Wednesday, 7 October 2015

CONJUNCTION ---- Meaning, Explanation & Types of Conjunction with Examples (PART Three)

                                                                                                                             (Previous post...Contd.)

MEANING 


The sun rose and the fog dispCONJUNCTION  is a word used for joining  words, clauses or  sentences. It acts as a linker between these for example  :

ersed.

Either you or your mother sinned.

He helped me  a lot, therefore, I thanked him. 

She and not her sister is at fault.

We invited her to tea but she did not turn up.


The words,   and, or, therefore, and, but    are called conjunctions. These are sentence linkers.

TYPES


Conjunctions  are of Two types :

1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions  

2. Subordinative Conjunctions

Co- ordinative  Conjunctions  join sentences of equal rank . 

These are :  And, but, for, also, otherwise, or, either....or, neither....nor, now, well, but...and, so, still, no less than, however, therefore, too, as, yet etc.

Subordinative  Conjunctions  join a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause. These are classified according to their meaning as showing Time, Place, Cause or Reason,  Purpose, Result or effect or Consequence, Condition, Comparison  & Manner etc.

  

Cor-relative Conjunctions  :



Some conjunctions are used in pairs. These conjunctions are called Cor-relative conjunctions.These are :




1. As.....as :                                She is as clever as her sister.


2. So......as :                               He is not so tall as his brother.


3. The same.....as :                   This is the same kind of purse as mine.


4. The same....that :                 She is the same lady that came here yesterday.


5. Such.....as :                           He is not such a man as will deceive you. 


6. No sooner......than :             No sooner did I reach home, it started raining.  


7. Hardly......when :                Hardly had I reached home when it started raining.


8. Scarcely....before :           Scarcely had I reached home before it started raining.


9. Although/Though.....yet :   Although/though he is rich yet he is miser.


10.Either...or :                         Either he or his brother is at fault.


11. Neither....nor :                  Neither he nor his brother is at fault.


12.Whether.....or :               He must attend the meeting whether he likes or not.


13. So....that :                          I am so tired that I want to  take rest. 


14.Not only....but also :         He was not only caned but also fined.


15. Both....and :                     She is both beautiful and intelligent.




Interjection  :



Interjection is in fact not a part of speech since it has no grammatical connection with any other word or words in the sentence. It is merely an exclamatory feeling or emotion expression.Chief interjections  are :



(A)

1. Joy.... Hurrah !   

2. Grief ....  Oh !  Ah !  Alas !    

3. Amusement.... Ha !

4. Approval.......Bravo !

5. Attention.......Hark !  Hush !  Ho !

6. Reproof........Fie ! Fie !

7. Contempt....... Pooh !

8. To call someone....... hallo ! Ha !    

(B)  Phrases

Good Heavens ! Well done !  Good Bye ! God Gracious ! O dear me ! Alack a day!  Welcome ! 


Some Examples of Exclamatory Sentences :

Hurrah ! we have won the match.

Alas ! he is ruined.

Bravo ! well done.

How remarkable !

Would that it were spring for ever !

What a pretty child !

How fine weather it is !

What a lovely rose !

A nice catch !

Fie ! what a rogue he is !

Pooh ! what a base idea !

By Heavens ! I am true. 




Exercise for Practice   (One) :

Join each pair of the following sentences by means of a suitable conjunction. Make changes wherever necessary.


.

1. People respect him. He is a brave man.

2. She is wise. Her sister is wiser.

3. We stepped out. It stopped raining.

4. Run fast. You should miss the bus.

5. She worked hard. She could not succeed.

6. You cannot be successful. You work hard.

7. You should stay here. I come back.

8. He remained cheerful. He was wounded.

9. He walked fast. He may catch the train.

10. Please write.  I dictate.



(Answers :1 as(because, since).2. but 3. when 4. lest 5.but 6. unless 7.until 8. though 9.so that 10. as)

Exercise for Practice   (Two) :

Complete the following sentences by filling each blank with an appropriate conjunction.

1. Virtue ennobles.......... vice degrades.

2. Four.......four make eight.

3. She is very rich..........she is not happy.

4. She is miser........she is very rich.

5. He remained cheerful..........he was wounded

6. It is long time...........we last saw him.

7. Will you wait..........I return ?

8. ..........I were you , I would not interfere.

9. Catch me ..........you can.

10. He writes slowly...........neatly.

    (Answers :1.but 2.and 3.but 4.though 5. though 6. since  7.until 8. if 9. if 10. but )                                                                                                                                            (Continued......View next post)







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Tuesday, 6 October 2015

CONJUNCTION ---- Meaning, Explanation & Types of Conjunction with Examples (PART TWO)

                                                                                                 (Previous post...Contd.)

