Thursday, 17 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR --- SPOTTING, MENDING, CORRECTING AND PUNCTUATING A GIVEN PASSAGE OR SENTENCE.


Editing In English Grammar 

-  Editing in English Grammar is done to improve or correct the given words or sentences for an effective and elaborate version of writing.



Editing in English Grammar is a stage in the process of writing with a writer endeavoring to improve or correct words or sentences. To make the writing more effective and lucid, the sentences are made precise or clearer or sometimes more elaborate. For this, modification or simplification is required to make sentences or passage correct, consistent, accurate and complete. It involves adding,deleting and rearranging words or recasting sentences. It is finding and mending faults to clarify ideas contained in the writing. 

Editing is done while writing itself. A writer writes but thinks about better words or way of his writing and applies to the sentence during his writing. Sometimes while writing a writer thinks of more than one sentences and writes choosing the best of these. In this process the writer also gets new ideas and the same are added to the writing. This is called On Going Editing.


But in most of the cases a writer writes at the first instance what comes to his mind, prepares a rough work and then he reads it again to get a view of his work. In this process he comes across some mistakes or omissions which he corrects subsequently. It is called Draft Editing because first of all in it a draft is prepared and then it is corrected and improved.




From examination point of view Draft Editing is very important because in an examination a candidate is required to edit and correct an unedited draft paragraph or sentence. 

Note : There is no specific pattern of mistakes in the sentence or paragraph. These mistakes may be of commission or omission. There are mistakes of spellings, grammatical mistakes or those of sequence of tenses etc.

There are certain check points required to be observed while editing. First of all, the writer must be sure that he is writing what he thought of or observed. His writing must be in accordance with that. All the required details should be given in the passage or sentence. These should be clear, appropriate and correctly spelled and duly punctuated too.



Steps for Editing in English Grammar
  • Good knowledge of English language.
  • Purpose of editing the work.
  • Spotting and Fixing errors -Factual and Grammatical.
  • Thorough Reading and re-reading the passage.


While editing it should be ensured that -
  • a sentence states its meaning clearly using the right words.
  • Words or sentences are in their right places.
  • Redundant or Duplicate words or sentences are eliminated or deleted.
  •  Words are appropriately  spelled and  punctuation is in place.
  • Omissions are properly detected and corrected.
  • Gap-fill  exercise is made by 'choosing and removing words' method.


Here are some examples to explain the process.



ONE


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


1. It is a well known historically          
   historically -historical

2. effect that there is little connect

3. between innate common senses

4. and education qualifications.Some

5. of the successful historical figure

6. and famous beings had no degrees

7. to boast. Some had not even learnt 

8. the basic of alphabet.Today in our day 

9. to day life we often come of such

10. worldly - wise characters whom may 

11. not have gone beyond middle of school.




SOLUTION



The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



1. It is a well known historically        

   historically - historical


2. effect that there is little connect        

    effect -fact


3. between innate common senses            

  senses - sense 


4. and education qualifications.Some    

education- educational 


5. of the successful historical figure           

  figure - figures


6. and famous beings had no degrees        

 beings - persons


7. to boast. Some had not even learnt      

  boast - boast of


 8. the basic of alphabet.Today in our day   

 basic - basics


 9. to day life we often come of such     

Comes of - come across


10. worldly - wise characters whom may    

whom- who


11. not have gone beyond middle of school.    

  middle of - middle





 It is a well known historical fact that there is little connect between innate common sense and educational qualifications. Some of the successful historical figures and famous persons had no degrees to boast of. Some had not even  learnt the basics of alphabet. Today in our day to day life we often come across such worldly-wise characters who may not have gone beyond middle * school.
   



TWO


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error of omission in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


1. Success comes those who try and never         
     Comes to those

2. tire. To a winner one has to learn to

3. strive perseverance, courage and determination

4. Success cannot be achieved a day. The road 

5. to success is not easy one. It is narrow, 

6. rough, patchy, long and full hurdles and

7. obstacles. One has learn to overcome

8. the hurdles and obstacles achieve

9. the desired goal. A little failure not matter.    



