Sunday, 5 January 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR (1) -- PARTS OF SPEECH - PREPOSITION - TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES.

PARTS OF SPEECH--       


       PREPOSITION

Meaning, Definitions, its types, 
Explanation with Examples.  


A sentence is a combination of words having a sense or meaning. Different words denote different parts of speech in a sentence as Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and Interjection.

A preposition is a word used with a Noun or Pronoun to show its relation with other words denoted by the Noun or Pronoun in the sentence.

A word that tells about the relation of the noun or pronoun with other words in the sentence is called a preposition.

For example :

The dog is sitting under the table.
He kept his books in the box.
The monkey sat on a wall.
He cut the cake with a knife.
She hurriedly went into the room.

The words ' under, in, on, with, into'  show relation of the nouns or pronouns preceding them with the words following them. These are called prepositions.


Main Prepositions are : In, at, by, for , in, from, to, up, with, of, off, through, out, into, upon, on, since, over, above, under, below, behind, down, against, between, among, before, beneath, beyond, across, inside, outside,within, without.

Prepositions are of following five types.

Simple Prepositions : At, for, by, in, with, up, to, of, off, on.

Compound Preposition : Below, into, inside, outside, within, without, behind, beside, beneath, across, between etc.

Participle Prepositions : Verbs used as prepositions. Considering, concerning, pending, notwithstanding etc.

Double Prepositions : Out of, outside of, from out, from behind, from beneath etc. 

Phrase Prepositions : Instead of, on account of, for the sake of, by means of, because of, with regard to, on behalf of, with a view to, in the event of etc.  

 
USE OF A FEW IMPORTANT PREPOSITIONS:




AT 

He gets up at five o' clock in the morning.
I shall stay at my friend's house during my visit to the city.
When did you sleep at midnight?
He came at noon.
He lives at Lake-view Colony. 
They will return at the end of the hour.
They are selling goods at high rate.
He was standing at the top of the roof.



IN

I shall start at six in the morning.
He is still in bed,
I shall finish my work in two hours.
I live in Delhi in India.
Her marriage falls in April.
He goes out for a walk in the morning.
Her mother was in the kitchen.
They travelled in a car,
She spent her whole life in poverty.
In my opinion, he is right.



TO

He went to the end of the street.
They came to see her.
I want to do my job now.
It is quarter to ten.
I went to his home yesterday.
They went to Delhi yesterday.
He went there to take food.



INTO

The frog jumped into the pond.
She went into the room.
Change this sentence into negative form.
Children peeped into the well.



ON, UPON

They went there on foot.
He kept the book on the table.
The lady sat on the chair.
He delivered a speech on this topic.
The dog jumped upon the table.
He hit upon a plan.
The old man fell upon the bed.



BY 

It is ten by my watch.
They will finish their work by the evening.
Cloth is sold by the meter.
He caught him by the neck.
They went there by train.
This watch was given to him by his father.
They may travel by sea or by air.
You are late by an hour.




WITH
He hit the dog with a stick.
The child was walking with its parents.
The young man met with an accident.
Take this medicine with water.


OF

He is a father of two children.
He is a man of principle.
He is sick of his bad habits.


FROM

He is coming from the school.
His examination start from tomorrow.
He works from morning till evening.
He paid the money from his pocket.
He took out a leaf from the book. 


OVER

The dog jumped over the table.
The water flowed over the bank of the river.
He spent over and above his budget.
The lamp hanged over his head.


BETWEEN, AMONG, AMONGST

Distribute fruit among these four children.
His property was divided between his two sons.
Twenty apples were distributed amongst ten boys.


BESIDE, BESIDES

The child was sitting beside its mother.
Besides being fined, he was punished also.


SINCE, FOR, FROM

He has been working since morning.
They have been playing for two hours.
I shall start working from tomorrow.


TILL, UNTIL

Wait here until he comes.
He slept till eight a.m.


BEHIND, AFTER

My house is behind this building.
He went behind the tree.
She went home after two hours.
They came after she had left.
I started after it stopped raining.




POSITION OF PREPOSITION

Preposition can be used at any position in the sentence. the noun or pronoun after the transitive verb and its preposition is its object.
For example :

The book is on the table.
He went with his father.



Preposition in the beginning.

On whose behalf did he pay the money?
To whom does this book belong?



Preposition in the middle.

She is in the room.
I came before you.




 Preposition in the end.

What are you looking for?
That is the boy I referred to.
This is the book you asked for.

Whom do you belong to?



PREPOSITION  VS   ADVERB


Words like in, on, up, out, within, after, off, since etc are used both as Adverb as well as Preposition. After a preposition an object follows but after an adverb there is no object. For example :

PREPOSITION

Do not worry about him.
The lady is in the room.
The book is on the table.
The driver jumped off the car.
After a month she returned.
I have not seen him since June.
I came before you.


ADVERB

Go and run about.
The lady has come in.
Let us move on.
The train whistled off.
Father came soon after.
I have not met him since.
I could not come before.



