Thursday, 27 August 2015

Conversion or Transformation of Sentences - Simple Compound And Complex Sentences - Interchanging -- FIVE





Conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing   grammatical form of a sentence  from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in a number of  ways.
One of the methods is to interchange different types of sentences i.e. Simple Sentence, Compound Sentence and Complex Sentence. Before understanding conversion a brief view about these types of  sentences.

A sentence comprises generally of following parts :  Subject, Verb and Object. OR Subject and Predicate.

The Simple Sentence


A sentence usually comprises of a subject and a predicate or in other words there is a subject , a verb and an object in a sentence. For example :
  1. The girl sings a song.
  2. He is a noble man.
In sentence no. 1 ‘The girl’ is subject and ‘sings a song’ is a predicate. OR
‘The girl’ is subject and ‘sings’ is a verb and ‘a song’ is  object.
Similarly is sentence no 2 ‘He’ is a subject and ‘is a noble man’ a predicate.
Such a sentence is called a Simple Sentence.
In other words, a simple sentence has a subject and a predicate.


The Compound Sentence


A compound sentence is sentence made up of two parts joined by a coordinating conjunction. For example :
  1. The sun rose and the birds started chirping.
  2. I went to the market and purchased sweets and ate them.
The sentence 1. is formed of two parts –
The sun rose.
The birds started chirping.
Both these parts are joined by conjunction ‘and’.
This is a compound sentence and each part is called a clause. Each part has a sense and its own meaning. Each one can be written independently. It is also called a ‘coordinate clause’.
Similarly sentence 2 is also a compound sentence. It comprises of three coordinating clauses –
I went to the market.
(I) purchased sweets.
(I) ate them.
All these three clauses are joined by conjunctions ‘and’.
These two sentences are called compound sentences.
A compound sentence is formed of two or more coordinate clauses. A compound sentence having two coordinate clauses is called Double Compound sentence whereas a Compound sentence with more than two coordinate clauses is called a Multiple Compound sentence.


The Complex Sentence


A complex sentence consists of two clauses one of which is the Main clause and the other Subordinate clause. Each clause has a Subject and a Predicate. The Principal clause is independent clause whereas Subordinate clause is dependent on the Principal clause and cannot be used as an independent clause. For example :
  1. It started raining when I reached home.
  2. When I reached my office, I found that my boss was not there.
In the case of sentence 1, there are two clauses :
  1. It started raining 2. When I reached home.
First clause is independent part whereas the second clause is dependent on first. The second gives meaning when joined with first. So first is Principal clause and the second is Subordinate clause. Similarly in the sentence 2 there are three clauses –
  1. I found
  2. That my boss was not there.
  3. When I reached my office.
  1.  is an independent clause and is called Principal Clause.
  2. and 3 are subordinate clauses dependent on 1.  Therefore
A complex sentence is a sentence which contains a Main clause or Principal Clause and one or more than one Subordinate clauses dependent on the Main clause for their meaning.
A Subordinate clause is of three types as follows-
  • Adverbial Clause
  • Adjective Clause
  • Noun Clause


I     Adverbial Clause :
In case of Adverbial clause in a  complex sentence, it is a subordinate clause which acts as an adverb. It is of following types:

  1. Showing Time : It is connected with conjunctions like :
When, As, Since, After, Before, Whenever, Till, Untill etc.
When I reached home, the lights went off.
I have not taken my food since I came from my office.
Stay here until  return.


  1. Showing Place : It is connected with conjunctions like:
Where, Whither, Wherever, whence etc.
She followed him wherever he went.
I shall accompany you where you go.


  1. Showing condition : It is connected with conjunctions like Unless, If, whether etc.
If you stand surety, I shall lend him money.
Unless you stand surety, I shall not lend him money.


  1. Showing Result : It is connected by conjunctions like
So……that, Such…..that.
The old man is so weak that he cannot walk.
He works in such a manner that pleases all.


  1. Showing Manner : It is connected by conjunctions like
As, if, as, though etc.
He walks as if he is lame.
As you sow so shall you reap.
Do to others as you want to be done by.


  1. Showing Reason : It is connected by conjunctions like
Because, since, as, etc.
Since I am sick, I shall not go to office.
As you feel unwell, you should take rest.


  1. Showing Purpose : It is connected by conjunctions like
In order that, lest, that etc.
He worked hard in order that he might pass.
Work hard lest you should fail.


