Thursday, 5 December 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - THEIR TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. ---PRONOUN

PARTS OF SPEECH -- Their types, Definitions, Explanation with examples. PRONOUN.



Words are used for expression of feelings, thoughts and description of observations.These words are grouped in the form of a sentence which makes a sense. The words have their specific functions in a sentence according to their form, usage and structure.These are classified as different Parts of Speech namely, Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, and interjection. Pronoun is explained in detail in the following paragraphs.



THE PRONOUN


A word used in place of a Noun or a Noun equivalent is called a Pronoun. 


The word Pronoun consists of two words i.e. Pro and Noun. It means For a Noun i.e. a word used for a Noun. 

For example : John is  resting because he is tired.  
The word 'he' used in place of 'John' is a Pronoun.

There are following types of Pronouns.

1. Personal Pronoun
2. Reflexive Pronoun
3.Emphatic Pronoun
4.Demonstrative Pronoun
5. Relative Pronoun
6. Interrogative Pronoun
7. Reciprocal Noun
8. Indefinite Pronoun.


PERSONAL PRONOUN

A Pronoun that describes a man, woman or a thing is called Personal Pronoun i.e. I, We, Me, Us, You, He, She, His, Her, They, Them, It etc. 'It' is used for animals,birds or non living things. 

Personal Pronouns are used for three types of persons, First Person, Second Person and Third Person. 
First Person -- Singular I, Me Plural We, Us.
Second Person -- Singular and Plural You
Third Person --  Singular He, Him, She, Her, It, Plural They Them.

As Pronoun is used in place of a Noun, it is used like Noun in Nominative Case, Objective Case and Possessive Case.






Nominative Case -- I, we, you, He, She, It and They.

Objective Case -- Me, us, you, Him, Her, It and Them.
Possessive Case -- My, Mine, Our, Ours, Your, Yours, His,His, Her, Hers, Its, Their, Theirs. 

It may be mentioned here that with He only His and with It Its is used. It is wrong to use apostrophe with Its.

Mine, ours, yours, Hers and Theirs are used as pronoun.
For example This book is mine and that is yours.

My, our, your, His, Her and Their are used as adjective as these are always followed by Noun.
For Example This is my book and that is your book.


Some Features of Personal Pronouns.

ONE

If all the three persons are to be used together in a sentence:

For a good work, seriatum will be Second person, third person and First person.
For example - You, He and I have done our duty.

For a wrong action - First Person, Third Person and Second Person. For example - I, he and you are at fault.

TWO

If the speaker involves other people in his activities then first person plural  'we' is used. For example -- He said to the people,"We should help the poor."   

In speaking of mankind 'we' is used. For example -- We  are the subject of God. We should obey orders of Almighty.

THREE

Second Person, You is used as singular and plural both.
For example -- You are my friend. (singular) You all are my friends. (Plural)

FOUR

'It' is used for non-living things, animals and young children.
For example --   The cow lives in its shed. It is his pet. The child resembles its mother. 

It is used with a pronoun or a noun to emphasize it. For example - It is he who is at fault. It is Lucy who is to blame.

It is used to express time and weather conditions. For example : 
It is very hot today. It is ten O' clock. It is raining today.

It is used to express exclamatory sentences. For example --
What a pleasant weather it is !
What a lovely child it is !


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Fill in the blanks in following sentences with suitable possessive pronouns.

We went to ......... house and our friends went to .........
We carried .......luggage and they carried .............
They reached .........house well in time but we reached ....... very late. We had to cook ...... food ourselves but they were served food by .......... neighbour. After having food our friends went to .......... bed very early but we could lay ........ beds very late.The next morning they came to ....... house and took all of us to ............ house. They said to us,"You and we will  do...... work together. We will not allow you to leave until we all finish ...... work." We all started doing ...... work. We enjoyed ....... a lot while doing .......work together. We all finished ..... work very soon.



SOLUTION



We went to our house and our friends went to theirs
We carried  our luggage and they carried theirs
They reached  their house well in time but we reached ours very late. We had to cook our food ourselves but they were served food by their neighbour. After having food our friends went to their bed very early but we could lay our beds very late.The next morning they came to our house and took all of us to their house. They said to us,"You and we will  do our work together. We will not allow you to leave until we all finish our work." We all started doing our work. We enjoyed ourselves a lot while doing our work together. We all finished our work very soon.


REFLEXIVE PRONOUN 

A reflexive pronoun is used to express that the action done by the subject has effect on the subject itself. For example Myself, ourselves, yourself, himself, herself and themselves etc.

He covered himself with a piece of cloth.
The child hurt itself.
One should help  oneself.
He did his work himself.
The rabbit hid itself in a bush.
By doing so she will harm herself.


EMPHATIC PRONOUN

Reflexive Pronouns used to lay emphasis are called Emphatic Pronouns. OR
Reflexive Pronouns used in an emphatic sense are called Emphatic Pronouns.

For example --
He himself did this work.
She was welcomed by her mother herself. 

