Tuesday, 6 October 2015

CONJUNCTION ---- Meaning, Explanation & Types of Conjunction with Examples (PART TWO)

                                                                                                 (Previous post...Contd.)

MEANING 


CONJUNCTION  is a word used for joining  words, clauses or  sentences. It acts as a linker between these for example  :ontd.


The sun rose and the fog dispersed.

Either you or your mother sinned.

He helped me  a lot, therefore, I thanked him. 

She and not her sister is at fault.

We invited her to tea but she did not turn up.


The words,   and, or, therefore, and, but    are called conjunctions. These are sentence linkers.




TYPES


Conjunctions  are of Two types :


1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions  



2. Subordinative Conjunctions




Co- ordinative  Conjunctions  join sentences of equal rank . 

These are :  And, but, for, also, otherwise, or, either....or, neither....nor, now, well, but...and, so, still, no less than, however, therefore, too, as, yet etc.





Subordinative  Conjunctions  join a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause. These are classified according to their meaning as showing Time, Place, Cause or Reason,  Purpose, Result or effect or Consequence, Condition, Comparison  & Manner etc. These are as follows :

  

1. Showing Time :



Generally the words --- when, whenever,after, before,as soon as,while, since, till,untill,as long as, so long as are the conjunctions used to express time. For example :



1.  As soon as I reached home, it started raining.

2. My son was studying when I reached home.

3. I have been living in this house since I came to this town.

4. He took his food before he left for his office.

5. I met my teacher while walking I was in the market.

6. I shall wait for you until you come back.

7. He left for his home after he had finished his work.

 

2. Showing Place :


Generally the words --- where, wherever,whither, whence are the conjunctions used to express place. 
For example:


1. People greeted him wherever he went.

2. I do not know where he has gone.

3. Can you tell me whither he has gone?

4. My purse was lying where I kept it.

5. I shall follow you wherever you go.



3. Showing Reason or Cause :


Generally the words --- Since, as, because are the conjunctions used to express place. 
For example:



1. He did not go to his office because he was ill.

2. He could not succeed since he did not work hard.

3. I am glad that you like it.

4. He left for his house as he was unwell.

5. We all should help him since he is our friend.




4. Showing Result or Effect :



Generally the words --- that, so....that, such.....that  are the conjunctions used to express result. 

For example:



1. I am so tired that I cannot walk further.

2.  She behaved in such a manner that no body doubted her integrity.

3. The child is so poor that he cannot pay his fee.

4. The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.





5. Showing Purpose :


Generally the words --- so that, so as, that, lest, in order that  are the conjunctions used to express purpose.For example:



1. Walk fast lest you should miss the train.

2. She made aloud noise so that her mother may hear her.

3. He helped her so as she may succeed.

4. He organised a function in order that he might meet his old friends.




6. Showing Condition :



Generally the words --- If, Provided, Provided...that, in case, unless, whether, Supposing  are the conjunctions used to express condition.For example:




1. I shall not go to office if it rains tomorrow.

2. You will not succeed unless you work hard.

3. You can succeed provided you work hard.

4. I shall pardon him provided that he admits his fault.

5. Supposing you do not succeed, you should not get depressed.

6. The teacher asked her whether she had done her homework.

7. Your condition may deteriorate in case you do not take medicine regularly.




7. Showing Comparison :



Generally the words ---  than, less than, as...as, so..... as are the conjunctions used to express comparison.For example:

 1. She is as beautiful as her sister.

2. She is more beautiful than her sister.

3. She is not so beautiful as her sister.

4. Her sister is not less beautiful than her sister.

5. He is taller than I.





8. Showing Contrast or Concession :



Generally the words ---  Although, though, notwithstanding, however are the conjunctions used to express contrast. For example:



1. Although he is poor yet he is honest.

2. Though he is rich yet he is miser.

3. He cannot succeed however hard he may work.

4. He could not succeed notwithstanding he worked hard.





9. Showing Manner or Extent :


Generally the words ---  As, as if, as far as, so far as, according to are the conjunctions used to express manner. For example:



1. Do as you are directed.

2. He walked as if he were lame.

3. As far as I know he is a very honest man.

4. So far as I stretch my memory, he did not insult her.

5. According to my belief, we should not depend on him.

6. This is not true as far as I can find it.







Cor-relative Conjunctions  :



Some conjunctions are used in pairs. These conjunctions are called Cor-relative conjunctions.These are :




1. As.....as :                                She is as clever as her sister.


2. So......as :                               He is not so tall as his brother.


3. The same.....as :                   This is the same kind of purse as mine.


4. The same....that :                 She is the same lady that came here yesterday.


5. Such.....as :                           He is not such a man as will deceive you. 


6. No sooner......than :             No sooner did I reach home, it started raining.  


7. Hardly......when :                Hardly had I reached home when it started raining.


8. Scarcely....before :           Scarcely had I reached home before it started raining.


9. Although/Though.....yet :   Although/though he is rich yet he is miser.


10.Either...or :                         Either he or his brother is at fault.


11. Neither....nor :                  Neither he nor his brother is at fault.


12.Whether.....or :               He must attend the meeting whether he likes or not.


13. So....that :                          I am so tired that I want to  take rest. 


14.Not only....but also :         He was not only caned but also fined.


15. Both....and :                     She is both beautiful and intelligent.





                                                                                                                 (Continued......View next post)
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