  1. Showing comparison: It is connected by conjunctions like
As….as, so…..as, than etc.
He is as wise as  his brother.
She is not so beautiful as her sister.
She is more beautiful than her sister.



II Adjective Clause :
In case of adjective clause as  subordinate clause in a complex sentence, it works as an adjective  qualifying a noun or pronoun. For example
The house that I purchased is very beautiful.
The time when this shop opens is not known.
The book which I purchased is lost.
The place where he lives is very near.
The reason why he insulted her is not known.
This is the book that I purchased for you.
He is the person that can solve this sum.



III  Noun Clause :
In case of Noun clause, a subordinate clause acts as a noun in a complex sentence. It is of following types :

  1. The Subject to Verb :

  1. Where she comes from is not known to me.
  2. Whether she passes or fails in the examination is not certain.
  3. Why she did not attend the office is a cause of concern.
  4. What she speaks is not true.
  5. When will she return is not known to me.

2. The Object to Verb :



  • It is not known when she will return.
  • Inform me why you did not come.
  • I do not know who stole my book.
  • She promised  that she would help me.




  • 3. The complement to Verb :
    1. The question is how he knew about it.
    2. Her belief is that her son is innocent.
    3. This is where I missed the chance.
    4. This was what she expected.



    4. The object to Preposition :
    1. She is pleased with what you said.
    2. Act according to what he says.
    3. I have firm faith in what he says.
    4. All the people mocked at what she said.



    5. In Apposition to a Noun or a Pronoun :
    1. She proposed that we should accompany her.
    2. It is  believed that honest is the best policy.
    3. It is bad that he is in the habit of drinking.
    4. You should accept that might is right.


    COMBINATION OF TWO OR MORE SENTENCES


    Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one  Simple Sentence
    Two or more simple sentences can be combined together to form one simple sentence by one of following methods :

    1. By Using an Infinitive :
    1. I am very happy. I know my result.
    I am very happy to know my result.
    2. He is going to his shop. He will return in the evening.
    He is going to his shop to return in the evening.
    3. He has enough money. He distributes money among the poor.
    He has enough money to distribute among the poor.
    4. You have very short time at your disposal. You should not waste time.
    You have very short time at your disposal not to waste it.



    2.By Using a Participle :

    1. He purchased a shop. He started his business there.
    Having purchased a shop he started his business.
    2. He felt sleepy. He went to bed.
    Feeling sleepy he went to bed.
    3. He anticipated danger ahead. He took refuge there.
    Anticipating danger ahead, he took refuge there.
    4. The child found himself alone. He started crying.
    Finding himself alone, the child started crying.



    3. By Using a Preposition with a noun or Gerund :


    1.He worked hard. He succeeded in the examination.
    By working hard he succeeded in the examination.
    2. He helped the poor. He gave the poor money.
    He helped the poor by giving them money.
    3. The chairman emphasized his point of view. He cited many examples in his speech.
    The chairman emphasized his point of view by citing many examples in his speech.
    4. Our football team won the match. Our football team brought laurels to the college.
    Our football team brought laurel to the college by winning the match.



    4. By Using an absolute Phrase:
    1. The sun set. It was  dark all around.
    The sun having set, it was dark all around.
    2. It was very late. I did not go to attend the meeting.
    I being very late did not go to attend the meeting.
    3. It was a rainy day. We remained in doors.
    It being a rainy day we remained in doors.
    4. The cat was away. The mice started playing.
    The cat being away, the mice started playing.



    5. By Using a Noun or a Phrase in Apposition :
    1.We visited our friend last Sunday. My friend is a prominent writer.
    We visited our friend, a prominent writer, last Sunday.
    2.His brother has sung many songs. His brother is a good singer.
    His brother, a good singer, has sung many songs.
    3. He jumped into the river. He did a brave act.
    He jumped into the river- a brave act.
    4. The deputy chairman presided over the meeting. He is second in command.
    The deputy chairman, second in command, presided over the meeting.



    6. By Using an Adverb or an Adverbial Phrase :
    1.The boys will come to your rescue. It is certain.
    The boys will certainly come to your rescue.
    2. We reached our home. It was evening.
    We reached our home by evening.
    3. The young man was provoked by his companions. He resorted to violence.
    Provoked by his companions, the young man resorted to violence.
    4. We lost the match. It was unfortunate.
    We unfortunately lost our match.