His mother herself cooked food for herself.
The minister himself visited her to meet her.


Emphatic Pronoun is used to put emphasis so its proximity to the Subject is necessary. For example

The students were guided by the Principal himself.
The Principal himself guided the students. 

In these sentences himself is placed next to Principal in order to lay stress on the word 'Principal'. 


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


Select Reflexive Pronouns and Emphatic Pronouns in the following sentences.

1. By doing so she will land herself in a difficulty.
2. He himself instigated the children to do mischief.
3. She herself is responsible for her failure.
4. You will hurt yourself if you do so.
5. Sometimes she herself hates herself.
6. I myself shall try to do this work.
7. Her mother bought a new dress for herself.
8. My brother himself saw the thief in the street.
9. The culprit himself admitted his fault.
10. The poetess herself recited poems on the stage.
11. She murmured these words to herself in a suppressed voice. 


SOLUTION


(1. Reflexive Pronoun   2. Emphatic Pronoun )

1. By doing so she will land herself  (1) in a difficulty.
2. He himself (2) instigated the children to do mischief.
3. She herself (2) is responsible for her failure.
4. You will hurt yourself  (1) if you do so.
5. Sometimes she herself (2) hates herself.(1)
6. I myself  (2)shall try to do this work.
7. Her mother bought a new dress for herself. (1)
8. My brother himself (2) saw the thief in the street.
9. The culprit himself (2) admitted his fault.
10. The poetess herself (2) recited poems on the stage.
11. She murmured these words to herself (1) in a  suppressed voice.




DEMONSTRATIVE PRONOUN 


A Pronoun used to point out to some Noun already used is called a Demonstrative Pronoun.

The main pronouns of this kind are : This, These, That, Those, Such, Some, One, Ones, None etc.

This, That, One are used as singular number and These, Those and Ones are used as plural number. This and these are used for nearer objects and That and Those are used for distant objects. For example :

This is the house where I live now and that is the house where I lived earlier.

These are my books and those are yours.


INTERROGATIVE PRONOUN

A Pronoun used in asking questions is called Interrogative Pronoun.
Who, Whom, What, Which, Whose, Where, and When etc are words used as interrogative pronouns. 

Who, what and which are used in Nominative case, Whom is used in Objective case and Whose is used in Possessive case.
Who refers to persons only, Which refers to persons and things and What is neuter and applies to things only. 

Who and What are used in an indefinite sense that is without reference to class. 

Which is used with reference to a particular class and implies selection out of that class.   

For example--

Who painted this beautiful picture?
Whose picture is this ?
What is the price of this picture?
Where is your house situated?
Which of these is your picture?
By whom has this picture been painted? 

What is sometimes used to express exclamation also as
 What a fool he is ! What a jovial fellow he is !  


Distinction between 'Who', 'What' and 'Which' ---

Who is her father?     
 Mr Edward is her father.

What is her father?       
Her father is a teacher.

Which is her father?        
Her father is standing
first in the second row.


                                          
In the preceding sentences 'who' refers to name or parentage of a person. 

'What' refers to the profession of a person. 'Which' inquires about a particular person out of a definite group.



In the following sentences 'which' refers to a particular thing out of some given things.

Which book of these books is yours?
This is my pen which is yours? 





INDEFINITE PRONOUN



The pronoun that refers to persons or things in a general way is called Indefinite Pronoun. Pronouns like Some, many, few, one or other etc are called Indefinite Pronouns. For example -

One or the other of us will be there.
Many of them are Indians.
Some are born great.
Few escaped unhurt.
Somebody has stolen my watch.
Do good to others.
Nobody was there to rescue the child.
Did you ask anybody to come?
What is everybody's business is nobody's business.

All, any, anybody, everyone, everybody, few, many, no one, none, one, some, somebody or same are some examples of Indefinite Pronouns.

One is followed by one's i.e. One should do one's duty.
Everybody, Everyone, anybody are followed by 'his' or 'her' i.e. Everybody should do his work well. 



RECIPROCAL PRONOUNS

Compound Pronouns connected with each other expressing their relation are called Reciprocal Pronouns.
For example --

Both the brothers love each other very much.
Three brothers helped one another.

Each other is used to express relation between two persons. One another is used express relation of more than two persons.



DISTRIBUTIVE PRONOUN

Distributive Pronoun is used to refer to one or some of given persons or things For example Each, Either, Neither, None.

Each of these girls won a prize.
Either of the two boys will win a prize.
Neither of the two boys won a prize.
None of the boys in the class won a prize.


Either or neither is used between two persons or things. Each is used for more than two things or persons.

Each, either, neither are followed by singular form of verb.

Either of you can participate in the competition.
Neither of you was able to win the prize.
Each of them was paid the amount.
None of them was paid the amount.
(For 'none' singular and plural both forms of verb are used.) 

None but the brave deserve the fair.
None but fools have faith is such things.

Have you brought me a letter?
 There was none for you.