MEANING 


CONJUNCTION  is a word used for joining  words, clauses or  sentences. It acts as a linker between these for example  :ontd.


The sun rose and the fog dispersed.

Either you or your mother sinned.

He helped me  a lot, therefore, I thanked him. 

She and not her sister is at fault.

We invited her to tea but she did not turn up.


The words,   and, or, therefore, and, but    are called conjunctions. These are sentence linkers.




TYPES


Conjunctions  are of Two types :


1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions  



2. Subordinative Conjunctions




Co- ordinative  Conjunctions  join sentences of equal rank . 

These are :  And, but, for, also, otherwise, or, either....or, neither....nor, now, well, but...and, so, still, no less than, however, therefore, too, as, yet etc.





Subordinative  Conjunctions  join a subordinate or dependent clause to a principal clause. These are classified according to their meaning as showing Time, Place, Cause or Reason,  Purpose, Result or effect or Consequence, Condition, Comparison  & Manner etc. These are as follows :

  

1. Showing Time :



Generally the words --- when, whenever,after, before,as soon as,while, since, till,untill,as long as, so long as are the conjunctions used to express time. For example :



1.  As soon as I reached home, it started raining.

2. My son was studying when I reached home.

3. I have been living in this house since I came to this town.

4. He took his food before he left for his office.

5. I met my teacher while walking I was in the market.

6. I shall wait for you until you come back.

7. He left for his home after he had finished his work.

 

2. Showing Place :


Generally the words --- where, wherever,whither, whence are the conjunctions used to express place. 
For example:


1. People greeted him wherever he went.

2. I do not know where he has gone.

3. Can you tell me whither he has gone?

4. My purse was lying where I kept it.

5. I shall follow you wherever you go.



3. Showing Reason or Cause :


Generally the words --- Since, as, because are the conjunctions used to express place. 
For example:



1. He did not go to his office because he was ill.

2. He could not succeed since he did not work hard.

3. I am glad that you like it.

4. He left for his house as he was unwell.

5. We all should help him since he is our friend.




4. Showing Result or Effect :



Generally the words --- that, so....that, such.....that  are the conjunctions used to express result. 

For example:



1. I am so tired that I cannot walk further.

2.  She behaved in such a manner that no body doubted her integrity.

3. The child is so poor that he cannot pay his fee.

4. The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.





5. Showing Purpose :


Generally the words --- so that, so as, that, lest, in order that  are the conjunctions used to express purpose.For example:



1. Walk fast lest you should miss the train.

2. She made aloud noise so that her mother may hear her.

3. He helped her so as she may succeed.

4. He organised a function in order that he might meet his old friends.




6. Showing Condition :



Generally the words --- If, Provided, Provided...that, in case, unless, whether, Supposing  are the conjunctions used to express condition.For example:




1. I shall not go to office if it rains tomorrow.

2. You will not succeed unless you work hard.

3. You can succeed provided you work hard.

4. I shall pardon him provided that he admits his fault.

5. Supposing you do not succeed, you should not get depressed.

6. The teacher asked her whether she had done her homework.

7. Your condition may deteriorate in case you do not take medicine regularly.




7. Showing Comparison :



Generally the words ---  than, less than, as...as, so..... as are the conjunctions used to express comparison.For example:

 1. She is as beautiful as her sister.

2. She is more beautiful than her sister.

3. She is not so beautiful as her sister.

4. Her sister is not less beautiful than her sister.

5. He is taller than I.





8. Showing Contrast or Concession :



Generally the words ---  Although, though, notwithstanding, however are the conjunctions used to express contrast. For example:



1. Although he is poor yet he is honest.

2. Though he is rich yet he is miser.

3. He cannot succeed however hard he may work.

4. He could not succeed notwithstanding he worked hard.





9. Showing Manner or Extent :


Generally the words ---  As, as if, as far as, so far as, according to are the conjunctions used to express manner. For example:



1. Do as you are directed.

2. He walked as if he were lame.

3. As far as I know he is a very honest man.

4. So far as I stretch my memory, he did not insult her.

5. According to my belief, we should not depend on him.

6. This is not true as far as I can find it.







Cor-relative Conjunctions  :



Some conjunctions are used in pairs. These conjunctions are called Cor-relative conjunctions.These are :




1. As.....as :                                She is as clever as her sister.


2. So......as :                               He is not so tall as his brother.


3. The same.....as :                   This is the same kind of purse as mine.


4. The same....that :                 She is the same lady that came here yesterday.


5. Such.....as :                           He is not such a man as will deceive you. 


6. No sooner......than :             No sooner did I reach home, it started raining.  


7. Hardly......when :                Hardly had I reached home when it started raining.


8. Scarcely....before :           Scarcely had I reached home before it started raining.


9. Although/Though.....yet :   Although/though he is rich yet he is miser.


10.Either...or :                         Either he or his brother is at fault.


