Conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done in a number of ways.
One of the methods is to interchange different types of sentences i.e. Simple Sentence, Compound Sentence and Complex Sentence. Before understanding conversion a brief view about these types of sentences.
A sentence comprises generally of following parts : Subject, Verb and Object. OR Subject and Predicate.
The Simple Sentence
A sentence usually comprises of a subject and a predicate or in other words there is a subject , a verb and an object in a sentence. For example :
- The girl sings a song.
- He is a noble man.
In sentence no. 1 ‘The girl’ is subject and ‘sings a song’ is a predicate. OR
‘The girl’ is subject and ‘sings’ is a verb and ‘a song’ is object.
Similarly is sentence no 2 ‘He’ is a subject and ‘is a noble man’ a predicate.
Such a sentence is called a Simple Sentence.
In other words, a simple sentence has a subject and a predicate.
The Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is sentence made up of two parts joined by a coordinating conjunction. For example :
- The sun rose and the birds started chirping.
- I went to the market and purchased sweets and ate them.
The sentence 1. is formed of two parts –
The sun rose.
The birds started chirping.
Both these parts are joined by conjunction ‘and’.
This is a compound sentence and each part is called a clause. Each part has a sense and its own meaning. Each one can be written independently. It is also called a ‘coordinate clause’.
Similarly sentence 2 is also a compound sentence. It comprises of three coordinating clauses –
I went to the market.
(I) purchased sweets.
(I) ate them.
All these three clauses are joined by conjunctions ‘and’.
These two sentences are called compound sentences.
A compound sentence is formed of two or more coordinate clauses. A compound sentence having two coordinate clauses is called Double Compound sentence whereas a Compound sentence with more than two coordinate clauses is called a Multiple Compound sentence.
The Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of two clauses one of which is the Main clause and the other Subordinate clause. Each clause has a Subject and a Predicate. The Principal clause is independent clause whereas Subordinate clause is dependent on the Principal clause and cannot be used as an independent clause. For example :
- It started raining when I reached home.
- When I reached my office, I found that my boss was not there.
In the case of sentence 1, there are two clauses :
- It started raining 2. When I reached home.
First clause is independent part whereas the second clause is dependent on first. The second gives meaning when joined with first. So first is Principal clause and the second is Subordinate clause. Similarly in the sentence 2 there are three clauses –
- I found
- That my boss was not there.
- When I reached my office.
- is an independent clause and is called Principal Clause.
- and 3 are subordinate clauses dependent on 1. Therefore
A complex sentence is a sentence which contains a Main clause or Principal Clause and one or more than one Subordinate clauses dependent on the Main clause for their meaning.
A Subordinate clause is of three types as follows-
- Adverbial Clause
- Adjective Clause
- Noun Clause
I Adverbial Clause :
In case of Adverbial clause in a complex sentence, it is a subordinate clause which acts as an adverb. It is of following types:
- Showing Time : It is connected with conjunctions like :
When, As, Since, After, Before, Whenever, Till, Untill etc.
When I reached home, the lights went off.
I have not taken my food since I came from my office.
Stay here until return.
- Showing Place : It is connected with conjunctions like:
Where, Whither, Wherever, whence etc.
She followed him wherever he went.
I shall accompany you where you go.
- Showing condition : It is connected with conjunctions like Unless, If, whether etc.
If you stand surety, I shall lend him money.
Unless you stand surety, I shall not lend him money.
- Showing Result : It is connected by conjunctions like
The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.
He works in such a manner that pleases all.
- Showing Manner : It is connected by conjunctions like
As, if, as, though etc.
He walks as if he is lame.
As you sow so shall you reap.
Do to others as you want to be done by.
- Showing Reason : It is connected by conjunctions like
Because, since, as, etc.
Since I am sick, I shall not go to office.
As you feel unwell, you should take rest.
- Showing Purpose : It is connected by conjunctions like
In order that, lest, that etc.
He worked hard in order that he might pass.
Work hard lest you should fail.
- Showing comparison: It is connected by conjunctions like
As….as, so…..as, than etc.
He is as wise as his brother.
She is not so beautiful as her sister.
She is more beautiful than her sister.
II Adjective Clause :
In case of adjective clause as subordinate clause in a complex sentence, it works as an adjective qualifying a noun or pronoun. For example
The house that I purchased is very beautiful.
The time when this shop opens is not known.
The book which I purchased is lost.
The place where he lives is very near.
The reason why he insulted her is not known.
This is the book that I purchased for you.
He is the person that can solve this sum.
III Noun Clause :
In case of Noun clause, a subordinate clause acts as a noun in a complex sentence. It is of following types :
- The Subject to Verb :
- Where she comes from is not known to me.
- Whether she passes or fails in the examination is not certain.
- Why she did not attend the office is a cause of concern.
- What she speaks is not true.
- When will she return is not known to me.
2. The Object to Verb :
3. The complement to Verb :
- The question is how he knew about it.
- Her belief is that her son is innocent.
- This is where I missed the chance.
- This was what she expected.
4. The object to Preposition :
- She is pleased with what you said.
- Act according to what he says.
- I have firm faith in what he says.
- All the people mocked at what she said.
5. In Apposition to a Noun or a Pronoun :
- She proposed that we should accompany her.
- It is believed that honest is the best policy.
- It is bad that he is in the habit of drinking.
- You should accept that might is right.
COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE SENTENCES
Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one Simple Sentence
Two or more simple sentences can be combined together to form one simple sentence by one of following methods :
- By Using an Infinitive :
1. I am very happy. I know my result.
I am very happy to know my result.