  RELATIVE PRONOUN

A Pronoun used to refer to some noun going before called its antecedent is called a Relative Pronoun. For example --

1. The boy who stands first gets a prize.
2. I who am your friend will stand by you through thick and thin.
3. The time which is lost is lost for ever.
4. This is one of the most interesting books which have ever                   appeared.
5. There are some people who seldom think before they leap.
6. Those whom the gods love die young.
7. He is the boy who is my friend.
8. Where are the boys who want to see me?
9. I know the man who stole your watch.

In these sentences the words 'who, whom, which' are Relative Pronouns. The Noun and Pronoun used preceding these Relative Pronouns are their antecedents.

In the first sentence 'who' is related to the noun 'the boy'. In second sentence 'Who' is related to Pronoun 'I'. In third sentence 'which' is related to 'the time'. In fourth sentence 'which' is related to 'books'. In fifth sentence 'who' is related to 'people'. In sixth sentence 'whom' is related to Pronoun Those'. In sixth to eighth  sentences 'who' is related to 'boy', boys and man respectively. The words preceding these relative pronouns are their antecedents.   


SOME FEATURES OF RELATIVE PRONOUNS

ONE


It is worth noting that the Relative Pronouns are used to join two sentences. For example-- 

She is the girl. The girl was singing a song.
If these two sentences are joined together, the sentence will be-
She is the girl who was singing a song.

This is the book. I wanted this book.
This is the book which I wanted.

Which is the boy? The boy stole her purse.
Which is the boy who stole her purse?

My uncle gave me a pen. I love the pen.
I love the pen which my uncle gave me.

He is the teacher. All the students respect the teacher.
He is the teacher whom all the students respect. 

I bought a watch last month. I lost the watch.
I lost the watch that I bought last month. 



TWO

Who, Whom and Whose are generally used for human beings. Who is used in Nominative case, Whom in Objective case and Whose in Possessive case. 
For example --

He is the boy who always tops in the class.
He is the man whom I paid the money.
She is the girl whose purse was lost.


Which is used for animals and non-living things. That is used for non - living things. 

I lost the dog that I purchased  last month.
He got repaired the house that he inherited.
The house which he purchased is not in good condition.


THREE

Generally an antecedent precedes the Relative Pronoun but sometimes it is not used or is not clear. For example -- 

Whom the gods love die young.
(Those whom the gods love die young.)
Select the students you like.
(Select the students whom you like.)
These are the students the Principal honoured.
(These are the students whom the Principal honoured.)
Write on the topic you like.
(Write on the topic that you like.) ONE



FOUR

Sometimes instead of 'that' 'what' is used but its antecedent noun or pronoun is missing. For example :

The fat man eats what he likes.
(The fat man eats (anything ) what he likes.)
She purchased what she needed.
(She purchased everything  what she needed.)




EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


 Fill up the blanks in following sentences with Who, Whom, Which, That etc.

1. I ........am captain , will lead the team.
2. This is the only one of these books .......  I love to read.
3. The articles ......... are kept in this basket are not for sale.
4. He ........ does not support me is my enemy.
5. Is she the lady .......... you consider the owner of this house?
6. Those women .......... are virtuous are always respected.
7. He ........ I worship is the Almighty.
8. Those bananas ......... are raw should not be taken.
9. Those ......... are mighty are always humble.
10. This is the man ......... I consider was in the garden.




SOLUTION


1. I  who am captain , will lead the team.
2. This is the only one of these books that  I love to read.
3. The articles which are kept in this basket are not for sale.
4. He who does not support me is my enemy.
5. Is she the lady whom you consider the owner of this house?
6. Those women who are virtuous are always respected.
7. He whom I worship is the Almighty.
8. Those bananas which are raw should not be taken.
9. Those who are mighty are always humble.
10. This is the man who I consider was in the garden.




IMPORTANT USE OF PRONOUNS

ONE


When a Collective Noun describes about a whole group, a Pronoun used in its place is always in its singular form. For example--

The jury gave its decision.
The class honoured its teacher.
The Army welcomed its commander.


TWO

When a Collective Noun describes about different persons of the group, a Pronoun used in its place is  in its plural form. For example--


The committee left their seats after deciding the case.
The jury were divided in their opinion.

THREE

When two or more Nouns are joined together by 'and', for them a plural Pronoun is used.
For example--

John and Peter are there. They will help you.
Lucy and Mary are friends. They help each other.


FOUR


When two nouns joined together give the impression of a single entity, a Pronoun of singular number is used for them. For example --

The secretary and cashier is at fault.
The Chairman and the Chief guest is coming late.

FIVE

When two or more Nouns are combined together by either....or and Neither ...... nor, singular form of pronoun is used for them.
For example --

Either Gray or his brother has lost his pen.
Neither John nor Peter finished his work.

SIX

With Anybody, everybody, everyone, anyone, each etc.the pronoun he or she is used. For example --

Everyone should do his duty.
Anyone of these boys can help if he wishes.

