Friday, 10 October 2014

Paragraph-- Comprehension-Understanding the Main idea contained in the Paragraph --Exercise Based on Questions of Previous years' Examinations.



Comprehension -- Understanding the Main idea contained in the  Paragraph by providing answers to questions following the paragraph.



With a view to examine or test the ability or understanding of the candidate about the idea given in the paragraph, it is followed by a number of questions to be replied. Some of these questions are of general nature and others of specific nature about what is stated in the paragraph. One or two questions also relate to antonyms and meanings of some words used in the paragraph. For this is required a fair good knowledge of word power, grammar and ability to understand what is given in the paragraph. One needs to read between the lines to pick up the meaning of what is stated. This can be possible by linking various points of idea and understanding the underlying motive of the author behind these. 


The questions mostly are not in progressive order. For this reason, one needs to have a  strong retaining power about the factual information in the paragraph so that one has not to refer time and again to the paragraph to reply these. Besides, a number of questions are of indirect nature reply to which can only be provided only after having a good understanding of the paragraph.

For practice here are some exercises,




EXERCISE NO 1



Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions following it.




Education reforms have been talked about many a time but they have not taken off. Till they do, the country will continue to mount a horrible hoax on its young people. If youth is the future of the country, the army of unemployables with declining job opportunities does not bode a very good future.

Dismal is the state of our universities and institutes of higher learning. A student enters such an institute with high hopes, spends time and money only to be ejected as an unemployable candidate.
The figures are unexceptional: according to a national survey of 650 engineering colleges in India by Aspiring Minds, more than 80 per cent of engineers in India were said to be unemployable in 2015. Another survey of management graduates, excluding those from the top 20 schools, conducted by ASSOCHAM in 2016 shows that only 7 per cent turn out to be employable. Except for the top-ranked business schools, only a few of the 5,500 management institutes seem to provide quality management education that helps their graduates become employable. Most get jobs earning less than Rs 10,000 a month, if at all they find placements. It can be argued that the 20 per cent engineering graduates and 7 per cent management students who do find good jobs could do so because of their school education or family connections. This shows the stark reality of Indian higher education.


 Institutes of higher learning exist in the public as well as the private sector. The government universities and institutes are run by well-established professors with their own turfs. Nepotism, politics, strikes are rife. In recent times another problem has been added to their woes — a paucity of funds. It was widely reported recently in the newspapers, for instance, that the venerable Panjab University in Chandigarh may have to shut down if the Centre did not provide funds, according to its Vice Chancellor. With such culture of uncertainty, it is hardly a wonder that government institutes get to do any quality teaching at all.
About private universities and institutes, the less said the better. Without doing any demand assessment, the regulators, All India Council of Technical Education (AICTE), the University Grants Commission (UGC) and the Ministry of Human Resource Development have given permissions left and right to start such institutes. As a result, businessmen and politicians of all shades have entered the education business, with scant regard to quality and with the sole intention of making a quick buck. Ironically, they are all registered as "non-profit" entities, though they are anything but that. The lifestyles of the owners belie any claim of these non-profit centres. Engineering colleges are today run by people who know nothing about engineering and management institutes are being run by people who know nothing about management. Teaching cost is kept least by hiring fresh graduates, in many cases from the senior classes.
But private institutes suffer from another acute malady: In a bid to collect numbers, they treat their students as their customers. Teachers are mere service providers. In such a scenario, the drill, practice and reading that is essential in higher education, goes for a toss. Private universities and institutes gain marketing traction by inviting local pop stars, organising fashion shows and other such events, to attract students. It is hardly a wonder that private universities sell themselves to students by advertising huge tracts of land and “world-class facilities,” none of which relate to education. Shopping areas, malls, cinemas and restaurants are brought in: the idea is to keep students occupied for some years before they can be packed off by placing a degree in their hands — printed by the university or institute itself. High marks are awarded to show good results, never mind the employability status of the students.
An area of academic excellence is research, measured by the papers published by faculty members. There is a focus on quantity. A large number of "online journals" have sprung up to provide quantity, and they publish any trash provided you pay for it. Universities and institutes are frequently hit by plagiarism charges. In private institutes and universities, teachers are made to do clerical work and to man call centers for admissions, leaving little time for research. It is hardly surprising that despite a plethora of universities and institutes very little research published in India makes it to the international arena. Despite tall claims seen in the ads of universities, not one in the country can rank among Harvard or Oxford.
It is unfortunate that policies towards education are all lopsided. The regulating agencies have failed and contributed to this mess. Instead of reforming the system, the Ministry of Human Resource Development engages itself in worthless and controversial pursuits. This leads one to the conclusion that the education system will keep getting worse. This is unfortunately a great fraud on the students and young aspirants. Poor families who see education as the road to a good life take huge loans to send their children for higher education, only to find two liabilities at the end: an unemployable graduate and a huge loan that is difficult to pay off.






