Sunday, 28 June 2020

NARRATION -COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE (with solutions)


NARRATION--  DIRECT AND INDIRECT FORMS OF SPEECH

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS-EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE


Language is the most effective system for communication created by humans. It records and describes every activity performed by humans, establishing very succinctly the truth of the adage "mind over matter". When we use language we are constantly transforming matter into words through the help of sounds. It comprises of a series of responses ranging from instruction, order, request and reprimand.   

There are two forms of speech  i.e. Direct form of speech and Indirect form of speech. Change from one form to another form is  called Change of Narration. In Competitive examinations there are questions relating to Narration i.e. to change sentences from one form to another form of speech. There are different types of questions. One of the latest trends of these is as follows.

A given sentence is  required to be changed from direct to indirect  form of speech or vice versa with four or five options given as its answer. The candidate is required to mark the correct option as its answer. 

These sentences are  sometimes with a little deviation from the rules applicable to these.

The answer is to be selected from the options only. For this the approach is to select the nearest correct option however it may be with a 
little deviation of rules even. Besides, the sense 
and meaning  conveyed by the sentence is of more importance. So an approach of understanding rather than that of rules is required while attempting these questions.


While  solving such sentences method of 'elimination and selection' of given options should be used. First of all eliminate the options which are not correct according to rules. In case of similar appearing options check whether proper changes are made as per rules.  Persons and verbs are changed in reported speech according to the reporting speech. Verb in reporting speech is changed appropriately. Interrogative, imperative and exclamatory sentences are properly changed. These are a few tips to be used to solve these questions


 While making these changes one must keep in mind that the sense and meaning of the sentence does not change and the same remains intact.

Here follow a few sentences with options given as their answers. The correct answer is to be selected out of those options.

These sentences are from various competitive examination question papers as seen on internet.



Change the narration of following sentences and mark the correct option out of  given options as your answer.


1. The candidate said to the officer," Thank you, sir, for calling me. I was waiting for this call as I expected it much earlier." 


a)  The candidate told the officer thanks for calling him because he had been waiting for this call as he was expecting it much earlier.
b)  The candidate after thanking the officer for calling told him that he had been waiting for this call as he had expected that much earlier.
c)  The candidate respectfully told the officer thank him for calling him and further told that he had been waiting for this call as he was expecting it much earlier.
d)  The candidate respectfully thanked  the officer  for calling him and told him that he had been waiting for that call as he had expected that much earlier.




2. She said to her servant," I  will not tolerate your ways anymore. If you do not mend your ways I will dismiss you."


a) She told her servant that she would not tolerate her ways any more and threatened her if she did not mend her ways she would dismiss her.
b) She told her servant that she could not tolerate her ways any more and if she did not mend her ways she would dismiss her. 
c) She cautioned her servant that she will not tolerate her ways any more and if she did not mend her ways she would dismiss her.
d) She ordered her servant that she would not tolerate her ways any more and  if she did not mend her ways she would dismiss her.



3. " Sir",  the candidate cried to the examiner, " please tell me how much time is left for the examination to be over." 


a) The candidate respectfully requested  the examiner that he should tell him how much time had been left for the examination  being over.
b) The candidate requested  the examiner with respect and asked him to tell him how much time was left for the examination to be over.
c) The candidate respectfully  asked  the examiner to tell him how much time was left for the examination to be over.
d) The candidate respectfully pleaded with the examiner to tell him how much time was left for the examination to be over.



4. " Rest assured !" said the young man to the lady, " Believe upon me, I shall not desert you."



a) The young man assured the lady calling her to believe upon him and told her that he would not desert her.
b) The young man assured the lady and told her that she should believe upon him and told her that he would not desert her.
c) The young man told the lady to believe upon him and assured her that he would not desert her.
d) The young man assured the lady to believe upon him and told that he should not desert her.



5. She said,"When I was young, I was not afraid of ghosts."


a) She said that when she was young, she was not afraid of ghosts.
b) She said that when she was young, she had  not been afraid of ghosts.
c) She said that when she had been young, she was not afraid of ghosts.
d) She said that when she had been young, she did not afraid of ghosts.




6. "Help! Help! Help! "  She cried, "the thief has taken away my purse."


a) She repeatedly called for help and told that the thief had taken away her purse.
b) She shouted to help her and told that the thief had taken away my purse.
c) She cried to the people to  help her telling that the thief had taken away her purse.
d) She spoke loudly to help her and cried that the thief had taken away her purse.



