Thursday, 12 April 2018

NOUN - CASE --- FUNCTIONS OF A NOUN ---- DEFINITION WITH EXAMPLES

NOUN AND CASE : FUNCTIONS OF THE NOUNS

A word that denotes a thing, place,person, quality, state, condition, position or attitude is called a Noun. A Noun is the name of a person, thing or a place.

Name of a Thing : Book, Chair

Name of a Place : City, Rome  

Name of a Person : John, Alice

Name of a Quality : Strength, Bravery

Name of a Work : Job, Deed

Name of a Condition : Rest, Sleep

Following are the functions of a Noun :
1. Subject of the Verb

2. Object of the Verb or
     of the Preposition

3. Complement of the Verb

4. Possessing the Noun

5. Apposition to a Noun

6. Being Addressed

On the basis of these functions of  a Noun, Cases are decided. A Noun is used in the following cases :


1. Nominative Case

2. Objective Case

3. Possessive Case

4. Complement of the Verb

5. Case in Apposition

6. Nominative of Address

7. Nominative Absolute



1. Nominative Case :

When a Noun is used as a subject of the Verb, it is in the Nominative Case. 

For Example :

 John writes a letter.

In this sentence John is 'Subject'  writes is  'Verb' . OR  John is  subject of  verb writes.  'John' has been used as Subject of the verb writes. Here John is used in Nominative case. 

Alice is plucking flowers. 

In this sentence Alice is 'Subject' and  is plucking is 'Verb'. Alice is Subject of the Verb 'is plucking.' Alice has been used as Subject of the Verb is plucking. Here Alice is used in Nominative case.   



2. Objective Case : 


When a noun is used as an object to the verb it is called Noun in Objective case.         For Example :  

The teacher teaches the students.

In this sentence ' the students' is a Noun in Objective case.

In other words 'the students' is an object to the verb 'teaches'.

 Boys are playing football.

In this sentence ''football' is a Noun in objective Case.

In other words 'football' is an object to the verb ''playing'. 

Method to distinguish between a Noun in Subjective Case & Objective Case :

A Noun in Subjective Case is identified by substituting the word 'who' in place of noun. If answer to this question is noun, this noun is a noun in subjective case.

A Noun in Objective Case is identified by substituting the words 'what or whom'. If the answer to the question is noun, it is a noun in objective case.

For example : 

Mother loves her son.

In this sentence 'Mother and her son' are two nouns. 'Loves' is a verb.
First substitute 'who' in place of 'mother' - Who loves her son? The answer is ' mother' .  So the noun mother is a noun in subjective case. 
Now substitute 'whom' in place of the noun 'her son'. - Mother loves 'whom'. The answer is 'her son'. So the noun 'her son' is a noun in objective case.

Boys play football.   

Substitute 'what' in place of the noun 'football'. -- Boys play -- what? 
The answer to the question is 'football'. Thus the Noun 'football' is a noun in objective case.

Sometimes there are two objects in a sentence. For example : 

Father gave his son a book.

In this sentence, 'his son' and 'a book' are two objects. The object 'his son' nearer to verb is called Indirect Object and next to Indirect verb 'a book' is called a direct object.

In order to find out whether a noun used as Indirect Object is a Noun in objective case or not substitute the word 'whom' and in case of a direct object substitute the word 'what'. The answer in both the cases will be a noun. So these nouns are nouns in objective case.

In the given sentence both the nouns ' his son' and 'a book' are nouns in objective case.

There are two ways to write sentences with two objects.
1. Mother gave her son food.
2. Mother gave food to her son.







3. Possessive Case: 


A noun used to show relation or possession is called a Possessive case noun. 
For example :  
My father's shirt is white.

In this sentence the noun 'My father's' shows relation with shirt. So the noun 'My father's' is a noun in Possessive Case.

Apostrophe with s is used to express relation or possession of living things only. In case of non living things apostrophe with s is not used. Instead words 'of the' are used. It is wrong to say - The table's leg is broken. The correct way is - The leg of the table is broken.




4 Complement to the Verb : 



If a noun is used with a verb to make the meaning or sense of the sentence complete, the noun is called a noun complement to the verb. 

For example : 
 He is a student. 
In this sentence the noun ' a student'  is adjoined with verb is to make a complete sense or meaning. Thus 'a student' is a noun complement to the verb 'is'. 

Generally words like is am are was were seem appear look become are used.
His mother appeared sad.
In this sentence 'sad' is added to the verb appeared to make the sense complete.

Both the boys became friends
Here 'friends' is added to the verb became to complete the meaning.

Complements are of two types : 
1. Subjective complement
2. Objective complement

A complement having relation with Subject in the sentence is called a Subjective complement. 

For example :  
His son became a doctor.

In this sentence noun a doctor is a complement to the verb became  but it describes about the subject 'his son'. So it is a Subjective complement to the verb 'became'.


Boys elected his son captain. 