If gender is not given the masculine gender for pronoun is used.
For example--

Everyone tried to do his best.
Each of these will have his own way.

SEVEN

After the introductory word 'It' Pronoun in Nomonative case is used. For example --

Who is there ? It is he.
Who knocked at the door? It is I.
It is you. It is she.


EIGHT

With words - Let, between, but, like, and prepositions, Pronoun in Objective case is used. For example--

Let him do this work.
It is between you and me.
You should not be afraid of him.





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Saturday, 30 November 2019

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH - THEIR TYPES, DEFINITIONS & EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES. --NOUN

DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH 


Words combined in a meaningful way form a sentence. These words do different functions in a sentence. According to their form, usage and structure they are divided into following eight parts. These are called Parts of Speech.


1. Noun 2. Pronoun 3.Adjective 4. Verb 5. Adverb 6. Preposition 7. Conjunction 8. Interjection.




These parts of speech are explained with examples as under :


THE NOUN 

A word expressing a thing, place, person, quality or state of condition, position or attitude is called a Noun.

In other words a noun is the name of a person, place,thing or a quality. For example :

A book is lying on the table. (Thing)
John teaches Lucy. (Person)
They moved from a village to the city. (Place)
He lives in London. (Place)
Honesty is the best policy. (Quality)
My body needs rest now. (Condition)
Ornaments are made of gold. (Material)



Noun is of following five types.

1. Proper Noun
2. Common Noun
3. Collective Noun
4. Material Noun
5. Abstract Noun


PROPER NOUN

The name of a particular person, place or thing is called a Proper Noun. For example : 

John lives in a village. (Person)
Paris is a beautiful city. (Place)
Kohinoor is a precious gem. (Thing)

First alphabet of a Proper noun is always in capital letter.


COMMON NOUN 

The name given in common to every person, thing or place of the same kind or class is called a Common Noun. For example :


He reads a book. (Thing)
Girls sing a song. (Person)
He lives in a village.(Place)




COLLECTIVE NOUN

The name of a collection of persons or things taken together and spoken of as one whole is called a Collective Noun. For example :


He is sitting in the class. 
He is a member of the committee.




MATERIAL NOUN

The name of the matter or substance of which things are made is called a Material Noun. For Example:


The table is made of wood.
Fetch me some water.
Gold is a precious metal.
She wears a silver ring.


ABSTRACT NOUN

The name given to a quality, action or state is called Abstract Noun.
For example :

Health is wealth.
People praise his acts of bravery.
The jury delivered its judgement.
He spent his childhood in this town.




EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


Pick out Nouns in the following sentences and tell the kind of each.

1. Women of virtue are always respected.

2. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
3. The committee respects him for his honesty.
4. Iron is a useful metal.
5. Who does not love the beauty of  Nature?
6. They enjoyed beautiful sights.
7. The army fought for the freedom of the country.
8. The moon shines in the sky.
9. The teacher is teaching the students.
10. This box is made of iron.




SOLUTION

Words in bold and italics in following sentences are Nouns.

1. Women of virtue are always respected.
2. Cleanliness is next to godliness.
3. The committee respects him for his honesty.
4. Iron is a useful metal.
5. Who does not love the beauty of  Nature?
6. They enjoyed beautiful sights  in Paris.
7. The army fought for the freedom of the country.
8. The moon shines in the sky.
9. The teacher is teaching the students.
10. This box is made of iron.

1. Women (Common) Virtue (Abstract)
2. Cleanliness , godliness ( Abstract)
3. Committee (Collective) Honesty (Abstract)
4.  Iron, Metal (Material) 
5. Beauty (Abstract) Nature (Proper)
6. Sights (Common) Paris (Proper)
7. Army (Collective) Freedom ( Abstract) Country (Common) 

8. Moon, Sky (Proper)
9. Teacher, Students (Common)
10. Box (Common) Iron (Material)


FORM ABSTRACT NOUNS FROM THE FOLLOWING WORDS


Humble, Sweet, Dark, Clever, Brilliant, High, Poor, Laugh, Vain, Safe, Give, Go, Fragrant, Broad, Proud, Narrate, Stable, Kin, Relate
Necessary, Devote.

SOLUTION
Humility, Sweetness, Darkness, Cleverness, Brilliance, Height, Poverty, Laughter, Vanity, Safety, Gift, Gait, Fragrance, Breadth, Pride, Narration, Stability, Kinship, Relation, Necessity, Devotion.






SOME FEATURES OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF NOUN


1.All nouns except Abstract Noun can be felt and touched i.e
abstract nouns describe qualities, state, or condition of  a person or thing as Honesty, Poverty, Vacancy, Childhood, Shortage, Appointment, Superiority, goodness etc. 


Abstract nouns can be formed from 
VERB  Obey - Obedience, Guide - Guidance, Run - Race
Adjective  Honest - Honesty, Strong - Strength Weak - Weakness
Common Noun Child - Childhood, Friend -Friendship.