The writer, a Professor of marketing, has authored “Consumer Behaviour and Marketing Channels” and “The Connected Consumer.”





Q. 1 According to the passage what ails the present higher education system in India ?

i) The infrastructure in the higher education institutions is not up to the mark.
ii) The government policies about higher education in the country are faulty.
iii) The higher education costs are exorbitant and are beyond the reach of students.
iv) It does not provide quality education that helps the youth become employable.
v) It does not impart education of an international level  standards to students.   

A) i & v  B) i & ii  C) ii & iii  D) iv & v E) iii & iv


Q. 2. How under present circumstances does the writer foresee the future of higher education in India?

i) The higher education system will prosper and emerge up to standards maintained by other countries.
ii) It will continue to elude suitable job and employment opportunities for the youth.
iii) It will rise to higher levels by adopting better marketing tools and world class facilities to the students.
iv) The system will continue to be a practical hoax for students and their parents in the name of providing education to the wards.
v) The author visualizes a hope that the system will go a long way in imparting better education facilities to students.

A) iii & iv   B) iii & v  C) ii & iii    D) ii & iv  E) i & v

Q. 3. What does the clause “to mount a horrible hoax” mean as used in the passage?

i) to make big losses ii) to add to bad practical jokes iii) to have a terrible dream iv) to tread a wrong path v) to bring more calamity




Q. 4. What, according to the author, is wrong with running of Private Education institutions of the day ?

i) These institutions are managed by bodies comprising of incompetent personnel.
ii) These institutions lack in providing the required level of higher education to the students.
iii) These institutions are mostly run by non profit entities which instead make huge profits even by ignoring education requirements of students.
iv) The teaching faculty members of these institutions are not qualified enough to teach the students.
v) These institutions treat their students as customers and teachers as service  providers and are not serious about providing education to students.

A) i, ii & v   B)ii & v    C) i, iii, v   D) ii & iii  E) i to v


Q. 5. What does the author see the role of Human Resource Development Ministry in the present higher education system of the country?

i) It provides proper guidance to these institutions by framing rules and regulations for conducting their business.
ii) It provides sufficient funds for running the business of these institutions in an appropriate manner.
iii) It follows unwanted pursuits making them a worse mess not worth meeting with aspirations of people and their wards.
iv) It makes all efforts to put in necessary inputs for raising the level of higher education.
v) It arranges a good number of competitions required to sharpen the abilities of the students to meet with the future challenges.

A) iii B) ii C) iv D) i  E)  v


Q. 6. Out of the following statements which is  true?

i) All the Management institutions in the country are not of the level to provide good education to students.
ii) A majority of Engineering and Management students after completion of their education immediately get their job placements.
iii) The private universities allure the students by good methods of advertising and showing off good facilities which have nothing to do with their education.
iv) All the higher education institutions establish and utilize their high political links to promote education among students.
v) The education institutes in  private sector invest a lot of time and money for research work and endeavour to bring their work to international level.


Q. 7.Out of given options choose the correct meaning of the word “plagiarism” as used in the passage.

i) downfall ii) extortion  iii) exploitation iv) imitation  v) deprivation


Q. 8. What are the problems listed by author in the paragraph that hinder the public higher education institutes from imparting education to students?

i) A large number of public institutes recruit fresh graduates as their teaching faculty not capable of imparting education of the required standards.
11) Political interference, favouritism and shortage of funds are hurdles in giving quality education in public institutes.   
iii) Shortage of staff and the available staff not being of the required standard is the reason for substandard quality education in public institutes.
iv)Infrastructure provided in the public institutes not being of good standard is the reason for their education not being of the required level.
v) Public higher education institutes give more attention to marketing and advertising aspect rather than good education to the students.