7."Fie!"said the teacher," you fared so badly in the examination, young man."



a) The teacher said fie to the young man and exclaimed that fared so badly in the examination. .
b) The teacher cursed the young man saying fie and told that he had fared so badly in the examination. .
c) The teacher cursed the young man and exclaimed that he had fared so badly in the examination. .
d) The teacher called  the young man with a curse and exclaimed that he had fared so badly in the examination. 



8."Friends! said Lucy,"Would you like to accompany me to go out for a morning walk tomorrow?"


a) Lucy asked her friends if they would like accompanying  her go out for a morning walk tomorrow.
b) Lucy asked her friends if they had liked to accompany her while going out for a morning walk the next day.
c) Lucy asked her friends if they liked to accompany her  going out for a morning walk the next day.
d) Lucy asked her friends if they would like to accompany her to go out for a morning walk the next day.



9. Shylock said," Come what may, I shall go to the worst and take my revenge on him." 

a) Shylock pledged that he would go to any extent and take his revenge on him under all circumstances.
b) Shylock said what  might come, he would go to the worst and take his revenge on him.
c) Shylock told what might happen he should take his revenge on him under all circumstances.
d) Shylock exclaimed what might come he will take his revenge on him by going to the worst.

  
10. Each one of her friends said,"  Do not lose heart. Have courage. Let us wait and see. You are sure to win, Alice."

a) Each one of her friends told Alice to not lose heart and have courage. They further suggested her that they should wait to see and they were sure to win. 



b) Each one of her friends advised Alice that she should  not lose heart and have courage. They also suggested that she should wait and see that was sure to win. 


c) Each one of her friends advised Alice not to lose heart and have courage. They further suggested that they should wait and see as she was sure to win. 


d) Each one of her friends proposed to Alice not to lose heart and have courage. They further asked her to wait and see as she was sure to win. 


11. " I didn't take my food so far. Did you?" said her mother.

a) Her mother asked her if she had taken her food as she had not so far.
b) Her mother said that she had not taken her food so far and if she had.
c) Her mother told her that she had not taken her food so far and asked if she had. 
d) Her mother told that she had not been taken her food so far and added if she had.

12. " I expect all the workers well in time in the office in the morning. I shall penalise the defaulter if there is any." said the officer.

  a). The officer told the workers that he expected all of them well in time in the office in the morning and he would penalise the defaulter if there is any.    

b). The officer expected all the workers well in time in the office in the morning and said that he would penalise the defaulter if there is any.     

c). The officer suggested to  the workers that he expected all of them well in time in the office in the morning and he would penalise the defaulter if there is any.     

d). The officer said that he expected all the workers well in time in the office in the morning and warned that he would penalise the defaulter if there is any.    



13. "Let him work ever so hard, he cannot pass the examination. I doubt he has ever been serious about his studies," said
the teacher.


a). The teacher said that he could not pass the examination however hard he might work and he expressed his doubt if he had ever been serious about his studies.

b). The teacher suggested that he could not pass the examination he might ever work hard  and he doubted that he had ever been serious about his studies. 
c). The teacher told that he can not pass the examination he might work so hard and he further added that he doubted he had ever been serious about his studies. 

d). The teacher exclaimed that he could not pass the examination even if he might work hard and he showed his doubt that he had ever been serious about his studies. 


14. "No, I've not committed any mistake. By Heavens ! I have been implicated falsely in this case. I pledge to defend myself to the last." rued the young man.


a).The young man told that he had not committed any mistake. He swore by Heavens  and told that he had been implicated falsely in that case. He had pledged to defend himself to the last. 


b) The young man denied that he had committed any mistake. He called upon Heavens to witness and told that he had been implicated falsely in that case. He pledged to defend himself to the last. 

c).The young man refused to have committed any mistake. He said by Heavens  and told that he was implicated falsely in that case. He said that he pledged to defend himself to the last. 

d).The young man. declared that he had not  committed any mistake. He said by Heavens and told that he had been implicated falsely in that case. He further told that he pledged to defend himself to the last. 