2. Common Nouns can be changed into their plurals. Boy- Boys.


3. Proper Noun, Abstract Noun, Material Noun, Collective Noun cannot be changed into plurals. If these are changed into plural these are used as Common Nouns.

All the classes are in the playground.
Many Newtons spend their lives unhonoured.


4. If a Proper Noun is preceded by the, it becomes a Common Noun.  He is the Shakespeare of modern times. 


5. A noun used as an adjective : 


I met a village girl who lives in a mud house.

6. An adjective used as a Noun:

People look down upon the poor.





























EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Rewrite the following sentences using Noun form of the words in bold and italics without changing the meaning and sense of the sentence. 


1. She is beautiful and she is very proud of it.
2. Although he is  strong yet he is  humble.
3. The engineer was measuring the ground.
4. Children respect their elders.
5. His habits have effected his health badly.
6. He lost the game because he is careless.
7. I am certain that he will win the game.
8. I do not know where he has gone.
9. After people dispersed, they started for their destination.
10. Who paid the bill of dinner last night?
11. To be brief is the soul of wit.
12. How he expresses is not clear.






SOLUTION


1. She is possesses beauty and she is very proud of her beauty.
2. Despite his strength he possesses humility.
3. The engineer was taking measurements of the ground.
4. Children pay  respect  to their elders.
5. His habits have a bad effect  on his health.
6. He lost the game because of his carelessness.
7. I can say with certainty that he will win the game.
8. I do not have knowledge where he has gone.
9. After people's dispersal, they started for their destination.
10. Who made payment  of the bill of dinner last night?
11. Brevity is the soul of wit.
12. His way of expression lacks clarity.
 
























Tuesday, 5 November 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , OMISSIONS,SPELLING OR GRAMMAR MISTAKES, - CORRECTING IN A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH



Editing in English Grammar 
Error Spotting - 
Omissions - Spelling or Grammatical Mistakes - Correcting 


The importance of a written work being impeccable or grammatically correct can hardly be undermined. It is of utmost importance that the written work is error free and words are correctly spelled, be it some business correspondence or a document required for an academic purpose. In either case a trivial lapse  in a document  can cause a big loss to the purpose for which it is created. Besides it being error free, there should be necessarily a flow of continuity and coherence of thoughts in the article.

 The English language is vast, cumbersome and sometimes difficult and thus it requires good practice and  knowledge for writing a document correctly and deftly. A writer generally first prepares a draft of his writing and then checks it to make corrections, amendments or improvements in it. For this knowledge of using an appropriate word at an appropriate place is very essential. This not only makes it correct but also effective and appealing to the mind of the reader. Besides a writing being grammatically correct there are other factors also required to make it perfect. The language used should be correct. The matter contained must have coherence. For this one needs rich vocabulary and complete grasping of the subject. 

The writer always writes a document correctly but mistakes creep in. There may be mistakes of omission, spellings or wrong use of words. One has to spot errors of all types in a draft document. For this it is very important to learn and understand the basic rules of the language such as structure grammar and punctuation.

 In vocabulary building, the problem is not so much finding new words or even finding out what they mean. The problem is to remember them, to fix them permanently in one's mind. One of the effective ways of fixing the meaning of words is getting at the roots of words - taking words apart i.e. to know about prefixes, suffixes and the main word. This makes a word stick.  

For a technical editor it is also necessary to know the purpose and nature of contents of the writing so as to determine what type of the readers the writer is addressing to. This will help in making the writing more purposeful and effective.










Here  are passages for practice of editing a draft.


ONE


In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words. Spot the errors and correct them.



People reside in the vincity of a  hinterland near the ocean generally  is fond for taking sea food. Most fish is the principal food of these people as  is easily avalable in the area. There are different specis of fish that are used  food by the people. Fugu is one of the species of fish used as food to people. Koreans relish eat delicious food of Fugu fish which is also known  puffer fish. It is a fish in small size. It has spikes with its body which it uses  saving itself from its enemies in the ocean. Its spikes containing a type of poison that it injects in the enemy. Due  these spikes this fish is considered as a danger fish.         


On reading the stanza written above one easily finds errors in the underlined words. After correcting these errors sentences will be as under.




People residing in the vicinity of a  hinterland near the ocean generally are fond of taking sea food. Mostly fish is the principal food of these people as it is easily available in the area. There are different species of fish that are used as food by the people. Fugu is one of the species of fish used as food by people. Koreans relish eating delicious food of Fugu fish which is also known as puffer fish. It is a fish of small size. It has spikes on its body which it uses to save itself from its enemies in the ocean. Its spikes contain a type of poison that it injects into the enemy. Due to these spikes this fish is considered as a dangerous fish.         



TWo

The following sentences have mistakes of spellings, grammar and missing words. Trace out the errors and correct them. 