Q. 9. What is the word out of given options having meaning opposite to the word “paucity”?
i) dearth  ii) abundance iii) scarcity iv) availability v) collection


Q. 10. What should be a suitable title of the passage?
i) Growing education facilities in India
ii) Education Institutes - A Profitable venture in India
iii) Prospects of Higher Education  in India
iv) Higher Education in Public and Private sector in India
v) Problems of Indian Higher Education Institutes




EXERCISE NO 2.



 Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions following it.

Geriatric care involves various aspects of the care of elderly. It is the study of the aging process and the problems that elderly individuals might encounter.  With the second largest elderly (sixty plus) population in the world, there is a huge requirement and scope in India for professionals to work in this field. It is a vast field that includes the research or study of various biological, social,physical and mental changes in the older people and application of this knowledge to policies and programmes to assist the elderly.Multidisciplinary by nature, geriatric care involves specialists in nursing, medicine , speech and hearing, long term care administration, education, pharmacy, occupational and physical therapy, counselling, public administration, recreation and retirement housing.        

Longer life spans have created a new challenge for trained professionals who can work with older adults to enhance their lives and maximize their potentials. As in the West, in India too, there are organisations that handle various facilities that treat or cater to older people. Geriatric care providers of all types work in a variety of settings, including community organisations, retirement communities, academic settings, health care and  long term organisations, government organisations and professional organisations.  

Many providers work directly with older people, providing direct care, counselling, advising or developing programmes. Depending on the area of   interest, one can work as a social  worker with NGOs. or government departments, in administrative positions in nursing homes, retirements homes and entrepreneurial ventures in care of elderly, or as consultants in healthcare facilities of private companies, focused on the needs of older people such as retirement planning, travel and recreation homes.

Special programmes have been designed to impart knowledge and education to youth and inculcate their interest in the related activities. Gerontology courses include study of human sciences sociology, psychology and therapy. The individuals having such background  and an added  inclination for medicine, nursing, social work or other health related professions are  engaged in this field. In order to meet with the challenge involved in this field there is need of creating an atmosphere and producing  individuals the most suited to it.  




A.


Q. 1. There is a need to work for  care of elderly people in India. Why ?

Q. 2. In the West, how the elderly people are taken care of ?

Q. 3. What is the position of India with regard to elderly population in the world?

Q.4.What is Geriatric study and how is it associated with a class of people?

Q. 5. Which of the science study courses form a part of Geriatric study?   

Q. 6. What actions have been initiated on Government or individual levels to                   promote  Geriatric care in society in India ?

Q.7.  Give a word from the paragraph which has meaning similar to                                'nurture'.

Q.8. Give an antonym of the word 'exhaustion' from the paragraph. 


B. Choose the correct one out of the given options in respect of following statements.

1. Gerontology courses include study of 

a. environment required for elderly individuals. 

b. human sciences sociology, psychology and therapy. 

c. entrepreneurial ventures in care of elderly.


2. The Geriatric care is the study of  

a. the problems relating to increasing population of the country.

b.the economic and social problems the elderly people encounter.  

c. the aging process and the related problems that elderly individuals. 






Exercise No. 2 



Answers :


1.    Various biological, social,physical and mental changes in the older people have necessitated                individuals and professionals  to work for  care of elderly people in India.

2.    In the West, there are organisations that handle various facilities that treat or cater to older people        and meet with their needs.

3.    India is  the second largest country having elderly (sixty plus) population in the world,  

4.    Geriatric study concerns various aspects of the care of elderly people. It is the study of the aging          process and the problems that elderly individuals might encounter.

5.    Geriatric study include study of human sciences sociology, psychology and therapy.

6.     Individuals and  government departments arrange nursing homes, retirements homes and                    entrepreneurial ventures in care of elderly. Consultants in healthcare facilities of private                     companies focused on the needs of older people such as retirement planning, travel and recreation        homes are arranged by them.

7.  Inculcate

8. Recreation


B


1. b

2, c




 EXERCISE NO 3




Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions following it.