In this sentence 'captain' is a complement to the verb elected but it describes about the object 'his son'. So it is an objective complement.





5. Noun Case in Apposition : 


In certain cases two nouns describe the same thing or person and these both nouns have one case. Such nouns are called Noun Case in Apposition. 
For example : 
His son, a doctor is my friend.
In this sentence both the nouns describe about one person. So this is a case of Noun Case in Apposition.This sentence can also be described in two sentences 
e.g. His son is my friend. A doctor is my friend. His son and a doctor tell about the same person. 

The second noun doctor is a Case in Apposition of the second noun His son.  

Apposition means proximity. 




6.Nominative of Address :


When a noun is used to address a person or a thing such a noun is called a noun used for nominative address. 
For example : 
Children, do not make a noise.
Boys, work hard.
Follow me, friends.

In these sentences the nouns children, boys and friends are nouns of nomination of address case. 



7. Nominative Absolute :


In certain cases nouns are used in nominative case but they are not connected with the main sentence by a verb but instead a participle is used. Such a noun is called a Nominative Absolute. For example :
God forbidding, we lose the match
In this sentence the noun God is connected with the main sentence with the help of a participle forbidding. There is no verb used between the noun and the remaining sentence. So such a Noun ''God' is a Nominative Absolute.

Weather permitting, we will play a match tomorrow.
In this sentence weather is a noun in nominative absolute case.




EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

NOUN CASE


Exercise No. 1

Select Subjective case nouns in following sentences.

1. Flies spread cholera.
2. Hare followed the lion.
3. Sugar tastes sweet.
4. Farmers are ploughing fields.
5. A name makes no difference.



Exercise No. 2.

Select Objective Case Nouns in following sentences.

1. The teacher was delivering a         lecture.
2.  She purchased a new cell phone.
3. Our country exports tea.
4. Their team won the match.

5. She obeys no orders. 





Exercise No.3

Change the highlighted part in following sentences into Possessive Noun Case

1. I went to office of my father.
2. He purchased the house of  his brother.
3. She did not like habits of her brother.
4. The crown of the king is studded with precious jewels.
5. The picture of his mother is very beautiful. 




Exercise No. 4.
 Fill in the blanks in following sentences with a suitable word out of words -  
 (are, were, become, seem or appear.)

1. His brother...... to be mad.

2. The old man ....... very sad

3. His husband has.... a doctor.
4. Boys .... very happy to see her.

5. Children .....anxious to go out.


Exercise No. 5.


Point out Noun in Object Case in following sentences.

The mother  reprimands her daughter. Her daughter does not take interest in her studies. The mother advises her to do hard work. But she does not learn her lessons regularly.. She takes interest in games. The daughter does not attend her classes regularly. She often skips her classes. Her teachers also do not like her. They want her to study. 




Exercise No. 6.


Point out  Subjective & Objective Complements to Verb  in following sentences.


1, His friend is very honest.
2.He called my friend a rogue,
3. They became fast friends soon.
4. Your brother is not sincere,
5. Her sister is a traitor. 

(ANSWERS)

Exercise No. 1

Select Subjective case nouns in following sentences.

1. Flies spread cholera.
2. Hare followed the lion.
3. Sugar tastes sweet.
4. Farmers are ploughing fields.
5. A name makes no difference.



Exercise No. 2.

Select Objective Case Nouns in following sentences.


1. The teacher was delivering a lecture.
2.  She purchased a new cell phone.
3. Our country exports tea.
4. Their team won the match.
5. She obeys no orders.






Exercise No.3

Change the highlighted part in following sentences into Possessive Noun Case

1. I went to office of my father. (my father's house)
2. He purchased the house of  his brother.(his brother's house)
3. She did not like habits of her brother.(her brother's habits)
4. The crown of the king (The king's crown)is studded with precious jewels.
5. The picture of his mother(His mother's picture) is very beautiful. 






Exercise No. 4.

 Fill in the blanks in following sentences with a suitable word out of words -  
 (are, were, become, seem or appear.)

1. His brother appears to be mad.

2. The old man seemed very sad

3. His husband has become a doctor.

4. Boys were very happy to see her.

5. Children are anxious to go out.




Exercise No. 5.


Point out Noun in Object Case in following sentences.


The mother  reprimands her daughter. Her daughter does not take interest in her studies. The mother advises her to do hard work. But she does not learn her lessons regularly. She takes interest in games. The daughter does not attend her classes regularly. She often skips her classes. Her teachers also do not like her. They want her to study. 


Exercise No. 6.


Point out  Subjective & Objective Complements to Verb  in following sentences.


1. very honest.  -- Subjective Complement to Verb
2. a rogue. -Objective Complement to Verb
3. fast friends. -- Subjective Complement to verb
 4. not sincere. -- Subjective Complement to Verb



5. a traitor. --- Subjective Complement to Verb







(yet to be completed)