    Similarly more than two simple sentences can be combined together to form a Simple Sentence.
    1. I met a young man in the market. He was having a charming personality. He was waiting for a bus. He  was having a bag in his hand. He was of twenty years age.
    In the market, I met a young man of twenty years age with a charming personality , having a bag in his hand ,waiting for a bus.

    2. Yesterday, I was feeling unwell. I stayed at home. I did not go to my office. I took rest for the whole day. As a result I got well.

    Yesterday, I, being unwell, did not go to my office, stayed at home, took rest for the whole day, resultantly,  got well.


    Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one  Compound Sentence
    1. By using coordinating conjunction like ..and, both....and, not only....but also, not less than etc.

    1. He is a very hardworking person.He is a very sincere person.  (Both qualities are similar in nature)
    He is not only hard working but also a sincere person.
    2. He is a miser. His brother is no less miser.
    His brother is no less miser than him.
    3. Next day the boy attended the class. He had his home work also.
    Next day the boy not only attended the class but he had done his home work also.
    4. His father was a statesman. His father was a politician.
    His father was both a statesman and a  politician.



    2. By using coordinating conjunction like .. or, either..or, neither....nor etc.

    1. He must appear in the examination. He will be fined.
    He must appear in the examination or he will be fined.
    2. He appeared in the examination. He paid the fine.
    He either appeared in the examination or he paid the fine.
    3. He did not appear in the examination. He did not pay the fine.
    He neither appeared in the examination nor he paid the fine.
    4. He is unwell. He pretends to be unwell.
    He is either unwell or he pretends to be unwell.



    3. By using coordinating conjunction like ..therefor, so, for etc.
    1. I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office
    I am  feeling unwell therefore I cannot attend the office.
    2. I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office.
    I am feeling unwell so I cannot attend the office.
    3.I am feeling unwell. I cannot attend the office.
    I cannot attend the office for  I am feeling unwell.
    4. He is  very poor. He cannot pay his fee.
    He cannot pay his fee as he is very poor.


    4. By using coordinating conjunction like .. still, yet, but, only etc.
    1. He is rich. He is a miser.            He is rich but he is miser.

    2. He is poor. He is happy.
    He is poor but he is happy.


    3. Fools build houses. Wise men live in houses.
    Fools build houses but wise men live in them.

    4. She betrayed him. He trusts on her.
    She betrayed him still he trusts on her.


    Combination of Two or More Simple Sentences to form one  Complex Sentence
    1. By using a Noun Clause.
    1.He is a cheat.I know it.
    I know that he is a cheat.

    2. I do not know. our team may win the match.
    I do not know whether our team wins the match.

    3. He may not succeed in the examination. This is his great fear.
    This is his great fear that he may not succeed in the examination.

    4. He made a few mistakes. He wrote very well.
    Except he made a few mistakes, he wrote very well.



    2. By using a Adverbial Clause (Conjunctions like: If, since, than, because, unless,when,where,while,though,as, until,before etc.)

    1. He succeeded. He worked hard.
    He succeeded since he worked hard.
    2. He is unwell. He cannot attend the office.
    As he is unwell, he cannot attend the office.
    3. The sun rose. The birds started chirping.
    When the sun rose the birds started chirping.
    4. She is beautiful. Her sister is more beautiful.
    Her sister is more beautiful than she.



    3. By using a Adjective Clause  by using who, whom,whose or which  etc.)
    1. This the house. I lived in this house.
    This is the house where I lived in.
    2. He is the boy.He won first prize.
    He is the boy who won the first prize.
    3. He is the person. His purse was stolen yesterday.
    He is the person whose purse was stolen yesterday.
    4. You did not attend the office yesterday. Will you tell me the reason?
    Will you tell me why you did not attend the office yesterday?

    (Exercises on the topic for practice purpose  are provided separately)

    (Disclaimer Every care has been taken to provide correct information on the topic however there is no responsibility for any mistake or error crept in. Nor is there any responsibility for any resemblance of the material with any other matter in any form.)

    Wednesday, 26 August 2015

    CONVERSION OR TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES---FOUR------ EXERCISES FOR PRACTICE

    The conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing  grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in different ways. 

    Here follow a few exercises for practice (with answers) :


    Change the following sentences from assertive to interrogative form or vice versa without changing meaning.