A report of a recent survey has pointed out that at least twelve states of our country have water contaminated by arsenic, a chemical naturally found out in the ground and extremely harmful to humans and animals. The latest information is an addition to multiple reports that have pointed out earlier to the existence of arsenic in our environment. There is discovery of more and more affected areas as well as a  realisation that the contamination may even be spreading. Several areas of the northern states are among those identified , which should be of particular concern not only for the people in the affected areas but all over, as some of the food grown in these states may be irrigated with water that bears arsenic.    

It has been estimated that over one lac people have died from arsenic related diseases and around seven crore may be affected by it. An Indian Council of Agriculture Research study has specifically pointed out to the presence of arsenic in vegetables, oil seeds and pulses which is particularly alarming as there is no way to avoid such food items. It is practically not possible for a consumer to know the quality of the food or even where it came from.  But the biggest source of arsenic poisoning  is the water that people drink. In  the affected areas there are hardly alternative sources of safe water.     


Given the serious health hazard that this and several other chemicals infused into the ground water by agriculture pesticides pose, the latest report should be treated as an alarm bell. The state governments can begin with mapping the water quality for each independent water system in every village, town and city. To know is half the battle. Thereafter civic bodies, supported financially by state and central governments will have to devise area-specific strategies to ensure the availability of safe drinking water, which could include reverse-osmosis filters  or even changing the source of water. A push for Reverse Osmosis systems in villages needs a fresh initiative on government level to rise to the occasion.It is time we moved from awareness to action; lives are at stake.




A.


Q.1 What hazard according to a recent report is posed to humans and animals?

Q. 2. Which areas of our country are reported to be having water and                               environment contaminated ?

Q. 3. How are the people living in  the area and elsewhere are affected by                        contamination?

Q. 4  How are consumables and drinking water in the area are affected ?

Q, 5  The position of poisoning by arsenic is alarming, how and why ?

Q. 6  What method is suggested to save people from the hazard ?

 Q. 7 How can safe drinking water be provided to the people of the area?

 Q.8  How can the state governments be helpful in overpowering the problem? 


B.

 1.  Give a synonym of the word 'contaminated'.  

 2.  What is the meaning of the word 'concern' ?

 3.  Change the sentence into a negative sentence :

     'In  the affected areas there are hardly alternative sources of safe water. '    










Exercise No. 3 




Answers :


1.    According to a recent report water in a number of states in India is  contaminated by arsenic, a            chemical naturally found out in the ground and extremely harmful to humans and animals.                  It contaminates food grown with such water. This food poses hazards to health of  humans beings        and animals.

2.    Several northern states of  our country are reported to be having water and                                            environment contaminated .

3.    People living in  the area with contaminated water and environment  are affected by arsenic                related    diseases.                     

4.   Water used for drinking and irrigation in fields is contaminated with chemicals like arsenic                  which are harmful for human beings and animals. Food grown with contaminated water and                contaminated drinking water pose hazards to human and animal life.

5.    Hazardous chemicals like arsenic have been found in the ground and water used for drinking and        for irrigating crops in different areas. The presence of arsenic in vegetables, pulses and oils etc            and drinking water coinsumed by people has made the position alarming because people                      consuming these items cannot know about it and they have no alternative of these.

6.    The state governments should  take steps to check quality of drinking water and vegetables                  produced in their areas. They should ensure supply of pure and safe quality of these items to                people of the area and elsewhere consuming these things. 

7.    Safe sources of drinking water  should be made sure for people of the area. Reverse osmosis                filter system can be used to provide pure and safe quality of water to peple.

8.    State governments should take effective steps at their level for providing pure and safe water              to people  for drinking and irrigation.



B.

  1.  Polluted

   2. Worry

    3.'In  the affected areas there are not  alternative sources of safe water. '

   



EXERCISE NO 4




Read the following paragraph carefully and answer the questions following it.