SOLUTION:





 The following paragraph has not been edited.There is one error of omission in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied, One is done as an example.  

1. Success comes those who try and never
comes to those

2.tire. To a winner one has to learn to                           
  
To be a  

3.strive perseverance, courage and determination     
     
strive with perseverance 

4.Success cannot be achieved a day. The road     
achieved in a

5. to success is not easy one. It is narrow
not an easy 
    
6.rough, patchy, long and full hurdles and   
full of hurdles 

7.obstacles. One has learn to overcome     
 has to learn

8.the hurdles and obstacles achieve     
 obstacles to achieve

9.the desired goal. A little failure not matter.    
 failure does not     


Success comes to those who try and never tire. To be a winner one has to learn to strive with perseverance, courage and determination. Success cannot be achieved in a day. The road to success is not an easy one. It is narrow, rough, patchy, long and full of hurdles and obstacles. One has to learn to overcome the hurdles and obstacles to achieve the desired goal. A little failure does not matter.    

        
    

THREE


In the following paragraph some words have  been omitted while writing.  There is such an error of omission in each line. Find out and write the missing word with words on each side of it. Underline 
the word you supplied. One is done as an example 


 In order to deal  negative feelings
deal with negative
 like jealousy is to accept  existence.
One should not feel guilty or  others
feel guilty  these negative emotions.
One  accept that these emotions
exist and come up naturally  time
to time. One should try to find  a 
solution rather  worrying about these.
Jealousy is a feeling that comes  a 
sense lack. It arises from the idea that
one has less and someone else more.
Whenever jealousy takes  someone  
he should count how much he been
given in his life. This  a person feel
grateful. A sense gratitude overcomes 
the feelings  jealousy very effectively.
One should let jealousy serve a positive
 motivation  do more meaningful
endeavours. One should strive to a
better version oneself.   



SOLUTION



In order to deal  negative feelings
deal with negative
 like jealousy is to accept  existence.
accept their existence
One should not feel guilty or  others
or make others
feel guilty  these negative emotions.
guilty about these
One  accept that these emotions
One  should accept
exist and come up naturally  time
naturally from  time
to time. One should try to find  a 
find out  a 
solution rather  worrying about these.
rather than  worrying 
Jealousy is a feeling that comes  a 
comes from  a 
sense lack. It arises from the idea that
sense  of lack
one has less and someone else more.
else has more.
Whenever jealousy takes  someone  
takes over someone  
he should count how much he been
he has been
given in his life. This  a person feel
This makes
grateful. A sense gratitude overcomes 
sense of gratitude
the feelings  jealousy very effectively.
feelings of  jealousy 
One should let jealousy serve a positive
serve as a
 motivation  do more meaningful
motivation to  do
endeavours. One should strive to a
 to be a
better version oneself.   
version of oneself. 





In order to deal with negative feelings
 like jealousy is to accept their existence.
One should not feel guilty or make others
feel guilty about these negative emotions.
One should accept that these emotions
exist and come up naturally from time
to time. One should try to find out
solution rather than worrying about these.
Jealousy is a feeling that comes from
sense of lack. It arises from the idea that
one has less and someone else has more.
Whenever jealousy takes over someone  
he should count how much he has been
given in his life. This makes a person feel
grateful. A sense of gratitude overcomes 
the feelings of jealousy very effectively.
One should let jealousy serve as a positive
 motivation to do more meaningful
endeavours. One should strive to be a
better version of oneself.   









FOUR


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.




Scientists have find link between prolonged  
  find - found
exposure to screens and obesity children.      
Children who spends more time using    
technology prone to obesity, a new study
 by researchers suggest. They have observed 
that the average toddler today spends a hour
 watching TV. At the time a child reaches the 
age nine this period extends to more than 
seven hour a day. Children spend much of
 their time engage in one or the other form 
of digital media. It is also observe that 
engaging in media late at night can be high
 destructive to young people's sleep patterns
 which puts them at higher risk of obesity.  







