Monday, 17 August 2015

CONVERSION OR TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ------- ONE



Conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing  grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in the following ways :



A. Substituting One part of  speech by another.




Sentences comprise of  words of different parts of speech i.e. Noun, Verb, Adjective or Adverb etc. Sentences can be rewritten by changing one of these forms to another form.





(a). By substituting a noun form of a word

     (By changing a Verb, Adjective or Adverb to Noun )


1. He leads a virtuous life.                                        He leads a life of virtues.

 2. He did a brave act.                                              He did an act of bravery.

3. He fought the battle courageously.                     He fought the battle with courage.

4. His mother advised him.                                    His mother gave him a piece of advice.        

5. She likes that boy.                                              She has a liking for that boy.



The words on left side ,virtuous  and brave are adjectives, courageously is an adverb and advised and likes are  verbs. The words on right side, virtues, bravery,  courage,  advice and liking are nouns. 





(b). By substituting a Verb form of a word

 (By changing a Noun, Adjective or Adverb to Verb )


1. He sent an invitation to me for dinner.            He invited me to dinner.

2. She is successful in her business.         .          She is succeeding in her business.

3. He is apparently an honest man.                      He appears to be an honest man.

4, He made  the story short.                                 He shortened the story.

5. He painted the wall black.                                He blackened the wall with paint.  



The words on left side  invitation is a noun, successful, apparently. short and black are adverbs.The words on right side, invited,succeeding,appears,shortened and blackened are verbs) 






(c). By substituting an Adjective  form of a word

 (By changing a Noun, Verb or Adverb to Adjective )

1. He moved swiftly towards the goal..      He made a swift movement towards the goal.

2. He completed the job haphazardly.       He completed the job in a haphazard  manner.

3. He did an act of nobility.                       He acted in a noble manner.OR He did a noble act. 

4. .He walked slowly.                                He walked with a slow pace. 

5. .Last night I slept soundly.                    Last night I had a sound sleep.

The words on left side,  swiftly,haphazardly, slowly and soundly are adverbs and nobility is a noun.The words on right side, swift, haphazard, noble slow and sound are adjectives) 



(d). By substituting an Adverb  form of a word



 (By changing a Noun, Verb or Adjective to Adverb )


1. They honoured the guests with grace.             They honoured the guests gracefully.

2. This scheme will provide you direct benefit .  This scheme will benefit you directly.

3. She speaks in a sweet voice.                             She speaks sweetly.

4. His statement cleared all the doubts.                His statement made all the doubts clear.

5. Boys shouted at the beggar in anger.                Boys shouted at the beggar angrily.


The words on left side grace and anger are nouns, direct and sweet are  adjectives and cleared is a verb  .The words on right side, gracefully,directly,sweetly clear and angrily are adverbs. 



B. By Conversion of the adverb Too.


Sentences contain words Too and to giving the meaning of 'so..... that'  generally in a negative sense as  :

The old man is too weak to walk.    meaning that...
The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.


Sentences from the first form are converted to second form or vice versa. 

There are two types of such sentences in which the word 'too' is used. In first type of sentences the word 'too' is followed by 'to' and in the second type of such sentences only the word 'too' is used.

In the first type of sentences where 'too' is followed by 'to' the sentence is changed as follows:


Such sentences are used to give a negative sense in its meaning.


While making a change in place of the word 'too'  the word 'so' is used. After adjective or Past Participle in the given sentence the word 'that' is used. Thereafter a Pronoun according to the subject of the sentence  is used. If the sentence is in Present Tense the word 'cannot' after the Pronoun is used and after that first form of the verb used as infinitive in the original sentence is used. If the sentence is in Past Tense  the words 'Could not' in place of 'cannot' are used. If the words like for me,  for us, for him or for them are used, the words like I in place of me, we in place of us, he in place of him  and they in place of them are used. For "for you" "you" is used.


For example.
He is too poor to afford this.     .................He is so poor that he cannot afford this.
He was too short to reach there,    ...........  He was so short that he could not reach there.
This sum is too difficult for me to solve it.   ......  This sum is so difficult that I cannot solve it.
This job is too difficult for him to do.     ............   This job is so difficult that he cannot do it.



Sometimes in such sentences the word 'not'  before the word 'to' is used . In such cases the sentence after the word 'to' is changed accordingly keeping the same sense or meaning of the sentence. For example :

This picture is too beautiful not to attract the attention of the people.

This picture is so beautiful that it will attract the attention of the people.

In the second type of  such sentences  only word 'too' is used and it is not  followed by 'to' ,the sentence is changed as follows:


In such sentences the word 'too' is replaced by the words like very much , extremely, greatly, beyond proper limit or more than enough etc. are used. The words like over,very much, greatly and extremely are used before adjective and words beyond proper limit and more than enough are usedafter adjective,

For Example :

The lady is too beautiful.        ...........  The lady is extremely beautiful.
Too much eating is bad for health.......... Eating beyond a proper limit is bad for health.
The leader is too eager for honour.      ........The leader is over eager for praise.
They reached the office too late.             .......They reached the office very late.

Note : Generally sentences with the word'too' are avoided these days. Sentences in simple form are preferred.


Similarly Sentences in simple form can be converted into sentences with the word 'too'. For example:
He is so weak that he cannot walk.            ........ He is too weak to walk.
The wall is so high for the child that he cannot climb. The wall is too high for the child to climb.
This rope is very short/. .......................................The rope is too short.



SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE

Change the following sentences as directed without changing  their sense: 

1. The audience listened to the leader with patience.
    (Use Adverb of patience)

2. The child resembles his mother. (Use Noun of resembles)

3. At last he was successful in his venture. (Use Verb of successful)

4, She moved towards the stage slowly. (Use Adjective of slowly)

5. It is impossible for him to revert at this stage.
    (Use noun of revert)

6. The project is progressing satisfactorily.
     (Use Adjective of satisfactorily)

7. She hopes that she will  meet him soon. (Use hopeful for hopes)

8. It is not allowed to slay animals in the city. (Use Noun of Slay) 

9.  His parents are lucky to have a son who obeys them. 
     (Use adjective of obey)

10. He has made corrections in all of these sentences. 
      (Use verb of corrections) 

ANSWERS

1. The audience listened to the leader patiently.

2. The child  has resemblance with his mother.

3. At last he succeeded in his venture.

4, She moved towards the stage with  slow pace.

5. Reversion  at this stage is impossible  for him.
 
6. The progress of the project is  satisfactory.
   
7. She is  hopeful that she will  meet him soon.

8. Slaughter of animals is not allowed in the city.

9. His parents are lucky to have an obedient  son.
   
10. He has  corrected  all of these sentences.
   









Remove "too" and rewrite the following sentences in simple form  without changing their meaning: 


1. It is never too late to mend.

2. The child is too young to understand this.

3. The room was too small to accommodate all of us.

4, She was too tired to continue her journey.

5. The old man is too weak to carry this load.

6. He is too wise to be deceived.

7. The loaf is too hot for me to eat.

8. The old woman is too jealous.

9. The trader is too greedy.

10. The tree is too high for the child to climb.





Answers :


1. It is never so late that one cannot mend.

2. The child is so young that he cannot understand this.

3. The room was so small that it could not accommodate all of us.

4, She was so tired that she could not continue her journey.

5. The old man is so weak that he cannot carry this load.

6. He is so wise that he cannot  be deceived.

7. The loaf is so hot that I cannot eat.

8. The old woman is over jealous.

9. The trader is very greedy.

10. The tree is so high that the child cannot climb.