    1. The beauties of nature are beyond description.

    2. Who is oblivious of the beauty of the Taj?

    3. Who can trust such a crafty person ?

    4. The child remembered us.

    5. Will he dare disobey his parents?



    ANSWERS

    1. Do beauties of nature need any description?

    2. All are aware of the beauty of the Taj.

    3. Nobody can trust such a crafty person.

    4. The child did not forget us.

    5. Will he dare not obey his parents ?



    Change the following sentences from Exclamatory to Assertive form  without changing meaning.


    1. How mysterious are the  ways of God !
       The ways of God are very mysterious.

    2. What a piece of art it is ! 
         It is a great piece of art.

    3. What a lovely flower it is !
         It is a very lovely flower.

    4. How nice to see you again !
        It is very nice to see you again.

    5. What a fool I am !
        I am a great fool.

    6. What a nice fellow he is !
        He is a very nice fellow.

    7. What a fine weather it is today !
        It is a very fine weather today.

    8. How feeble the old woman was !
        The old woman was very feeble.

    9. How young she appears to be !
        She appears to be very young.

    10.What a charming scenery it is !
         It is a very charming scenery.




    Change the following sentences to Assertive form  without changing meaning.

    1. Hurrah ! we shall enjoy a holiday tomorrow.
        It is joyful that we shall enjoy a holiday tomorrow.

    2. Alas! He is a ruined man.
        It is sad that he is a ruined man.

    3. Hurrah ! My father gifted me a beautiful watch. 
        It is joyful that my father gifted me a beautiful watch.

    4. Hurrah ! we are in a winning position.
        It is joyful that we are in a winning position.

    5. Alas ! how foolish I had been.
        It is sad that I had been very foolish.

    6. Hurrah ! we have achieved our target.
         It is very joyful that we have achieved our target.

    7. Alas ! rains have destroyed all the crops this year.
        It is sad that rains have destroyed all the crops this year.

    8. Alas ! My friend has lost her puse.
         It is sad that my friend has lost her purse.

    9. Hurrah ! I have found out my lost purse.
        It is joyful that I have found my lost purse.

    10.Hurrah ! I shall reap a rich harvest this year.
         It is joyful that I shall reap a rich harvest this year



      Do As Directed ---Change Sentences without Change in Meaning.

     
    1. Would that I were with him at this time !                                                                                                                                   (Assertive Sentence)
    2. His income is too meager to make both ends meet.                                                                                            (remove 'too')
    3. If only my son could get a decent job!
                                              (Assertive Sentence)
    4. Alas! he has been deprived of his job.
                                             (Assertive Sentence)
    5. What a lame excuse the child made!
                                         (Assertive Sentence)
    6. What a nasty fall she had !
                               (Assertive Sentence)
    7. Only brilliant students can succeed !
                                            (Negative Sentence)
    8. He is blind to the faults of his children.
                                                 (Negative Sentence)
    9. The nation will ever remember him for his services.
                                                             (Negative Sentence)
    10. I wish that I had been a millionaire. 
                                         (Exclamatory Sentence)



       ANSWERS

    1. I wish that  I had been with him at this time.                                                                                                                             
    2. His income is so meager that he cannot make both ends meet.                                                                                         
    3. I wish that my son could get a decent job.
                                           
    4. It is sad that he has been deprived of his job.
                                           
    5. The child made a petty lame excuse.
                                       
    6. She had a very  nasty  fall.
                           
    7. No other than brilliant students can succeed.
                                         
    8. He is not aware of the faults of his children.
                                               
    9. The nation will never forget him for his services.
                                                           
    10. Would that I had been a millionaire!
                                        
       












    Tuesday, 25 August 2015

    CONVERSION OR TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ---------- THREE

    The conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing  grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in different ways. 

    Another form of these further to previous post is as under:



    D. Conversion of  Affirmative Sentences into Negative                       sentences          & Vice versa.



    An Affirmative sentence provides a positive information about something happening whereas a negative sentence gives a negative information about the same. These are just general terms. However these sentences can be interchanged with each other. These are changed as under:

    Change of affirmative sentences into negative sentences :


    1. By using an antonyms of the word. For example.


    This can be expected from a fool only.
    This cannot be expected from a wise.

    This is the work of a brave person.
    This is not the work of a timid person.

    He is aware of the faults of his son.
    He is not blind to the faults of his son.



    His remarks displeased his boss. 
    His remarks did not please his boss.

    2. By removing adverb too. For example :


    He is too weak to move about.
    He is so weak that he cannot move about.

    This lesson is too difficult for me understand.
    This lesson is so difficult that I cannot understand.

