Sunday, 23 August 2015

CONVERSION OR TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ---------- TWO

The conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing  grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in different ways. 

Another form of these further to previous post is as under:



B. Conversion of  Exclamatory sentences into Assertive Sentences & Vice versa.




Sentences are mainly of following types : 

Assertive Sentences
Negative Sentences 
Interrogative Sentences
Exclamatory Sentences


While changing one of the above types of sentences to other in direct form of speech to indirect form of speech, certain rules are observed. The same rules are observed while conversion of these sentences to other type.


Exclamatory sentences are the sentences which describe the feelings of happiness, sorrow, surprise, a strong desire or a strong wish. These end with a sign !. These sentences are mainly of following types :

First type of exclamatory sentences start with the words "How or 
What". While changing these sentences into assertive form  these words are replaced by the words 'very' and 'great'. Very is added before adjective and great before a noun in the sentence. For example :


How cold it is today !   ..............      It is very cold today.
How fine weather it is today!  .......  It is very fine weather today.

What a fool I am !   ...............          I am a great fool.

What a change in his attitude!
There is a great change in his attitude.  

Second type of exclamatory sentences start with the words Hurrah, Alas and Bravo. These words are replaced by the words It is a matter of happiness (or joy) that or It is sad that (It is a matter of grief that) respectively. For example :

Hurrah ! we have won the match.
It is a  matter of happiness that we have won the match.

Hurrah ! tomorrow is a holiday !
It is a matter of joy that tomorrow is a holiday.

Alas! I have lost the contest.
It is sad that I have lost the contest.

Alas! I could not qualify the competition. 
It is sad that I could not qualify the competition.

Bravo! we have won the match.
It is a matter of joy that we won the match,

Third of type of exclamatory sentences start with the words O, Oh,if, Could or   Would that, If only. 

These sentences are changed into assertive sentences by adding the words 'wished' or 'earnestly desired'. For example :

O, that I could fly in the sky!
I wish that I could fly in the sky.

Oh, that we were in a new mansion!
We  wish that we were in a new mansion. 

Would that I were a millionaire!
I wish that I were a millionaire.

If only I were a king!
I wish that I were a king.

Could it possible for me to convince him!
I wish that it could be possible for me to convince him.


Similarly assertive sentences can be converted into exclamatory sentences by reversing the process. For example :

He is very strong.
How strong he is !

It is joyful that I won a lottery.
Hurrah! I won a lottery.

I wished that I could be successful.
O, that I could be successful !

     

C. Conversion of  Assertive and Interrogative sentences from one to another form & Vice versa.


An Assertive sentence provides a positive or affirmative information, a negative sentence has a negative information whereas an interrogative sentence enquires about a subject. These are general terms however these sentences can be interchanged with each other. These are changed as under:


Interchange of interrogative and assertive  sentences  :

When an interrogative sentence is negative, it is changed into a  positive assertive sentence as :

Who does not want to live in peace?
Everybody wants to live in a peace.

If the interrogative sentence is positive, it is changed into a negative sentence as :

Who can afford such a huge expense?
None can afford such a huge expense.

If the interrogative sentence starts with the following words, it is changed with the word given in parentheses with the each of these words.

Who ( Nobody or None), Who does not (Everybody or Everyone), When (Never), Where (Nowhere), Why (It is of no use or It is useless), Of what use (Of no use), What if ( It does not matter) and How (A negative verb) 

For Example :

Who would not like to progress in life ?
 Everyone would like to progress in life.  

Of what use are these riches for her?
These riches are of no use for her.

Who would pocket such an insult?
Nobody would like to pocket such an insult.

When will he learn manners?
He will never learn manners.

Why to beat about the bush?
It is of no use to beat about the bush.

What if one opportunity is lost?
It does not matter if one opportunity is lost.

How can he manage affairs single-handedly?
He cannot mange affairs single-handedly.

If the interrogative sentence starts with a helping verb and is a negative sentence, in assertive sentence 'not' is not used  and if there is no 'not' in interrogative sentence, 'not' is used in assertive sentences. For example:


Does this action look nice for a person like him ?
This action does not look nice for a person like him.

Shall I ever forget favours done to me by you ?
I shall never forget favours done to me by you.

Are not sweet the uses of adversity ?
Sweet are the uses of adversity.

Is it not likely to rain today ?
It is likely to rain today.

Are they not sure to lose the match?
They are sure to lose the match.


Similarly the Assertive sentences can be transformed into Interrogative sentences by reversing the process. For example :

We should respect our betters.
Should not we respect our betters?

Everyone will like to praise him.
Who would not like to praise him ?

None would dare challenge him.
Who would dare  challenge him ?

It is a great pleasure to see an old friend.
Is it not a great pleasure to see an old friend?

Could anybody solve these sums ?
Nobody could solve these sums.


Please note that in no case tense of a sentence is to be changed.Tense of the sentence will remain the same.


SOME SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE 

Convert the following Exclamatory into Assertive sentences

1. What a nice catch it is !
     It is a nice catch.

2. How fine the whether it is !
    It is very fine weather.

3. What a charming sight !
    It is a very charming sight.

4. O, what a nasty fall he had !
     He had a very nasty fall.

5. O that I too could climb the mountain.
    I wish that I too could climb the mountain.    
  
6. Hurrah ! we have won the race!
    It is joyful that we have won the race.

7. Alas ! he has incurred loss in his business.
    It is sad that he has incurred loss in his business. 

8. Would that I were a rich man !
     I wish that I were a rich man.

9. If only I had never left my home!
    I wish I had never left my home.

10. What a merry time we had last night !
     We had a very merry time last night. 



Note:  For more on the topic visit :
www.lessonenglishgrammar.com