11. Neither....nor :                  Neither he nor his brother is at fault.


12.Whether.....or :               He must attend the meeting whether he likes or not.


13. So....that :                          I am so tired that I want to  take rest. 


14.Not only....but also :         He was not only caned but also fined.


15. Both....and :                     She is both beautiful and intelligent.





                                                                                                                 (Continued......View next post)
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Monday, 5 October 2015

CONJUNCTION ---- Meaning, Explanation & Types of Conjunction with Examples (PART ONE)





MEANING 


CONJUNCTION  is a word used for joining  words, clauses or  sentences. It acts as a linker between these for example  :

The sun rose and the fog dispersed.

Either you or your mother sinned.

He helped me  a lot, therefore, I thanked him. 

She and not her sister is at fault.

We invited her to tea but she did not turn up.


The words,   and, or, therefore, and, but    are called conjunctions. These are sentence linkers.



TYPES


Conjunctions  are of Two types :


1. Co-ordinative Conjunctions  

2. Subordinative Conjunctions


Co- ordinative  Conjunctions  join sentences of equal rank . 


These are :  And, but, for, also, otherwise, or, either....or, neither....nor, now, well, but...and, so, still, no less than, however, therefore, too, as, yet etc.


For example :

John and James are friends.   Sit quite or leave the room. 

He is sad but hopeful.   He is very rich still he is not happy.

She is very rich yet she is a miser.

You helped her, well, she did not expect this of you.


The words and, or, but,still, yet join the sentences of the same  rank.


Kinds of   Co-ordinative Conjunctions :

Co-ordinative Conjunctions are of following four kinds: 




1. Cumulative Conjunctions  

are words that join two statements. These are and, as well as or well etc. 


For example :


1. Gold and silver have I none.

2. He was both punished and fined.

3. He is at fault and his brother also.

4. She as well as her sister is intelligent.

5. The boy is tall and handsome too. 

6. We reached the school; now the bell had rung.

7. You have completed the job; well you may go.




2. Adversative Conjunctions 

are the words that join opposite statements. 



These are : but, still, however, nevertheless, yet, while, only, whereas. 

For example :


1. He has lost but he is hopeful.

2. He is stout but not courageous.

3. Hurry up otherwise you will be caught,

4. She made a good attempt but failed.

5. He is poor nevertheless he will help you.

6. You prepared for the examination whereas your brother wasted his time.

7. He is very rich yet he is a miser,

8. We all talked to the point while they beat about the bush.






3. Alternative Conjunctions 

are the words that join two alternative statements. Only one statement out of these two is to be operative. 



These are : either..or, neither...nor, else, otherwise etc.


For Example : 

1. He was neither a thief nor a cheat,

2. He is either lazy or incapacitated.

3. Behave yourself otherwise I shall call off the meeting.

4. Walk fast else you will  be late.

5. Be quick otherwise you will miss the train.




4. Illative Conjunctions 

 are the words that join one sentence with another sentence which shows the result of the action shown in the former sentence. 




These are For, so, therefore or then etc. For example : 


1. She is surely in trouble for I heard her crying,

2. It is time to leave so let us start.

3. All are to die for man is mortal.

4. It is time to go let us start then.

5. His brother is honest therefore he is rewarded.

6. He committed the crime so he was punished.

7. He is very honest therefore his boss trusts on him.






 

Assorted Sentences For Practice  

1. He is a bit slow ............ he is not lazy.

2. She is idler and a gambler..............

3. He is honest..............hard working.

4. I fear some foul play..........he is concealing the facts.

5. Boys worked hard.........they succeeded in the examination.

6. The girl tried her best.........she could not succeed.

7. Put your soul and heart in the case ........you may succeed.

8. She is beautiful...........intelligent.

9. I got late in the evening .......it was raining outside.

10. He was annoyed.........he kept quite.








Answers: 1. but 2. too 3.as well as 4. as 5. therefore 6. but 7. so that 8. as well as 9.as 10. but.

(continued in next post)






Your views/suggestions about subject matter/style of the blog are solicited Do post/email.

Disclaimer : Resemblance of the material  and style of the post with any hard or digital material is incidental and the writer is not responsible for it as it is purely from his own experience and knowledge only.