ANSWERS : 1.d ) 2.a)   3.d)  4. c)  5.a)   6.a) 7. c) 8.d)  9. a)  10.c) 11. c) 12. d)  13.a) 14. b)



Monday, 22 June 2020

ACTIVE PASSIVE -CHANGE THE VOICE - COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE (with solutions)

ACTIVE AND PASSIVE--  CHANGE THE VOICE

COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS-EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE



Both Active and Passive forms of sentences are used while writing and speaking. A particular form is used to show emphasis on certain part of the sentence. Active form is used if the role of the subject is to be emphasized and passive voice is used to show importance of the activity or the object.


In competitive examinations different types of questions are given to assess knowledge about the topic. In certain questions numbered options are given as answer of a sentence voice of which is  to be changed and the correct option is required to be selected out of the given options.  


For example :


Question - Choose the most appropriate option to change the voice ( Active Passive ) form of the given sentence. 


I appreciate the way he welcomed us.

OPTIONS

a) I appreciate the way we are welcomed by him.
b) I appreciate the way by which he welcomed us.
c) The way he welcomed us was appreciated by me.
d) I appreciate the way we were welcomed by him.



SOLUTION

This sentence is in active form is  to be changed into passive voice.In the first part of this sentence, 'I' is subject and 'appreciate' is verb in present indefinite tense. In the latter part, 'he' is subject, 'welcomed' is verb in past indefinite tense. 'Us is object.

To change this sentence into passive - 

'Appreciate' will change into 'is appreciated'. 'I' into 'by me'.
'Is appreciated by me'.

'Us' will change into 'we'.
'Welcomed' will change into 'were welcomed'.
'He' will change into 'by him'.
'the way we were welcomed by him'.

But the answer is to be selected out of the given options only. The nearest correct option will be selected as answer.



NOTE : IN NO CASE TENSE IS CHANGED WHILE CHANGING THE VOICE. THE SENTENCE CONTINUES TO REMAIN IN THE SAME TENSE.




1. In the first option, 'I appreciate' is in the same tense but 'are welcomed' is in present tense whereas in the sentence 'welcomed' is in the past tense. This option is not correct.
2. In passive voice, with helping verb like 'is, am, are, was, or were' etc. third form of verb is used. But in this sentence, 'I appreciate' and 'he welcomed us' are in the same active voice. This option is also not correct.
3. In this option, ' I appreciate' is changed into 'was appreciated by me'. In this way the tense is changed to past tense. It is not correct.
4. 'I appreciate the way' is in the same form but 'he welcomed us' is changed to 'we were welcomed by him'. It is in passive form and the sentence is in the same tense. This is the nearest correct option as answer.


Here follow some sentences for practice.


EXERCISE - ONE


Question : Out of the given options select the nearest correct option to change the Voice of the following sentence. 



1. She expected me to help her.

OPTIONS
a) She is expected to help by me.
b) To help by me is expected by her
c) It is expected that I should help her.
d) It was expected of me to help her.




2. Circumstances forced him to resign.


OPTIONS
a) Circumstances were forced him to be resigned.
b) He to resign was forced by circumstances.
c) He was forced to resign.
d) Circumstances forced him to be resigned.



3. People say that he cheated the old lady.

OPTIONS
a) He cheated the old lady is said by people.
b) It is said that he cheated the old lady.
c) The old lady is said to be cheated by people.
d) People say the old lady is cheated.



4. Time demands he should hold the reins.

OPTIONS
a) He was demanded to hold the reins.
b) It is demanded he should hold the reins.
c) It is demanded the reins should be held.
d) Time demands him holding the reins.



5. Someone has stolen my bag in the market.

OPTIONS
a) My bag was stolen in the market by someone.
b) My bag had been stolen in the market. 
c) Someone stole my bag in the market.
d) My bag has been stolen in the market.






ANSWERS

EXERCISE - ONE

1. This sentence, in active voice, is required to be changed into passive voice. According to  grammar rules  following changes are required.

' She' - Subject case - 'by her'.
'expected' - 'was expected'.
'me' - 'I '.
'her' - object case - 'She'
'to help' - 'to be helped'.

Keeping the above points in mind, answer is to be selected out of the given options 


This is the easiest sentence because in all the options except one, 'is expected' is used. Present tense is used. In voice tense is not changed. So the last option with 'was expected', the nearest appropriate option is the answer.



