Wednesday, 10 June 2015

PUNCTUATION --- The Right Use of Stops -- Explanation with examples.

PUNCTUATION

Punctuation distinguishes one sentence from the other sentence, or one part of a sentence from the other part by means of points, stops, or marks.


The dictionary meaning of Punctuation is ‘the act or practice of inserting standardized marks or signs in written matter to clarify the meaning and separate structural units; or something that contrasts or accentuates.’


The importance of the act of punctuation can well be assessed from the following sentence written in its two forms :


The inspector said the teacher is a fool.


The inspector said, “The teacher is a fool.”

“The inspector” said the teacher, “is a fool.”




A sentence was given for punctuation to students in a class.

A woman without her man is nothing.


All the male students wrote:  

 “ A woman, without her man, is nothing.”

All the female students wrote : 

“A woman : without her, man is nothing.”

This shows the power of punctuation.



The different stops used for punctuation in writing are :-

Full Stop…………………….   .     
      
Comma       ………………   ,

Semicolon  ……………….  ;

Colon       …………………..  : 

Sign of Interrogation…………   ?

Sign of Exclamation  ………….  !

Apostrophe………………       ‘

Parenthesis…………………   ( )

Dash …………………….            _

Hyphen……………………..       -


Inverted Commas………….  “     "


Capital Letters.........................


THE FULL STOP (.)

The  full stop indicates the longest pause.   
  
The Full stop is used to show the end of a complete assertive or imperative sentence. The following sentence must commence with a capital letter.


God helps those who help themselves.

My father did not go to his office.



The Full stop is used after abbreviation and initials; as,

M.A. , M.B.A, M.B.B.S., M.L.A., Mr. G. B. Shaw.





THE COMMA

A comma represents a short pause or a mark of separation within a sentence while writing. Following are the uses of a comma :


A  comma is mainly used as follows :-


1.        A comma is used between three or more words of the same part of speech, when only the last two of these are joined by ‘and’ ;   as ,


She purchased bananas, apples, pears and grapes from the market.  (Noun)

His father, mother, brothers and sister visited our house yesterday.   (Noun)

Only crooked, tactful, clever and shrewd people join politics these days.(Adjectjive)

He lived wisely,prudently, and honestly.                                                    (Adverb)


( These days comma before the word 'and' between the last two words is not  used.)




2.        A comma is used between nouns and pronouns in Apposition ; as,


Bill Gates, the developer of windows, is  the wealthiest person of the world.

John, a brilliant student of our class, always stands first in the examination.

Bangalore, a city of gardens, is worth visiting again and again.  



3.        A comma is used after the Nominative of Address ; as,


Friends, Romans, Countrymen, lend me your ears.

Soldiers, Warriors, Saviours, we are proud of you.



4.        A comma is used after an absolute construction ; as,


The sun having set, all went home.

The meeting being over, all the members left.



5.        A comma is used when words of the same class go together in pairs. Each pair is separated by a  comma; as,


By night  or by day, at home or abroad, he is a constant source of anxiety to his mother.

Whether on duty or at home, in uniform or in civil dress, he is always alert and active.



6.        A comma is used after an adverbial phrase at the beginning of a sentence; as,


In fact, he is a great leader of the country.

At last, we were able to bring her round.



7.        A comma is used before and after a principal phrase when it might be expanded into a sentence; as,


John, having taken his food, went out for a stroll.

His daughter, having married to a foreigner, went abroad.



8.        A comma is used before certain coordinate conjunctions ;as,

He is not only an obedient son , but also a good husband.

He was not only accused, but also convicted.



9.        A comma is used when explanatory phrases are separated; as,


The garden was oblong, 200 meters in length and 100 meters in breadth.

The soldiers were provided with ration, dozens of breads and scores of eggs, for eating.



10.      A comma is used before and after infinitives; as,


I am, to tell you the truth, fed up with this job now.



11.      A comma is used before the introduction of direct speech; as,


She said,” I shall be thankful to you for this act.”

In an indirect quotation a comma is not used; as,

While I was at his house, John asked me if I wanted anything to eat.



12.      A comma is used to separate short co-ordinate clauses; as,


Steam propels, elevates,  lowers,  pumps, drains, pulls, drives etc.



13.      A comma is used to separate an Adverb clause from the Principal clause; as,


He will succeed, because he works hard.

I shall do this gladly if I am allowed.





THE SEMICOLON (;)


A semicolon represents a greater pause than a comma :




1.      The semicolon is used to separate larger clauses from one another ; as,


The youngman left the village for good ; for he wanted to go abroad.


2.      The semicolon is used to give greateremphasis to different clauses; as,


As Ceasar loved me, I weep for him;
As he was fortunate, I rejoice at it;
As he was valiant, I honour him;
But as he was ambtious, I slew him. 




3.      The semicolon is used to divide certain coo-ordinate clauses or a series of  loosely connected clauses ; as,


I met him as he was leaving the house ; otherwise I should not have known where he lived.

I refused to do what he asked me to do ; for I was  convinced that he had been misinformed  of the facts.

Reading maketh a full man ; speaking a ready man ;  writing an exact man.




THE COLON (:)


A colon represents a  still greater pause than a semicolon :


1.      The colon is used to separate two contrasted sentences ; as,


Man proposes : God disposes.     To err is human : to forgive is divine.