Global warming caused by global climate change is the single-most important  challenge humanity is facing today. It is the increase in average temperature of the earth's near-surface air and oceans.This can be due to natural reasons as well as human social activity. According to the UNO's intergovernmental panel on climate change the main cause of global warming since the middle of the 20th century is human activity related to fossil fuel burning and deforestation.These human activities lead to increasing greenhouse gas concentrations, which result in trapping the sun's radiation in the earth's atmosphere, leading to warming of the earth. The main greenhouse gases are : Carbondioxide, Methane and nitrous oxide, of which Carbondioxide is the most important.

  The high increase in the generation of the greenhouse gases is a product of the manner in which our modern socio-economic system runs.It requires intensified use of resources especially energy to carry on expanding production of commodities and services. 

The rate at which global warming is taking place is frightening. The year 2015 is likely to be the hottest year since the earth temperature started being recorded in 1850. This is on top of the year 2014 having been the hottest year so far. The consequences of such global warming will be the melting of ice-caps, rise in sea levels and flooding. Flooding destroys crops and lands, and contributes to food shortages. Some of the other consequences of global warming are deaths due to rising malaria epidemic, heat strokes and food poisoning etc. 

There are two key aspects of dealing with the challenge of global climate change : Mitigation and Adaptation. Mitigation means reduction in green house gases emissions and adaptation means preparing for some of the inevitable consequences of global warming. For this various governments will have to develop a framework of greater reliance upon renewable resources of energy and a system of encouraging environmentally friendly economic activities. The great environmental ethic of three Rs - reduce, reuse and recycle - should be our life style rather than the current consumerist lifestyle.

Besides, the health systems need to be upgraded to deal with large scale of deaths of human beings. Flood control systems too need to be developed to meet the challenge.   For all this the global leadership will have to rise up and hammer out a treaty with legally binding emissions reduction targets duly backed up strongly by its implementation in its true spirit.

 

A.

  1.  What is meant by the term Global Warming & how does it effect ecology ? 

 2.   Which gases cause Global warming  and how ? 


3.    How is our socio-economic system responsible for creation of greenhouse                gases?


4.   How global warming causes floods and what are their effects? 


5.   What are the environmentally friendly economic activities ?


6.  Describe the environmental ethics of three Rs. What is their importance ?


7.  Which systems need to be toned up to meet with challenges of global warming?


8.  How can the world of today get rid of 'global warming' by changing the                  concept of energy ?




B.


 1.  Which word in the paragraph is antonym of "aggravation" .


 2.  What is the meaning of the term 'fossil fuel burning' ? 


  3.  In the sentence, "Flooding destroys crops and lands" use noun form of the             word destroys.





Exercise No. 4 

Answers :


1.  Global warming is the increase in average temperature of the earth's near-surface air and oceans          caused natural reasons as well as human social activity.

2.  Global warming  is caused by greenhouse gases like Carbondioxide, Methane and nitrous                    oxide, Their increasing  concentration results in trapping the sun's radiation in the earth's                      atmosphere. It causes warming of the earth. 

  
3. Human activities  related to fossil fuel burning and deforestation  are responsible for creation of           increasing greenhouse gas and their concentrations, It results in trapping the sun's radiation in the       earth's atmosphere, leading to warming of the earth. 

4. Global warming results in melting of ice-caps, rise in sea levels and flooding. Flooding destroys         crops and lands, and contributes to food shortages. It also causes deaths due to rising malaria               epidemic, heat strokes and food poisoning etc. 

5. The environmentally friendly economic activities are greater reliance upon renewable resources of      energy and the ethic of three Rs - reduce, reuse and recycle. as  life style.

6. The activities  causing emission of  greenhouse gases should be reduced. Various products should       be reused and recycled. Renewable sources of energy should be used. This will reduce emission of     greenhouse gases and thus global warming.


7. The concept of mitigation and adaptation should be adopted to meet with challenges of global             warming.Mitigation means reduction in green house gases emissions and adaptation means                 preparing for some of the inevitable consequences of global warming. 


8. Global warming can be prevented by developing a framework of greater reliance upon renewable       resources of energy and a system of encouraging environmentally friendly economic activities. The     ethic of three Rs - reduce, reuse and recycle - should be adopted as life style rather than the current     consumerist lifestyle.

B.

1. Mitigation

2. Burning of fuels extracted from fossils like oil coal and gas etc.

3. Flooding causes destruction of crops and lands.  Destruction- Noun