The task _ cyber security experts today become thoroughly engaging and challenge by hackers and cyber criminals constantly upping there game. Cyber security is a rapid expending field full of much exciting work profiles. Since the risk of cyber attacks is great than ever, companies are fighting to full their ranks of professionals which can protect theirs information and networks against cyber infringements. Whyle the roles played with cyber security experts differs from profile by profile, the basic job remains the same too monitor, investigate and advice on how to stay save in cyber world. A background on technology and IT though are necessary prerequisite for a expert but he needs to constantly update oneself with not only the latest gadgets and tools but also within the latest trends and happening in the domain.




SOLUTION

The task of cyber security experts today becomes thoroughly engaging and challenging with hackers and cyber criminals constantly upping their game. Cyber security is a rapidly expanding field full of many exciting work profiles. Since the risk of cyber attacks is greater than ever, companies are fighting to fill their ranks with professionals who can protect their information and networks against cyber infringements. While the roles played by cyber security experts differ from profile to profile, the basic job remains the same to monitor, investigate and advise on how to stay safe in cyber world. A background in technology and IT though is necessary prerequisite for an expert yet he needs to constantly update himself with not only the latest gadgets and tools but also with the latest trends and happenings in the domain.



EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE



ONE

In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words in sentences. Find out and mark the errors.




Nuclear fission is a process with 
which a unstable atom splits
by two or more smaller pieces 
that is more stable.The fission
 of heavy elements is a exothermic
 reacition and huge  amounts of 
energy is released in the process.
Most of this are binary fissions
 that produce two charged frigments.
 Extra neutrons  also released in
the process and these can then spleet
 additional atoms, resulting at a chain
 reaction that releases  lot of energy.
There are also way to modulate the 
chain reaction with  soaking up the 
neutrons. Within the nucleus their
are diferent forces that act between
the particle. The strong nuclear force 
is the forces between two or more
 nucleons. This force bind protons 
and neutrons togather inside the
 nucleus. The electromagnatic force
 causes the repulsion between likely 
charged protons.These too forces
 produce opposite affect in the
 nucleus. The former act to hold
all protons and neutrons togather 
whiel the electromagnetic force
 act to push protons farther apart.







SOLUTION


Nuclear fission is a process by 
which an unstable atom splits
into two or more smaller pieces 
that are more stable.The fission
 of heavy elements is an exothermic
 reaction and huge  amounts of 
energy are released in the process.
Most of these are binary fissions
 that produce two charged fragments.
 Extra neutrons  are also released in
the process and these can then split
 additional atoms, resulting into a chain
 reaction that releases a lot of energy.
There are also ways to modulate the 
chain reaction by soaking up the 
neutrons. Within the nucleus there
are different forces that act between
the particles. The strong nuclear force 
is the force between two or more
 nucleons. This force binds protons 
and neutrons together inside the 
nucleus.The electromagnetic force 
causes the repulsion between like 
charged protons. These two forces 
produce opposite effect in the
 nucleus.The former acts to hold
 all protons and neutrons together 
while the electromagnetic force 
acts to push protons further apart.




TWO

In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words in sentences. Find out and mark the errors.

The benifits of homework  students is the most debate issue among teachers,parents and
students. The very word evokes  great negative connotations to everyone involvd, students, parents and teachers. A majorty of the people think of homework for doing more harm then good in causing unnecessary stress for everyone. Others believes that it developes a habit of thinking more independantly among students. One benifit of homework is that it helps students to work togather among teachers and parents. Parents too got more involved their children's educational life. Homework make the students more responsible  the habit of discipline and punctuality. But the quantam of homework remain the issue that how homework should be given to a student.




SOLUTION


The benefits of homework to students is the most debated issue among teachers,parents and students. The very word evokes  great negative connotations to everyone involved, students, parents and teachers. A majority of the people think of homework as doing more harm than good by causing unnecessary stress to everyone. Others believe that it develops a habit of thinking more independently among students. One benefit of homework is that it helps students to work together with teachers and parents. Parents too get more involved in their children's educational life. Homework makes the students more responsible by the habit of discipline and punctuality. But the quantum of homework remains the issue that how much homework should be given to a student.


THREE

In the following sentences there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words in sentences. Find out mistakes  mark and correct them.



Two friends set for on a journey to the adjoining town. They were to made some perchases of householdes there. Through  the day they remaned busy in the town. They started there journey back to their homes by the evening. They had covered  little distance when it start getting dark. On their way to  homes there was a thick forest. The forest was infested by wild animals. It was a very risk job to cross the forest at night. Both of the friends were in  fix what to do in that time. They were not able to decide wheather to stay back in the town and go to their homes in the morning or to continue their journey and cross over the forest at night. But they decided to continue their journey. Soon they were engulfed with darkness. They could not hardly see anything near them. Strange voices of animals started coming from all the sides in the forest. They were preplexed and afraid but they continued to walking. After sometime they chanced on to see a small hut near their passage. There was a dim light by a lamp in the hut. They knocked at the door. A thin and frail sage came out. He offered to them to come in the hut and spent the night there. They both went in and spent the night there.They started their journey back to their homes at the next morning. They thanked to the sage for his kind help to them.