2. This sentence is in active voice. 'Circumstances' is subject. Such a subject is considered a vague subject. 'Forced' is verb and 'him' is object. According to grammar rules it should change as under:

'Forced' verb in past tense - 'was forced'.
'Him' - He 
'to resign' - to be resigned. Grammatically this change is correct but this change does not make any sense or meaning. So it is not required.
'Circumstances' - 'by circumstances'. This subject,mostly avoided is dropped in passive voice.

According to the above changes, it should be -
He was forced to resign.

In option a) 'circumstances were forced' is incorrect because circumstances were not forced or nobody forced circumstances. In option b) the words 'to resign' are placed wrongly. In option d) verb 'forced' is in active voice. So this cannot be passive voice. Option 'c' is the correct answer.


NOTE - WORDS IN SUBJECT CASE LIKE PEOPLE, SOMEBODY, SOMEONE, THEY, PROVIDENCE ETC. USED IN ACTIVE VOICE ARE AVOIDED IN PASSIVE VOICE. 


3. This sentence is in active voice. People is a vague subject in this sentence. It is not generally used in passive voice. Changes in passive voice will be as follow:

'Say' - 'is said'.
'Cheated' - verb in past tense. - 'was cheated'.
'The old lady' will have no change.
'He' - 'by him'
Such sentences start with the word 'it'.

The words like 'is said by people' in a) and 'is said to be' do not make any sense or meaning in the context of the sentence.
Option b) is the correct answer.



NOTE - THE WORD 'NEED' IS USED BOTH AS A MODAL VERB AS WELL AS A MAIN VERB. 
For example - 
I need a pen. (main verb) 
You need not worry. (modal verb)


4. This sentence is in active voice. 'You' is subject, 'need' a modal verb, 'remind' main verb and 'me' is an object.'Need not remind' is negative verb in present tense.

Changes will be -
'You' - 'by you'
'Need not remind' - 'Need not be reminded'.
'Me' - 'I'.

a) In making passive voice modal verb is not changed. So needed is incorrect. 
b),c)  Similarly in these options should is incorrect.
d) This option is the correct answer.

5. This sentence due to its verb 'has stolen' appears to be in passive voice but this sentence in Present Perfect Tense is in active voice.

 'Someone' - Subject  (a vague subject)
'Has stolen' - verb in Present tense.
'My bag' - object.

Changes will be -
'Someone' - 'by someone'.
'Has stolen' - 'has been stolen'.
'My bag'  will not change.

Options a), b), c) are in past tense so these are incorrect. Someone has been dropped in passive voice. Option d) is correct answer.


NOTE -  IN CASE OF A PHRASAL VERB ITS PTEPOSITION SHOULD NOT BE CHANGED, SHIFTED OR DROPPED

For example : 
Boys laughed at the beggar.
The beggar was laughed at by boys.





EXERCISE - TWO



Question : Out of the given options select the nearest correct option to change the Voice of the following sentence. 



1. They expect him to arrive at any time.

OPTIONS
a) They are expected to arrive at any time.
b) They expect he will arrive at any time.
c) It is expected he should arrive at any time.
d) He is expected to arrive at any time.



2. Women like men to flatter them.

OPTIONS
a) Men are liked to be flattered by women.
b)Men are liked by women to flatter them.
c) Women like men should flatter them.
d)Women are liked to be flattered by men.




3. She served food hot.

OPTIONS
a) Hot food was served  by her.
b) She served with hot food.
c) Food was served by her hot.
d) Food was served hot by her. 



4. You need not remind me.


OPTIONS
a) You are not needed to remind me.
b) I should not need to be reminded.
c) You should not need me to remind.
d) I need not be reminded by you.



5. Somebody informed them that we were not inviting them.

OPTIONS
a) Somebody informed that they were not being invited.
b) They were not being invited informed somebody.
c) They were informed not being invited by somebody.
d) They were informed that they were not being invited.






ANSWERS



1. This sentence is in active voice and in present tense.In this sentence-
They -Subject  Expect - Verb in Present Indefinite Tense.
Him- Object. The changes will be as under :

They - 'by them.'
Expect - 'is expected'.
Him - 'He'.
To arrive - 'to be arrived'. But this does not make any sense.

a) 'They are expected' is wrong because 'they expect' and
     'he is expected'. 
b) 'They expect' is in active voice. It is not correct.
c) There is 'should' in this option which conveys wrong meaning.
d) 'He is expected' is the correct passive voice. In this sentence subject has been dropped. This is the nearest correct answer.