Scientists have find link between prolonged  

  find - found

exposure to screens and obesity children.      

 Children- in children

Children who spends more time using       
      
   spends - spend

technology prone to obesity, a new study  
        
 prone - are prone

 by researchers suggest. They have observed       

suggest - suggests


that the average toddler today spends a hour     

 a hour - an hour

watching TV. At the time a child reaches the 

At the- By the

age nine the period extends to more than

        age - age of
seven hour a day. Children spend much of

  hour - hours
their time engage in one or the other
     
engage - engaging
 of digital media. It is also observe that

       
 observe - observed 
 engaging in media late at night can be high

high - highly
destructive to young people's sleep patterns

   sleep - sleeping
which puts them at higher risk of obesity.

      puts- put










Scientists have found link between prolonged  
 exposure to screens and obesity in children.      
Children who spend more time using    
technology are prone to obesity, a new study
 by researchers suggests. They have observed 
that the average toddler today spends an hour
 watching TV. By the time a child reaches the 
age of nine this period extends to more than 
seven hours a day. Children spend much of
 their time engaging in one or the other form 
of digital media. It is also observed that 
engaging in media late at night can be highly
 destructive to young people's sleeping patterns
 which put them at higher risk of obesity.  


















FIVE


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


The department of police is a area of                    
 a - an

administration who remains in maximum
contact to public. Some of the junior

ranked officers which may not be well

educate, remain in touch with the public

more then their officers. This naturally 

gives them a lot of practice experience.

This experience farther gets sufficiently

sharpen by some common sense and 

a highly develop presence of mind.









SOLUTION

The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.




The department of police is a area of
a - an

administration who remains in maximum
 who - which

contact to public. Some of the junior
to - with

ranked officers which may not be well 
ranked - ranking

educate, remain in touch with the public 
educate -- educated

more then their officers. This naturally
 then - than

gives them a lot of practice experience. 
practice - practical

This experience farther gets sufficiently
 farther - further

sharpen by some common sense and 
sharpen - sharpened

a highly develop presence of mind. 
develop - developed




The department of police is an area of administration which remains in maximum contact with public. Some of the junior ranking officers which may not be well educated, remain in touch with the public more than their officers. This naturally gives them a lot of practical experience. This experience further gets sufficiently sharpened by some common sense and highly developed presence of mind.           











SIX


In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.

A railway station is a place wherein people        
wherein - where

by different cultures and attitude converge.

This is given a spectrum of a variety of

hews of life.People exhibit their attitude

towards their fellow beings. They experienced

feelings of pleasure and pains about their

relative and friends. Their weaknesses and strengths

comes out to the forefront on their faces. Some

experiences joy while others have depressing

feelings by joining and leaving their own people.



SOLUTION

In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


A railway station is a place wherein people   
wherein - where

by different cultures and attitude converge.
by - of

This is given a spectrum of a variety of                     
 is given - gives

hews of life.People exhibit their attitude      
hews - hues

towards their fellow beings. They experienced     
experienced - experience   

feelings of pleasure and pains about their         
pains - pain

relative and friends. Their weaknesses and strengths    
relative -  relatives

comes out to the forefront on their faces. Some  
comes - come

 experiences joy while others have depressing  
 experiences - experience

feelings by joining and leaving their own people.         
 by - of 






A railway station is a place where people of different cultures and attitude converge.This gives a spectrum of a variety of hues of life.People exhibit their attitude towards their fellow beings. They experience feelings of pleasure and pain about their relatives and friends. Their weaknesses and strengths come out to the forefront on their faces. Some experience joy while others have depressing feelings of joining and leaving their own people.