SOLUTION

Two friends set out for on a journey to the adjoining town. They were to make some purchases of household goods there. Through  out the day they remained busy in the town. They started their journey back to their homes in the evening. They had covered a little distance when it started getting dark. On their way to their homes there was a thick forest. The forest was infested with wild animals. It was a very risky job to cross the forest at night. Both of the friends were in a fix what to do at that time. They were not able to decide whether to stay back in the town and to go to their homes in the morning or to continue their journey and cross over the forest at night. But they decided to continue their journey. Soon they were engulfed by darkness. They could not hardly see anything near them. Strange voices of animals started coming from all the sides in the forest. They were perplexed and afraid but they continued to walking. After sometime they chanced upon to see a small hut near their passage. There was a dim light of a lamp in the hut. They knocked at the door. A thin and frail sage came out. He offered to them to come in the hut and spend the night there. They both went in and spent the night there.They started their journey back to their homes in the next morning. They thanked to the sage for his kind help to them.





























Thursday, 31 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , OMISSIONS - MISSING WORDS - CORRECTING IN A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH


Editing in English Grammar 
- Error Spotting - Omissions - Missing words - Correcting 



A writer writes about what he thinks or observes around himself. First he accumulates all this in his mind and then he puts it  down in writing through an appropriate medium i.e. language or words. This all is an instantaneous and continuous process. Further it is written too with a similar pace. In the process of writing sometimes the writer thinks certain words in his mind but skips those while writing and this goes unnoticed. This is called omission of words which requires correction for a correct and complete final form of writing. This correcting of omitted words also forms a part of Editing in English Grammar. To understand it better here is a sentence.


Editing is generally during proof reading.

By a casual reading one gets the idea what the writer wants to convey in this sentence but reading it again makes it clear that there is something missing in the sentence. It becomes clear that the main verb in this sentence is missing. So the correct form of the sentence will be as under.

Editing is generally done during proof reading.

In an examination a short text with one omission in each line is given. A candidate is required to find out and provide the words, a clause or a phrase missing in the given sentence or paragraph. Numbered blanks are provided with each line for writing the corrected word. The missing word is to be written with the words prior to it and after it. In the sentence written above it will be -

generally - done - during

In such cases, generally, omission of following types of words are observed.These are to be kept in mind while attempting these questions.

First of all there are omissions relating to tenses or verb forms which are to be noticed and corrected.

In many cases there are omissions of prepositions in these sentences. Proper preposition is required to be used in the sentence.

Sometimes articles or determiners are missing in the sentences. These are to be identified and be provided in the sentence. Similarly conjunctions too are required to provided in the sentences.

In certain cases proper pronouns are not used in the sentences. These are required to be corrected.

In certain cases number of nouns is also not used correctly. These also require to be checked and corrected. 

For this purpose a fair good knowledge of vocabulary and grammar is essential. The very first reading of draft or manuscript gives an idea of missing links between different parts of the text. So reading time and again makes the omissions clearer to the reader.

First of all read the complete passage or text to understand the purpose of writing of the writer. This will also give first hand assessment about style and language used.Try to understand the use of tense in the passage. See that appropriate tense is used in all the sentences. For this subject and verb relation too is to be checked and corrected where it is incorrect. Sometimes modals or main verbs are not used correctly. Either of these two is sometimes missing in sentences.

Here under are some exercises of omissions for practice.



ONE



The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.

1. Both sisters  exceedingly     
       sisters are exceedingly

intelligent but the younger 

beautiful than the elder .



2. In her room a candle
      a candle was
 burning dimly the table and

 she was sitting alone the

 chair looking the wall.



3. Time is precious than
more precious  

money. It said that Money 

 lost can regained but time

once lost can't recalled.





SOLUTION 




1. Both sisters  exceedingly     
       sisters are exceedingly

intelligent but the younger is 


beautiful than the elder one.



2. In her room a candle

       was
 burning dimly on the table and

 she was sitting alone in the


 chair looking at the wall.




3. Time is more precious than

more precious  

money. It is said that Money 


 lost can be regained but time


once lost can't be recalled.




TWO


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.





One day during  last week I 

 my friends was travelling 

by a car. After we covered a 

little distance when heard a 

great noise  the road side. We 

saw that many people  gathered 

near  big building. They were moving 
here and there in confusion. Some 
them  shouting loudly. We stopped
our car and went  that place. We
saw that the building was fire. Many 
persons were stranded  the building. 
A fire fighting engine  standing there 
and firemen were trying  douse the fire 
but they were not able to control. 
 A large number  flames coming out
 of the building were flying high  
 sky. People standing there told me 
 that a rubber factory and the building
 caught fire due electric short circuiting.
 The firemen with  help of local people
 were able to draw  a large number of
 labourers stuck  the factory. The 
 site presenting a very heart rending
 scene. We felt very sad see all this.