2. This sentence is in present tense and in active voice. 
Women - Subject
Like - verb in present tense.
Men - Object.
The changes will be -
'Women' - by women.
'Like' - to be liked.
'Men' will  not change.
Men are liked by women to flatter them.

a) This sentence gives impression of 'men to be flattered' which is wrong according to the original sentence.
c) 'Women like men' is active voice, so this is incorrect.
d)'Active voice 'Women like' will not change into women are liked. This is also incorrect.
b) Men are liked .... is the correct answer.



3. This sentence is in past tense and in active voice. 
In this sentence 

She - Subject
Served - Verb
Food - Object
Hot - Adverb describing verb 'served'.

Note that this sentence is different from the sentence - She served hot food where hot is an adjective describing noun 'food'. This adverb is required to be placed properly in the passive voice.

The changes will be -
She - by her.
Served - was served
Food will remain unchanged. 
Hot will be with verb 'served'.
Food was served hot by her.
d) option is correct.

In a) and c) 'hot' is adjective describing 'food'.
In b) 'served' is verb of active voice.



4. This sentence in present tense is in active voice. 
In this sentence -
You - subject
Need - modal verb like will, can, should etc.
remind - Main verb in present tense.
Me - Object.

Changes will be -
You - 'by you'.
Need not remind - Need not be reminded.
Me - I
I need not be reminded by you.
a) Need is modal verb and will not be changed.
b) & c) Tense cannot be changed. Should is incorrect.
d) is the correct answer. 



5. This sentence  in past tense is in active voice.
In this sentence-
Somebody - Subject - Vague subject dropped in passive voice
Informed - Verb in past tense
Them - Object
In the second part of the sentence-  
We - Subject
Were not inviting - Verb in negative past continuous tense.
Them - Object

The changes will be
Informed - were informed
Them- They
Were not inviting - were not being invited.
We - by us
Them - They
They were informed that they were not being invited.
Here subjects of both parts have been dropped in passive voice.
d) is the correct answer. 





EXERCISE - THREE




Question : Out of the given options select the nearest correct option to change the Voice of the following sentence. 




1. She likes he loves her.

OPTIONS

a) He loves her is liked by her.
b) She is liked as he loves her.
c) She likes she is loved by him.
d) She likes being loved by him.


2. Request him to attend the meeting.


OPTIONS
a) He should be requested to attend the meeting.
b) He is requested to attend the meeting.

c) Request him let the meeting be attended.
d) He be requested to attend the meeting.



3.  Parents want their children respect them.

OPTIONS
a) Parents want their children should respect them.
b) Children are wanted to respect their parents.
c) Children respect them is wanted by parents.
d) Parents want to be respected by their children.


4. They are planning to postpone his marriage ceremony.


OPTIONS
a) His  marriage ceremony is planned to be postponed.
b) It is planned his marriage ceremony to be postponed.
c) His marriage ceremony is being planned to be postponed.
d) They are planning his marriage ceremony be postponed.


5. They say that you made it possible.


OPTIONS
a) You are told to make it possible.
b) You made it possible is said by them.
c) You said that you made it possible.
d) You are said to have made it possible.






6. Someone saw him stealing her  purse.

OPTIONS
a) He was seen while he stole her purse.
b) He stole her purse was seen by someone.
c) He stealing her purse was seen by someone.
d) He was seen stealing her purse.


7. A huge crowd surrounded the mansion 
and made entry into it 
    impossible.

OPTIONS
a) The mansion was surrounded by a huge crowd and made entry into it impossible.
b) The mansion had been surrounded by a huge crowd and made entry into it impossible.
c) The mansion was surrounded by a huge crowd making entry into it impossible.
d) The mansion was surrounded by a huge crowd and entry into it  was made impossible.

8. They believe a ghost haunts this place.

OPTIONS

a) This place is believed to be haunted by a ghost.
b) This place is haunted by a ghost is believed.
c) They believed this place is haunted by a ghost.
d) This place is believed being haunted by a ghost.

9. He was selling balloons like hot cakes.

OPTIONS
a) Balloons like hot cakes were sold by him.
b) Hot cakes liked by balloons were being sold.
c) Balloons were being sold like hot cakes.
d) Balloons are being sold like hot cakes by him.