    This tree is too high for the child to climb up.
    This tree is so high that the child cannot climb up.



    3. By using No sooner..... than. For example :


    As soon as I reached home, it started raining.
    No sooner did I reach home, it started raining.

    As soon as she reached the office,the boss left.
    No sooner did she reach the office the boss left. 

    4. By using None.......but. For example :


    Only his brother is at fault.
    None but his brother is at fault.

    Only deserving candidates could qualify.
    None but deserving candidates could qualify.


    5. By removing Lest .......  should. For example :


    Work hard  lest you should fail.
    Work hard so that you may not fail.

    Walk fast lest you should be late.
    Walk fast so that you may not be late.


    6. By using degree of comparison. For example :

    He is richer than his brother.
    His brother is not as rich as he.

    This city is the costliest city.
    No other city is costlier than this city.

    Her sister is cleverer than her.
    She is not as clever as her sister is.

    7. By using double negatives in the sentence. For example :


    He is sure of his success.
    He has no doubt of his success.

    He achieved success in his mission.
    He did not fail to achieve success in his mission.



    8. Sundry sentences using different methods. For example :



    There is always scope for a man to make amends.

    It is never too late for a  man to make amends.


    By dint of hard work one can achieve success.

    There is no royal road to success.


    Every person in the city knows him. 

    There is not a single person in the city who does not know him.




    For changing Negative sentences into Affirmative sentences reverse of the method given above can be used.


    A Few Sentences for Practice.


    1. His boss dislikes his clumsy manners.
    (Change into negative sentence)
    2. As soon as he saw the policeman, he ran away.
    (Change into negative sentence)
    3. None but a brave man can face such a situation.
    (Change into affirmative sentence)
    4. I did not take a note of what he says about me.
    (Change into affirmative sentence)
    5. There is  no fool like an old fool.
    (Change into negative sentence)
    6. He left no plan untried.
    (Change into affirmative sentence)
    7. He lost his temper during the discussion.
    (Change into negative sentence)
    8. He has lost all hopes to win.
    (Change into negative sentence)
    9. He did not believe what I said.
    (Change into affirmative sentence)
    10. None but you can solve this problem. 
    (Change into affirmative sentence)



    Answers:


    1. His boss does not like his clumsy manners.

    2. No sooner did he see the policeman, he ran away.

    3. Only a brave man can face such a situation.

    4. I missed to take a note of what he says about me.

    5. Old fools surpass all in folly.

    6. He tried all the  plans.

    7. He did not maintain  his temper during the discussion.

    8. He has no hope to win.

    9. He disbelieved what I said.

    10. Only you can solve this problem. 

    Sunday, 23 August 2015

    CONVERSION OR TRANSFORMATION OF SENTENCES ---------- TWO

    The conversion or transformation of a sentence implies changing  grammatical form of a sentence from one to another without changing its meaning. It can be done  in different ways. 

    Another form of these further to previous post is as under:



    B. Conversion of  Exclamatory sentences into Assertive Sentences & Vice versa.




    Sentences are mainly of following types : 

    Assertive Sentences
    Negative Sentences 
    Interrogative Sentences
    Exclamatory Sentences


    While changing one of the above types of sentences to other in direct form of speech to indirect form of speech, certain rules are observed. The same rules are observed while conversion of these sentences to other type.


    Exclamatory sentences are the sentences which describe the feelings of happiness, sorrow, surprise, a strong desire or a strong wish. These end with a sign !. These sentences are mainly of following types :

    First type of exclamatory sentences start with the words "How or 
    What". While changing these sentences into assertive form  these words are replaced by the words 'very' and 'great'. Very is added before adjective and great before a noun in the sentence. For example :


    How cold it is today !   ..............      It is very cold today.
    How fine weather it is today!  .......  It is very fine weather today.

    What a fool I am !   ...............          I am a great fool.

    What a change in his attitude!
    There is a great change in his attitude.  

    Second type of exclamatory sentences start with the words Hurrah, Alas and Bravo. These words are replaced by the words It is a matter of happiness (or joy) that or It is sad that (It is a matter of grief that) respectively. For example :

    Hurrah ! we have won the match.
    It is a  matter of happiness that we have won the match.

    Hurrah ! tomorrow is a holiday !
    It is a matter of joy that tomorrow is a holiday.

    Alas! I have lost the contest.
    It is sad that I have lost the contest.

