate 
81.a. compensate b. amount c. cost d. accrue e. violent
82.a. alarming b. distressed c. countering d. delightful e. shoddy
83.a. approve b. bare c. harm d.sustain e. survive 
84.a. leading  b.causing c. appealing d. advancing  e. bulging 
85. a. frequent b. number c.sum d. numerical e. representation 








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