2. He is going to his shop. He will return in the evening.
He is going to his shop to return in the evening.
3. He has enough money. He distributes money among the poor.
He has enough money to distribute among the poor.
4. You have very short time at your disposal. You should not waste time.
You have very short time at your disposal not to waste it.
2.By Using a Participle :
- He purchased a shop. He started his business there.
Having purchased a shop he started his business.
2. He felt sleepy. He went to bed.
Feeling sleepy he went to bed.
3. He anticipated danger ahead. He took refuge there.
Anticipating danger ahead, he took refuge there.
4. The child found himself alone. He started crying.
Finding himself alone, the child started crying.
3. By Using a Preposition with a noun or Gerund :
1.He worked hard. He succeeded in the examination.
By working hard he succeeded in the examination.
2. He helped the poor. He gave the poor money.
He helped the poor by giving them money.
3. The chairman emphasized his point of view. He cited many examples in his speech.
The chairman emphasized his point of view by citing many examples in his speech.
4. Our football team won the match. Our football team brought laurels to the college.
Our football team brought laurel to the college by winning the match.
4. By Using an absolute Phrase:
1. The sun set. It was dark all around.
The sun having set, it was dark all around.
2. It was very late. I did not go to attend the meeting.
I being very late did not go to attend the meeting.
3. It was a rainy day. We remained in doors.
It being a rainy day we remained in doors.
4. The cat was away. The mice started playing.
The cat being away, the mice started playing.
5. By Using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition :
1.We visited our friend last Sunday. My friend is a prominent writer.
We visited our friend, a prominent writer, last Sunday.
2.His brother has sung many songs. His brother is a good singer.
His brother, a good singer, has sung many songs.
3. He jumped into the river. He did a brave act.
He jumped into the river- a brave act.
4. The deputy chairman presided over the meeting. He is second in command.
The deputy chairman, second in command, presided over the meeting.
6. By Using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase :
1.The boys will come to your rescue. It is certain.
The boys will certainly come to your rescue.
2. We reached our home. It was evening.
We reached our home by evening.
3. The young man was provoked by his companions. He resorted to violence.
Provoked by his companions, the young man resorted to violence.
4. We lost the match. It was unfortunate.
We unfortunately lost our match.
Similarly more than two simple sentences can be combined together to form a Simple Sentence.
- I met a young man in the market. He was having a charming personality. He was waiting for a bus. He was having a bag in his hand. He was of twenty years age.
In the market, I met a young man of twenty years age with a charming personality , having a bag in his hand ,waiting for a bus.
2. Yesterday, I was feeling unwell. I stayed at home. I did not go to my office. I took rest for the whole day. As a result I got well.
Yesterday, I, being unwell, did not go to my office, stayed at home, took rest for the whole day, resultantly, got well.
Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one Compound Sentence
- By using coordinating conjunction like ..and, both....and, not only....but also, not less than etc.
1. He is a very hardworking person.He is a very sincere person. (Both qualities are similar in nature)
He is not only hard working but also a sincere person.
2. He is a miser. His brother is no less miser.
His brother is no less miser than him.
3. Next day the boy attended the class. He had his home work also.
Next day the boy not only attended the class but he had done his home work also.
4. His father was a statesman. His father was a politician.
His father was both a statesman and a politician.
2. By using coordinating conjunction like .. or, either..or, neither....nor etc.
- He must appear in the examination. He will be fined.
He must appear in the examination or he will be fined.
2. He appeared in the examination. He paid the fine.
He either appeared in the examination or he paid the fine.
3. He did not appear in the examination. He did not pay the fine.
He neither appeared in the examination nor he paid the fine.
4. He is unwell. He pretends to be unwell.
He is either unwell or he pretends to be unwell.
3. By using coordinating conjunction like ..therefor, so, for etc.
- I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office
I am feeling unwell therefore I cannot attend the office.
2. I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office.
I am feeling unwell so I cannot attend the office.
3.I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office.
I cannot attend the office for I am feeling unwell.
4. He is very poor. He cannot pay his fee.
He cannot pay his fee as he is very poor.
4. By using coordinating conjunction like .. still, yet, but, only etc.
- He is rich. He is a miser. He is rich but he is miser.
2. He is poor. He is happy.
He is poor but he is happy.
3. Fools build houses. Wise men live in houses.
Fools build houses but wise men live in them.
4. She betrayed him. He trusts on her.
She betrayed him still he trusts on her.
Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one Complex Sentence
- By using a Noun Clause.
1.He is a cheat.I know it.
I know that he is a cheat.
2. I do not know. our team may win the match.
I do not know whether our team wins the match.
3. He may not succeed in the examination. This is his great fear.
This is his great fear that he may not succeed in the examination.
4. He made a few mistakes. He wrote very well.
Except he made a few mistakes, he wrote very well.
2. By using a Adverbial Clause (Conjunctions like: If, since, than, because, unless,when,where,while,though,as, until,before etc.)
- He succeeded. He worked hard.
He succeeded since he worked hard.
2. He is unwell. He cannot attend the office.
As he is unwell, he cannot attend the office.
3. The sun rose. The birds started chirping.
When the sun rose the birds started chirping.
4. She is beautiful. Her sister is more beautiful.
Her sister is more beautiful than she.
3. By using a Adjective Clause by using who, whom,whose or which etc.)
- This the house. I lived in this house.
This is the house where I lived in.
2. He is the boy.He won first prize.
He is the boy who won the first prize.
3. He is the person. His purse was stolen yesterday.
He is the person whose purse was stolen yesterday.
4. You did not attend the office yesterday. Will you tell me the reason?
Will you tell me why you did not attend the office yesterday?