10. Prepare for the ensuing examinations.

OPTIONS 

a) The ensuing examinations be prepared.
b) Be prepared for the ensuing examinations.
c) The ensuing examinations should be prepared.
d) You are required to prepare for the ensuing examinations.
ANSWERS

1. c)  2. d)    3.  d)    4. c)  5. d) 6. d) 7.c) 8. a). 9. c)  10. b)





Thursday, 21 May 2020

MODALS (2) -- MEANING & WORDS SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST, HAD BETTER, USED AS MODALS EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES

MODALS --- MEANING & WORDS USED AS  MODALS 


A sentence without a verb is not possible. If a sentence is to be of one word, it  is a verb only that forms a sentence. A verb is an essential part to form a sentence. A verb can be of one word or more than one words. 

For example :

Following sentences are of one word only -
Go. Stop. Look. 

These sentences contain one word and that is a verb. 

In the following sentences  verb is of  two words -

The child is crying. 

In this sentence 'crying' is the main verb and the main verb is supported by a helping verb 'is'. 

Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. 


A Modal verb is  an auxiliary Verb  used to express  mood  or attitude of the main verb.

 Main modal verbs are
Will, shall, should, would,May, Might, Must,Need,Ought to,Used to etc. 

Modal verbs express actions relating to ability, willingness, permission, request and possibility etc. 

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs and these do not function as main verbs. A modal verb takes with it a main verb  in its first form.
Here follow some examples to explain it.

We should help the poor.
You must look after them.
He would play cricket in school days.
She used to sing songs in her college days.

In these sentences should, must, would, used to are modal verbs accompanied by their respective main verbs. 

A Modal Verb always takes first form of verb with it. It never acts itself as  main verb in a sentence.

Here follow some Modal verbs explained.




SHOULD , OUGHT TO, MUST


SHOULD

The modal verb 'should' is used to express some activity of  advice suggestion or duty etc. 

For example :
You should obey his orders.
One should do one's duty.
You should take medicine daily.
He should consult a doctor.

With modal verb 'should', bare first form of verb is used. It is used to express activity of present time. For an activity of past time, the words 'have and third form of verb ' are to used with it.

For example :
He should have finished his work.

In the above sentence with the modal 'Should' first form of verb 'Have' is used. But 'Have' always takes third form of verb with it. 
So the third form 'Finished' is used with it. Here 'Has' or 'Had' cannot be used in place of 'Have'. Even if the subject is third person singular i.e. He or She, 'Has' instead of 'Have' is not to be used. 


 OUGHT TO

The modal 'Ought to' has the same meaning as the modal 'should' has. But its use is a little different from that of 'should'. Unlike 'should' it always takes 'to' with it. 

With this modal also bare first form of verb is used.

'Ought to' is used for the following main purposes.

It is used to express a moral duty.

 For example :
We ought to obey our parents.
People ought to follow rules of the road.

It is used to express a strong necessity. 

For example:
Crops are under a long dry spell, it ought to rain now.
The patient has suffered a lot, he ought to cure now.

The modals 'Should' and 'ought to' are interchangeable with each other.

'Ought to' is also used for action in the present time. To express actions of past time, 'have and third form of verb' are used with it. 

For example :
He ought to have finished his work. 




 MUST 
Modal Verb 'Must' is used to express compulsion, necessity, result or conclusion. 

For example: 

You must leave now. - Compulsion.
They must be ready by now. - Conclusion.
He must consult a doctor. - Necessity. 
Rains must have damaged the crops. - Result

'Must' always takes first form of verb with it.

With 'Must' also to express past action 'have and third form of verb are used. 
For example :
He must have accomplished the job.
They must have prepared a plan to do it.





HAD BETTER 


'Had better' is also a Modal Verb like other modal verbs 'shall,will, should, would, may, might'.   It is used in the same way as other modal verbs are used. It comprises of two words 'Had' and 'better' and these both are to be used together. It has the same meaning as the Modal Verb 'Should' has. This modal verb is used to express moral duty, obligations, advice or suggestion.

The formation of a Modal Verb  cannot be changed. It can't be 'Has or Have better'.  It has its meaning as that of a modal verb only if it is used in that particular form. 