SOLUTION



One day during the last week I 
with my friends was travelling 
by a car. After we had covered a 
little distance when we heard a 
great noise on the road side. We 
saw that many people were gathered 
near a big building. They were moving 
here and there in confusion. Some of
them were shouting loudly. We stopped
our car and went near that place. We
saw that the building was on fire. Many 
persons were stranded inside the building. 
A fire fighting engine was standing there 
and firemen were trying to douse the fire 
but they were not able to control it.
 A large number of flames coming out
 of the building were flying high towards 
 sky. People standing there told me that

 that was a rubber factory and the building
 caught fire due to electric short circuiting.
 The firemen with the help of local people
 were able to draw out a large number of
 labourers stuck inside the factory. The 
 site was presenting a very heart rending
 scene. We felt very sad to see all this.













THREE


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



The food we consume daily    
daily is
converted  glucose, which
fuels the cells  the body. The
excess glucose in the system 
stored in the form  fat. Insulin,
a hormone made  the pancreas,
is a shuttle  the glucose in the
system. If the system  excess
 glucose,  insulin production
goes . If one regularly binges
eat then the body ends  
requiring more insulin  shuttle
the glucose  cells. this is 
referred  pre-diabetes or
insulin resistance. One need
then few healthy dietary 
changes  lifestyle modifications
 help prevent the onset 

 pre-diabetes or control diabetes.







SOLUTION
The food we consume daily is
converted into glucose, which
fuels the cells in the body. The
excess glucose in the system is 
stored in the form of fat. Insulin,
a hormone made by the pancreas,
is a shuttle for the glucose in the
system. If the system has excess
 glucose, the insulin production
goes up. If one regularly binges
eat then the body ends up 
requiring more insulin to shuttle
the glucose to cells. this is 
referred as pre-diabetes or
insulin resistance. One needs
then a few healthy dietary 
changes and lifestyle modifications
that help prevent the onset 
of pre-diabetes or control diabetes.







FOUR


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



Way information technology 
 and artificial intelligence are 
influencing society, the human teacher 
be replaced by mechanical teachers 
future. Children  learn individually
 home sans school, sans human teachers.
" It is difficult to say what  impossible 
for the dream  yesterday is the
 hope of today and  reality of 
tomorrow. " says  educationist. If
learning was to  only about acquiring 
information , robot or tele-teacher 
would be the right choice but  educate 
a person meant only  stuff him or her
 facts or figures. " Education is
not filling  a pail but the lighting 
 a fire." says W.B. Yeats. One
wonders  a machine will be able
to light a fire  the young hearts.
Devoid  human warmth and 
emotions,  the electronic educator
ever be able to establish  emotional

bond between  teacher and students









SOLUTION

The way information technology 
 and artificial intelligence are influencing
influencing society, the human teacher will 
be replaced by mechanical teachers in
future. Children will learn individually
at home sans school, sans human teachers.
" It is difficult to say what is impossible 
for the dream of yesterday is the
 hope of today and the reality of 
tomorrow. " says an educationist. If
learning was to be only about acquiring 
information , a robot or tele-teacher 
would be the right choice but to educate 
a person meant only to stuff him or her
with facts or figures. " Education is
not filling of a pail but the lighting 
of a fire." says W.B. Yeats. One
wonders if a machine will be able
to light a fire in the young hearts.
Devoid of human warmth and 
emotions, will the electronic educator
ever be able to establish an emotional
bond between a teacher and students.



FIVE


In the following sentences there are errors of omission, spellings and grammar. Spot the errors and correct them. Write the incorrect and correct word and underline the correct word.




During the morning prayer, I standing in the first row. But I had lost in my thoughts all the time. My teacher notice this but did not pointed out it to me.  As the prayer over, I along  other students moved to the class room. I did not felt like studying through out the day. The thought of mine friend occupied my mind all the day. I was thinking that my friend will not be coming to school no more. His name was struck of from the rolls of the school as he did not paid his school fee. The principle had announce this in the school. My friend's father was a employee in an factory. That factory laid of staff and his father had lost his services. As his father could not paid his fee in the school, he  extricated from the school. When I reach home in the evening, I narrated the incident  my father.My father asked me how my friend is in his studies. I told him that my friend always had top in the class. My father decide to pay all the dues of my friend in the school. He pay me the amount and send me to his house. I felt very happy that my friend had be able  continue his studies.








SOLUTION

During the morning prayer, I was standing in the first row. But I was lost in my thoughts all the time. My teacher noticed this but did not point out it to me.  As the prayer was over, I along with other students moved to the class room. I did not feel like studying through out the day. The thought of my friend occupied my mind all the day. I was thinking that my friend would not be coming to school anymore.His name was struck off from the rolls of the school as he had not paid his school fee. The principal had announced this in the school. My friend's father was an employee in a factory. That factory laid off staff and his father had lost his service. As his father could not pay his fee in the school, he was extricated from the school. When I reached home in the evening, I narrated the incident to my father. My father asked me how my friend was in his studies. I told him that my friend always had topped in the class. My father decided to pay all the dues of my friend in the school. He paid me the amount and sent me to his house. I felt very happy that my friend would be able to continue his studies .