SEVEN



In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizzy.   
       dizzy - dizziness

It is not as simple as much people 

think. It is often associates with looking

down to height but it can also be caused

of the problems in inner ear or brain. This 

dizziness is comes with nausea, vomiting,

sweating or difficult in walking. Persistent

vertigo has linked with mental health 

issues. A psychiatric problem may causes

dizziness, and vertigo may lead by depression

and anxiety with an individual. Dizziness 

can happen with anyone at any age but

is commonly in people aged 65 or above








SOLUTION





Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizzy 
   dizzy - dizziness

It is not as simple as much people   
 much - many

think it is often associates with looking 
 associates - associated 

down to height but it can also be caused
to - from 

of the problems in inner ear or brain. This
of - by

dizziness is comes with nausea, vomiting 
 comes - comes 

sweating or difficult in walking. Persistent
 difficult -difficulty   

vertigo has linked with mental health
 has - has been

issues. A psychiatric problem may cause
causes - cause

dismisses, and vertigo may lead by depression
by - to
     

and anxiety with an individual. Dizziness    
 with- in 
can happen with anyone at any age but       
with - to
is commonly in people aged 65 or above
commonly - common



Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizzinessIt is not as simple as many people think. It is often associated with looking down from height but it can also be caused  by the problems in inner ear or brain. This dizziness * comes with nausea, vomiting,sweating or difficulty in walking. Persistent vertigo has been linked with mental health issues. A psychiatric problem may cause dizziness, and vertigo may lead to depression and anxiety in an individual. Dizziness can happen to anyone at any age but is common in people aged 65 or above














EIGHT




In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


Now a days food is plenty by those    by-with

 which can afford it and at the same

time is in scant with those who is

 undernourished. The  former eats as
more as they desire 

whereas the latter
find it difficulty to get a square meal even.

Peoples having surplus food enjoy overeating

though it may pose hazards for their health.

 It is a snobbery by the rich to take

 food more then they require and they

 are also with the habit of  wasting food. 

They serve food lavishly for their parties

 to make show of their rich.They do not

 feel bad in throwing  lot  food in
waste basket. If they

 shun the habit of
overeating and waste food they can serve

 themselves as well as that who are 
undernourished. They 

could thus not only save
 themselves from diseases but also provides

 sufficient food by those who really require it. 








SOLUTION



Now a days food is plenty by those 
by-with

 which can afford it and at the same
which - who

time is in scant with those who is
is - are

 undernourished. The  former eats as
eats - eat

more as they desire 
more - much

whereas the latter
find it difficulty to get a square meal even.
difficulty - difficult

Peoples having surplus food enjoy overeating
peoples -  people

though it may pose hazards for their health.
for - to  

 It is a snobbery by the rich to take
by - among 

food more then they require and they
then - than 

 are also with the habit of  wasting food. 
with - in

They serve food lavishly for their parties
for - in

 to make show of their rich.They do not
rich - riches

 feel bad in throwing  lot  food in the
waste basket. If they
lot - a lot of

shun the habit of
overeating and waste food they can serve
waste - wasting

themselves as well as that who are 
undernourished. They 
that - those

could thus not only save
 themselves from diseases but also provides
could - can

 sufficient food by those who really require it. 
by - to



 Now a days food is plenty with those who can afford it and at the same time is in scant with those who are undernourished. The former eat as much as they desire whereas the latter find it difficult to get a square meal even. People having surplus food enjoy overeating though it may  pose hazards to their health. It is a snobbery among the rich to take food more than they require and they are also in the habit of  wasting food. They serve food lavishly in their parties  to make show of their riches.They do not  feel bad in throwing a lot of food in the waste basket. If they shun the  habits of overeating and wasting food they can serve themselves as well as those who are undernourished. They can thus not only save  themselves from diseases but also can provide sufficient food to those who really require it. 





(This method of writing in a paragraph is adopted just to make the concept of editing understand. Otherwise the  question in an examination is to be attempted as required.)







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