USE OF PREPOSITIONS AFTER VERBS, NOUNS, ADJECTIVES AND PAST PARTICIPLES

Prepositions are used according the use of a noun, verb,adjective and past participle in a sentence. Their use is as follows :



PREPOSITION USED AFTER VERBS 


Certain prepositions are used after particular verbs according to their use and place in the sentence. These change according to their usage as follows :


AT 

The train has arrived at the station.
The hunter aimed at the bird.
He knocked at the door.
Look at the picture.
Children laughed at the beggar.
I was astonished at his behaviour.



FOR

Soon they started for their destination.
I hope for a better future.
They searched for her ornaments.
I do not care for criticism.
They wish for a new car.
We are waiting for them.



OF

He did not avail himself of this facility.
She always boasts of her riches.
The man was convicted of theft.
She dreamt of a journey to Paris.
He was informed of the result well in time.



ON

He insisted on leaving the room.
He did not depend on him.
I congratulated him on his success.
You can rely on him for help.


TO


I prefer tea to coffee.
They did not agree to him.
This book belongs to him.
He did not listen to her.
He complained to the boss about his misbehaviour.
They invited us to dinner.


IN

His father deals in sugar.
He did not participate in the debate.
He did the whole work in haste.
I have no faith in him.
I believe in his honesty.





PREPOSITION USED AFTER NOUNS

FOR


He has no liking for sweets. 
She has no eagerness for this job.
They have no hatred for him.
He has no pity for the poor.
There is a great demand for these items.
The boys have fondness for games.



OF


She is proud of her riches.
They have no fear of law.
He has a strong desire of victory.
We are in dire need of money.
The taste of quinine is bitter.
There is no use of this machine.


ON

He has cast a slur on his family.
There is no stain on his character.
Take mercy on the poor.
He is an authority on this subject.
There was a long discussion on this topic.
All disliked his insistence on the issue.
He observed silence on this point.



TO

He lodged a complaint to the authority.
He paid no attention to this matter.
Parents are blind to their children's faults.
I am not deaf to my deficiencies.
They are well alive to the danger ahead.
He showed defiance to my orders.




PREPOSITION USED AFTER (1) ADJECTIVES AND
(2) PAST PARTICIPLES


FOR


Exercise is useful for health.
Who is responsible for this loss?
He was not prepared for this task.(2)
Nutritious food is essential for the patient.
Incessant rains are harmful for crops.
He is not eligible for this post.
The beggar was mistaken for a thief. (2)


OF

He is fond of sweets.
She is afraid of ghosts.
The boy was accused of theft.
This jug is full of water.
She was tired of waiting. (2)
The officer was convicted of bribery.(2)


IN


They found him negligent in his duty.
The lady was not interested in this work.(2)
He is proficient in Mathematics.
The young man was involved in the dispute.(2)
The trader is prompt in making payment.
He is prudent in his choice of books.


WITH

The leader is popular with the people.
He is occupied with his work. (2)
He is quarrelsome with his friends.
His friends are intimate with me.
His father is angry with him.
The host responded with warmth.(2)




EXERCISE  OF PREPOSITIONS



A

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with appropriate prepositions.

1. The boy insisted............ finishing his work.
2. The parents warned him .......... the danger.
3. My coat is different ............ yours.
4. The daughter parted ........... her mother weeping.
5. Speak loud. He is hard ......... hearing.
6. His friends are jealous ......... his wealth.
7. This forest is infested ......... wild animals.
8. The teacher caught the student ........ his arm.
9. The visitors were amazed .......... his behaviour.
10. We should adhere ........ the instructions.




B


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with appropriate prepositions.


1. She excelled everybody else ......... beauty.
2. His all plans fell .......... for want of money.
3. His father prohibited him ......... smoking.
4. This village is inhabited ........ simple and sturdy people.
5. His behaviour was repugnant ........ me.
6. The boys were heedless ........... all consequences.
7. You should refrain ........ drinking.
8. The child saw him ........  his trick.
9. She is well versed ....... cooking.

10. A delegation waited ....... the minister.




ANSWERS

A


1. The boy insisted on finishing his work.
2. The parents warned him of the danger.
3. My coat is different from yours.
4. The daughter parted from her mother weeping.
5. Speak loud. He is hard of hearing.
6. His friends are jealous of his wealth.
7. This forest is infested with wild animals.
8. The teacher caught the student by his arm.
9. The visitors were amazed at his behaviour.

10. We should adhere to the instructions.


B


1. She excelled everybody else in beauty.
2. His all plans fell through for want of money.
3. His father prohibited him from smoking.
4. This village is inhabited  by  simple and sturdy people.
5. His behaviour was repugnant to me.

6. The boys were heedless of all consequences.
7. You should refrain from drinking.
8. The child saw him  through his trick.
9. She is well versed in cooking.
10. A delegation waited upon the minister.

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