Wednesday, 17 April 2019

PHRASAL VERBS -- Meaning & Explanation with Examples , Particles- Different Types Important Particles & their meanings.

Phrasal Verbs  are usually two worded phrases consisting of   Verb & adverb  or  Verb & preposition.
Mostly phrasal verbs consist of two words but a few consist of three words which always stay together.


Examples:
We should act on the advice of our parents.
They hit upon a plan to get out of the trouble.
We went across the river in a boat.



Consider the following sentences:


1. He brought a watch for me. 

2. His uncle brought up the child.




In the first sentence bring is a transitive verb and it means 'to fetch'. But in the second sentence, another word 'up' is added to it which changes its meaning altogether. Such a word is called a phrasal verb.



Examples : Abide by, bring up, come off, fall out, give up, make up, put on & put off etc.



Phrasal Verbs are of two types : Transitive & Intransitive.



Transitive Phrasal Verb is a verb having an object e.g.

We were alarmed at his weakness.
The hunter aimed at the bird.
John gave up smoking.
The child hit upon a plan.
The principal presided over the meeting.
He quarrelled with me over a trifle.
Children take after their parents.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Transitive Phrasal Verbs because these all are followed by an object. 

If  there is an object in the sentence, it is positioned in different ways in the sentence.First the object is a noun and it is used after verb and particle e.g. She brought up the children. Secondly it is between verb and the particle e.g. She brought the children up.  Thirdly it is a pronoun and it is between verb and particle. She brought her up.


Intransitive Phrasal Verb is a verb which is not followed by an object e.g.


Friends fall off in adversity.
He broke down during his speech.
Both the brothers fell out over a trifle.
The autumn season has set in.
I get up at 5 O'clock in the morning.
Fire broke out in the factory.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Intransitive Phrasal Verbs & these all are not followed by any object. 


Here is a list of adverbs or particles frequently used in phrasal verbs. To know the meaning of phrasal verb it is necessary to know about basic meaning of the particle. A particle may have more than one meanings and thus make meanings of phrasal verbs accordingly.

about, after, above, against, across, along, around, at, away, among, ahead, behind, before, between, by, down, for, from, into, in, of, off, on, out, out of, over, to, through, towards, under, upon, with, without etc.

Please note that the use of a particle with a verb forming a phrasal verb may or may not change the meaning of the whole word. For example these two sentences -He finished his work or He finished off his work , have the same meaning. She spread the cloth on the ground. She spread out the cloth on the ground.

Basically the particle is used with its original meaning. For example the word 'down' means to move to a lower stage. When it is used as a particle it has the same meaning as in case of - Bring down, Keep down etc. This will bring down temperature of the day. The government tried to keep down the rate of inflation. Here are a few of particles discussed with examples.

AT

The particle 'at' is very frequently used in writing and speaking English to express something or someone in space or time.

--At is used with many verbs to express direction of an activity towards someone or something in space or time. For example : look at, laugh at, stare at, jeer at, aim at, frown at.

--At is used to express when someone hits, holds or strikes someone. For example : Strike at , hurl at,  get at.


ABOUT

The particle 'about' is used mainly  to express relation between  verb and its object. For example : To think about, to state about,

--About is used with many verbs to express someone's movement in different directions. For example 'throw about'. It is used to show that one is moving in different directions making some violent actions, it is the verb that elucidates the related action. For example Rush about, run about, move about, throw about. 

--About is used with many verbs to express someone's movement without any purpose or use. For example : hanker about, hang about , wander about.At is used with many verbs to express direction 


---About is used with many verbs to express that something is happening or someone is making it happen. For example : Bring about, set about, come about.

---About is used with many verbs to express something or someone surrounding or enclosing. For example : throw about, hedge about. It gives the meaning of 'around' here.  Throw about her arms, hedge about wires etc.



AROUND

The particle 'around' is used mainly  to express movement of something r someone in a circle or curve. For example : Turn around, go around, stroll around. Round is also used with verbs instead of around to give similar meaning.


---Around is used with many verbs to express a movement of someone or something in a round direction. For example Walk around, move around, dance around, rush around, gather around.

---Around is used with many verbs to express a movement in someone's periphery without any job or purpose. For example : Hanker around, loiter around, mess around. 'About' is also used in place of around.

---Around is used with many verbs meaning thereby enclosing or encircling. For example : Throw around, gather around, centre around, revolve around. Round  is also used here.---

---Around is used with many verbs to express avoiding something or someone. For example : Skirt around, work around, get around. 


AWAY

The particle 'away' is used to express movement of something or someone from one place to another place. "Off' used in place of 'away' has also the similar meaning. For example : Take away, do away, walk away. The particle 'away' is generally followed by preposition 'with' or 'from'.  For example :  Do away with, walk away from, run away from.

---Away is used to express avoiding some activity, place, person or situation. For example - Keep children away from fire. Look away, walk away from.

--- Away is used to show separation from some person, a group of persons,some happening or some place.  For example : break away, strip away, peel away.

---Away is used to express removal from a particular place. It is used with a verb to show that a particular thing or situation is no more required, it should be removed from scene. For example: Throw away, do away with, frighten away.

---Away is used to show disappearance of someone or something from the scene. For example : Fade away, pass away, wear away, die away. Her voice died away in din.

---Away is used to express putting things in a safe place for the purpose of hiding or storing. For example : Pack away, bury away, store away, stash away, lock away,shut away, clear away, put away. 