In this case the words 'Had' and 'Better' if used separately have different meanings. 'Had' is the Past Tense and Past Participle of the verb 'Has' or 'Have'. It is used as a helping verb as well as main verb.

For example : 
He had a book. - Main verb
He had gone to the market. - Helping Verb
In this sentence 'gone' is the main verb.

The other part of this Modal Verb 'Better' is comparative degree of adjectives 'Good' and 'Well'. 

When these two words 'Had better' used together as a modal verb has the same meaning as 'Should' has. 'Had' can be changed into 'have' and 'has' but 'had better' cannot be changed into 'Has or Have better'.

Like other modal verbs, 'Had better' is also an auxiliary verb and it   takes bare first form of verb with it. It is used for Present Tense.

For example :
She had better take rest.

'Had better' is a modal verb here and a bare first form of verb 'take' is used with it. It cannot be 'had better taken' considering that had takes third form of verb with it. Although it is correct to say 'She had (or has) taken rest. 

He had better finish his work.
They had better take an expert's advice.
The teacher had better reprimand him.
The lady had better not follow his advice.
She had better go to the doctor.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


 Choose the correct option out of the given ones to substitute the underlined part in the following sentences.


1. The president must take this decision in a hurry otherwise he had not suffered such a loss.  

a)  must have taken  b) should have take   c) ought to taken d) No change.

2. The young man had  better stopped drinking to save his deteriorating  health.

a) ought to stopping b) had better stop c) should stopped d) No change.

3. The teacher had better encouraged the students to take their test.

a) must encouraged b) should encouraged c) ought to encourage d) No change.

4. All the members of the committee had better appreciated his action rather than criticising him.

a) must appreciated b) should appreciated c) should have appreciated d) No change.

5. The authorities should taking  all the field workers into confidence before making any amendment in rules. 

a) should take b) ought to taken  c) must taken d) No change.

6. The mother should not worry about her son because he should reaching home before it was dark.

a) ought to reach b) should had reached c) must have reached d) No change.

7.  They all ought to leave  for their destination before it is late. 

a) must left b) ought to leaving c) should have left d) No change.


8. The old lady must avoided interfering in the affairs of the other family as it is creating problems for all of them.

a) should avoid b) must have avoided c) ought to avoided d)No change.

9. The family ought to take this decision much earlier and this had saved all the members from so many problems.  

a) must had taken  b) should take c) ought to have taken d) No change.

10. The authorities should had taken all the necessary precautionary measures for safety from floods before the rainy season set in.

a) must taken  b) had better taken c) ought to taking  d) No change.













Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,

Wednesday, 20 May 2020

MODALS (1) -- MEANING & WORDS WOULD, USED TO, AS MODALS EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES

MODALS --- MEANING & WORDS USED AS  MODALS 


A verb  is an essential part of a sentence.There is no sentence without a verb. Verb is a part of speech that forms and completes a sentence. A verb with subject or object is required to form a sentence.

 Sometimes main verb in a sentence takes another helping verb to complete the mood or meaning in the sentence. These helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. These helping verbs used to express mode or attitude of the main verb are called Modal verbs.

 The main modal verbs are - Shall, Will, Should, Would, May, Might, Must, Need, Dare, Ought to, and Used to. For example :

I shall write a letter.   
He used to play hockey in school days.

Modal verbs are always auxiliary verbs. They are used as helping verbs with main verbs. 

For example :

He should take rest.
You must attend the meeting.


Modal verbs always take  bare first form of verb with them. 
 For example : 

I should 'go' there.  (Present Tense)

In order to express in Past tense, verb of Perfect tense is used. 

For example:
He should have gone. 

Because a modal always has first form of verb, 'have' (and not 'had') is used here to express past tense even. 'Have' as a helping verb always takes third form of verb with it. So 'gone' is used here. Even in case of third person singular, 'Have' is used and not 'Has'.

For example : 
He must have gone by now. 
and it is incorrect to say -
He must 'has' gone by now. 


'To' is not used with these Modal verbs except in case of 'Ought to' and 'Used to'. 

 For example :

He used to fly kites in his childhood.     


Modal verbs are not used as main verbs except 'Dare' and 'Need'.

I need some money. (Main Verb)

You need not worry now. (Modal verb)
Here need is a modal verb and worry is main verb.


Here follows how some of peculiar Modal Verbs are used in sentences. 