    Alas! I could not qualify the competition. 
    It is sad that I could not qualify the competition.

    Bravo! we have won the match.
    It is a matter of joy that we won the match,

    Third of type of exclamatory sentences start with the words O, Oh,if, Could or   Would that, If only. 

    These sentences are changed into assertive sentences by adding the words 'wished' or 'earnestly desired'. For example :

    O, that I could fly in the sky!
    I wish that I could fly in the sky.

    Oh, that we were in a new mansion!
    We  wish that we were in a new mansion. 

    Would that I were a millionaire!
    I wish that I were a millionaire.

    If only I were a king!
    I wish that I were a king.

    Could it possible for me to convince him!
    I wish that it could be possible for me to convince him.


    Similarly assertive sentences can be converted into exclamatory sentences by reversing the process. For example :

    He is very strong.
    How strong he is !

    It is joyful that I won a lottery.
    Hurrah! I won a lottery.

    I wished that I could be successful.
    O, that I could be successful !

         

    C. Conversion of  Assertive and Interrogative sentences from one to another form & Vice versa.


    An Assertive sentence provides a positive or affirmative information, a negative sentence has a negative information whereas an interrogative sentence enquires about a subject. These are general terms however these sentences can be interchanged with each other. These are changed as under:


    Interchange of interrogative and assertive  sentences  :

    When an interrogative sentence is negative, it is changed into a  positive assertive sentence as :

    Who does not want to live in peace?
    Everybody wants to live in a peace.

    If the interrogative sentence is positive, it is changed into a negative sentence as :

    Who can afford such a huge expense?
    None can afford such a huge expense.

    If the interrogative sentence starts with the following words, it is changed with the word given in parentheses with the each of these words.

    Who ( Nobody or None), Who does not (Everybody or Everyone), When (Never), Where (Nowhere), Why (It is of no use or It is useless), Of what use (Of no use), What if ( It does not matter) and How (A negative verb) 

    For Example :

    Who would not like to progress in life ?
     Everyone would like to progress in life.  

    Of what use are these riches for her?
    These riches are of no use for her.

    Who would pocket such an insult?
    Nobody would like to pocket such an insult.

    When will he learn manners?
    He will never learn manners.

    Why to beat about the bush?
    It is of no use to beat about the bush.

    What if one opportunity is lost?
    It does not matter if one opportunity is lost.

    How can he manage affairs single-handedly?
    He cannot mange affairs single-handedly.

    If the interrogative sentence starts with a helping verb and is a negative sentence, in assertive sentence 'not' is not used  and if there is no 'not' in interrogative sentence, 'not' is used in assertive sentences. For example:


    Does this action look nice for a person like him ?
    This action does not look nice for a person like him.

    Shall I ever forget favours done to me by you ?
    I shall never forget favours done to me by you.

    Are not sweet the uses of adversity ?
    Sweet are the uses of adversity.

    Is it not likely to rain today ?
    It is likely to rain today.

    Are they not sure to lose the match?
    They are sure to lose the match.


    Similarly the Assertive sentences can be transformed into Interrogative sentences by reversing the process. For example :

    We should respect our betters.
    Should not we respect our betters?

    Everyone will like to praise him.
    Who would not like to praise him ?

    None would dare challenge him.
    Who would dare  challenge him ?

    It is a great pleasure to see an old friend.
    Is it not a great pleasure to see an old friend?

    Could anybody solve these sums ?
    Nobody could solve these sums.


    Please note that in no case tense of a sentence is to be changed.Tense of the sentence will remain the same.


    SOME SENTENCES FOR PRACTICE 

    Convert the following Exclamatory into Assertive sentences

    1. What a nice catch it is !
         It is a nice catch.

    2. How fine the whether it is !
        It is very fine weather.

    3. What a charming sight !
        It is a very charming sight.

    4. O, what a nasty fall he had !
         He had a very nasty fall.

    5. O that I too could climb the mountain.
        I wish that I too could climb the mountain.    
      
    6. Hurrah ! we have won the race!
        It is joyful that we have won the race.

    7. Alas ! he has incurred loss in his business.
        It is sad that he has incurred loss in his business. 

    8. Would that I were a rich man !
         I wish that I were a rich man.

    9. If only I had never left my home!
        I wish I had never left my home.

    10. What a merry time we had last night !
         We had a very merry time last night. 



    Note:  For more on the topic visit :
    www.lessonenglishgrammar.com