---Away is used to express that an activity or process continues for a long time. For example 'work away' means to work hard for a long time. Bang away, pump away, hack away, plug away.


BACK


The particle 'Back' is used to express movement of something or someone to a place that they were in before. For example : Go back , Move back, Come back.

--- Back is used with a verb to express return of something or someone to a position where it was earlier. For example : Come back, Go back, Push back, Turn back, Look back, Push back.

---Back  is used with a verb to express position of someone or something from a central point or from where some action is taking place . For example :  Hold back, Stand back, Stay back, Pull back, Sit back, Call back.

---Back  with a verb gives the meaning of relating to past time or think about something happened in the past. look back, date back, take back, flash back, throw back, think back.

---Back  with a verb gives the meaning of restoring something or someone to a place or person where or with whom it was earlier. give back, pay back, send back, win back, get back.

--- Back is used with a verb to express repeating or returning to an action. For example : hit back, reply back, report back, strike back, fight back, call back, shoot back. 


BEFORE

--Before is used to express position of someone or something in front of or prior in terms of time or space. For example : go before, reach before, appear before, lie before, come before.


BY

By is used with a verb to form a phrasal verb giving different meanings. For example : Get by, come by, pass by.

-- By is used as an adverb or a preposition to form a phrasal verb to show movement past or close to someone or someone. For example : Go by, stand by, sit by, get by, push by, pass by.

-- By in a phrasal verb sometimes gives the meaning of visiting someone or a place casually or for a short time. For example stop by, sit by, call by, drop by, go by, come by, run by.

---By in a phrasal verb gives the impression of consistency or loyalty in an activity meaning thereby that one is always consistent or loyal in his actions. For example abide by, swear by, stick by, live by, stand by.

---By is used in a phrasal verb to express readiness or preparedness of something o a person. It means that a person or a thing is kept in readiness or preparedness for something that is going to happen. For example : Lay by, stand by, put by.



DOWN 

----Down is used with a verb forming a phrasal verb giving the impression of movement from a higher place to lower one.  For example : Go down, pull down, run down, get down, come down, sink down, take down, set down, pass down.

----Down is used with a verb to form a phrasal verb showing movement of a person or a thing from standing position to sitting or lying position or of putting something on the surface or ground. For example : Kneel down, bow down, bend down, plump down, lie down, sit down, set down stick down, reach down.

----Down shows movement on horizontal level rather than vertical one in place or time. For example : bear down or pass down, hand down.

----Down with a verb forming a phrasal verb gives the meaning of lowering or decreasing in degree, size or intensity. For example : Tone down, slow down, cut down, scale down, play down, cool down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of  fastening, fixing or attaching to someone or something. For example : Nail down, tie down, pin down, stamp down, screw down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the impression of attacking, collapsing or destroying. For example : Pull down, shoot down, grind down, cast down, fall down, chop down, hew down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the impression of completion or failing of an activity. For example : Shut down, break down. settle down, let down, step down, turn down, lay down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of drinking. For example : gulp down, swallow down, drink down, gobble down, wolf down, wash down.

-- Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of  writing or bringing on record. For example : Put down, note down, mark down, scribble down, lay down, jot down, copy down. 



SOME EXERCISES OF USE OF PHRASAL VERBS FOR PRACTICE  :

Exercise No. 1.

The following Phrasal Verbs have more than one meanings. Complete the following sets of sentences with one of these Phrasal Verbs.

Go through, Pick up, Set out, Give up, Take off, 

1. The children ................. their clothes and jumped into the river.
    The aeroplane ................. at the scheduled time. 

2. The young man has decided to ............... smoking.
     The rebels are not likely to ............... in near future.

3. The child is weak in his studies but he will .............with others soon.
     I shall try to ............you ......... in the morning while going to my office.

4. What  ................  your mind when you saw her ?
     I ................ all my pockets but did not find my purse.

5. They decided to ............... on their journey in the morning.
     She  began to .............. her all gifts ........... on the table.

(ANSWERS : 1.Took off 2. Give up  3. Make up  4. Went through  5. Set out.)



Exercise No. 2.


From the given phrasal verbs choose the following blanks with appropriate ones.

Go round, Come up, Set off, Show round, Go up , Let in, ask for, Get to, Lay on. 

Set off, go up , get to,  let in, show round, go round , lay on , ask for, Come up


Last Sunday, I with my friends had a holiday trip to a temple on a nearby  hill.  We all  

1............   .......... in a car early in the morning.  We were soon  2. .............  .......... some hair 

raising steep roads.  We all  3. ..........  .......... the temple after about  two hours. We had to wait 

for half an hour outside the temple before we were 4. ..........   ............ We hired a local guide 

who 5. ............ us ...........While 6............ ......... with the guide, there were a number of questions 

which 7. ......... ............  about the history of the temple. After we saw the temple we  started our 

downward journey and we reached a nearby valley. Lunch was  8. ........ .......... for all those who 

had 9. ............  .......... it because we had already taken packed lunch with us. We all had a 

memorable trip to a spectacular picnic spot.


(ANSWERS : 1.Set off,  2. going up, 3. got to,  4. let in, 5. showed round, 6.going round ,7. Came up,8.  laid on , 9.  asked for. )














































 He hurled a stone at me.  He struck at the door with a rod.















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