WOULD

The Modal Verb 'Would' denotes some activity of habitual nature taken place in the past. 

He would go to school on foot during his school days.

This sentence expresses that he was in the habit of going to school on foot in the past.  

He would drink during his youth.
He would work hard during his school days.





USED TO

'Used to' is also a Modal Verb. 'To' always accompanies the word 'Used'. It expresses an action of habitual nature taken place in the past. First form of verb is used with the Modal Verb of 'Used to'.
It is used to express past action only. The action that took place in the past and ended during that time. It did not extend to Present or Future time. So it is not used for Present or Future time.


 The modal verb 'Used to' is used as it is and its formation cannot be changed to present of future time.

For example:
He used to play Hockey in his school days.
He used to be very shy during his childhood.


In these sentences 'used to' is modal verb and 'play' and 'be' are main verbs. 



These two words written separately give different meanings and cannot be termed as Modal Verbs. For example 'Use' is a main verb and it means to utilise and 'to' is used  with it.

For example:
Wax is used to prepare candles.

In this sentence 'Used' and 'to' are used as separate words and cannot be termed as Modal Verb. It gives the meaning that wax is utilised for making candles. 
  
This sentence is in passive voice. Its active form is -
They use wax to prepare candles.

Besides a Modal Verb, 'Used to' is also used as an adjective. For this with it, a verb  form of 'be' i.e. is, am. are. was. were etc. is used. 
For example :

He is used to gambling. 
This sentence means that he is in the habit of gambling.

Similarly it can express action of past also. 
For example :
He was used to playing hockey during those days.

In such a case after 'Used to' a noun is used and 'used to' becomes an adjective as it describes a noun. In these sentences 'gambling' and 'playing' are gerunds used as nouns. So here 'Used to' acts as an adjective describing nouns following it. 


 USE OF MODAL VERBS 'WOULD' AND 'USED TO' AS INTERCHANGEABLE WITH EACH OTHER.

The use of two modal verbs 'would' and 'Used to' is interchangeable. These can be used in place of each other.

Both these Modal Verbs denote habit in the past.
For example:
She would sing  songs in  her childhood.
She used to sing songs in her childhood.

Both these sentences denote an action of singing songs on her part in the past. Both these show her habit of singing songs in the past.


Here is another example.


He would be an intelligent student during his school days.

He used to be an intelligent student during his school days.


Both these sentences describe about condition of 'he' in the past but only  the latter one is correct. Here it is incorrect to use 'would'.

Verbs are of two types -- Action Verbs and Static Verbs.

Action verbs denote doing some physical activity by the doer but Static Verbs show condition or state of a person.

Verbs like play, run, read,write or sing etc are action verbs. Verbs  think, like, perceive or remember  etc are static verbs.

With Static Verbs only 'Used to' is applied. 'Would' is not used with these verbs.

He used to be a renowned singer in the past.

It is a correct sentence whereas it is incorrect to say 
He would be a renowned singer in the past.


He used to be very arrogant in the past.
She used to be very innocent in her childhood.


In these sentences 'would' is not interchangeable with 'used to'..








EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Choose the correct option to substitute the selected part in the following sentences.

1. Both the brothers used to practising these tricks in the past.

a) used to practise b) used to practice c) would practice d)No change


2. Her brother would accompany her when she went there.

a) used to accompanying  b) would accompanying  c) would accompanied d) No change


3. The sculptor used to preparing beautiful idols when he was young. 

a) would prepared  b) used to prepare c) would be preparing d) No change


4. Her mother  used to teaching her English when she was young.

a) would teaching b)would taught  c) used to teach d) No change


5. She would get up early in the morning during her stay at ours last year.

a) used to getting up b) would got up c) used to getting up d) No change


6. Her father was used to take his dinner very late at night.

a) was used to taking  b) would taken c) would taking  d) No change  


7. Their mother would told stories to the children at night.

a) used to telling b) would telling c) used to tell d) No change 


8. I used to boarding a train to go to my office when I was in the city.

a) used to boarded b) would boarded c) would board d) No change


9. Her sister used to learn poems by heart when she studied in the school. 

a) would learn b) would learnt c) used to learnt d) No change


10. Our teacher would be very strict when he taught us in the class.

a) used to be b) would been c) used to being d) No change 












Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,