2.      The colon is used to introduce a quotation ; as,



Gita says : "Life is an action."

Shakespeare says : "Sweet are the uses of adversity."



3.     Sometimes the colon is followed by a dash for a quotation ; as,



Bacon says :- " He who lives in solitude is either a beast or an angel."



4.      The colon is used to introduce an  enumeration of examples etc. ; as,



There were following articles of furniture in the room:-

A round table, two chairs,  a computer table, a computer chair, three pieces of sofa set and a dining table with its six chairs. 

Please send me the following articles of stationery:-

One set of ball pens, One dozen pencils, One quire of paper, One bottle computer printer's ink, One bottle gum  and two small writing pads.

The two great books :- The Ramayna and the Gita.

5.      The colon is used to recapitulate a series of previous clauses ; as,


The storm subdued ; the sea went calm; waves moved gently on water surface and streams of water splashed against the rocky coast.






THE SIGN OF INTERROGATION(?)

The sign of interrogation is used in sentences which ask questions; as,


How did you fare in the examination?

Where does his brother live?

Who is making a noise in the street?

Did you go to your office yesterday?

The sign of interrogation is used to mark direct questions ; it is not used in indirect speech ; as, 


She asked him where he had come from.





THE SIGN OF EXCLAMATION(!)

The sign of interrogation is used  after words or  sentences which express sudden feelings or emotions ; as,

Hurrah !   Alas !   Bravo !    Ah!   Good Luck !  Well done ! etc.

How beautiful the baby is !

What a charming  scenery  !

" Well done ! My boys ," said the captain.






THE  APOSTROPHE( ' )

1.The Apostrophe is used to show that some letter or letters have been omitted ; as .


 Se'en ( for  Seven)   She'd ( for she would )  'tis (for it is)      beautiful the baby is !





2.The Apostrophe is used to indicate the plural of letters and figures ; as,  

6's, 4's , t's 



3.The Apostrophe is used in possessive case also ; as,  


John's book    Mary's car   





THE  HYPHEN (-) , DASH (--) , PARENTHESIS OR BRACKETS () &
INVERTED COMMAS 


The hyphen is used to join two similar or complementary words; as,

bath-room, class-room, cup-saucer, Forget-me-not, ox-cart etc.


Dash is used after colon to give separate information following a sentence or clause or part thereof ;as,

Read the following sentences :--      Do as directed hereunder:--


Brackets are used to provide similar additional information;as,

At the age of ten (such is power of genius)  he could read and write English fluently.  


Inverted commas are used at the beginning and end  of a quotation or of the actual words used by the speaker; as,

John said," I shall return by evening."

Bible says : " Man does not live by bread alone."



CAPITAL LETTERS

  Capital letters are used as follows :


1. The first letter of a sentence; as , Work hard. Do you know him?  .


2. The first word of every line of a poem;as.

Youth is full of pleasure.
Age is full of care.


3. The first word of a quotation.

4. All nouns and pronouns used for God.

5. First letter of names of books ;as,

The Gita, The Bible.

6. All proper nouns, proper adjectives and personified objects; as,

India , Indian, O,Death.

7. First letter of words of address to a king or a judge etc.

His Majesty, My Lord, Your Honour.

8. First letter of names of important rivers and Mountains ;as,

The Ganges, The HImalayas, The Sutlej.

9. Letters denoting abbreviations ;as,

M.A.  , M.B.A. , L.L.B. 

10. The names of the days, months etc. ;as,

Wednesday, April, January, Friday.  




SOLVED EXAMPLES



EXERCISE    ONE



UNPUNCTUATED


1. the wolf roared the lion why are you making my water dirty do you not see that i am drinking water here the wolf said sir i cannot make the water dirty because the water is coming from your side


2. spring while we are writing is here the winds blow gently the birds the flowers and the buds  all proclaim the coming of spring


3.he said why do you come and disturb me what nuisance you are why cant you play somewhere else can you not see that i am doing my work go away at once and do not come here again


4. the sun has set the moon has risen the stars have come out and night has arrived declared the hermit

5.john said what is the time mother is it time for me to start for my school i fear i am late for my school today she said no you are not hurry up you will be if you are not quick




PUNCTUATED

1. " The wolf," roared the lion, "Why are you making my water dirty?  Do you not see that I am drinking water here ?" The wolf said, " Sir,  I cannot make the water dirty because the water is coming from your side."



2. Spring, while we are writing, is  here. The winds blow gently.  The birds, the flowers, and the buds  all proclaim the coming of Spring.


3.He said, "Why do you come and disturb me? What nuisance you are ! Why can't you play somewhere else ?  Can you not see that I am doing my work ?Go away at once and do not come here again."


4. "The sun has set,  the moon has risen,the stars have come out, and night has arrived, " declared the Hermit.

5.  John said, " What is the time, mother ? Is it time for me to start for my school ? I  fear I am late for my school today." She said, " No, You are not. Hurry up! you will be, if you are not quick."



EXERCISE    TWO

UNPUNCTUATED

1. no one knows when he will come or whether he will come or not at all or whether he is even alive


2. who was he why he came or what he intended to do will all be found out in time


3. matters  moral and religious social and political educational and cultural are now engaging the attention of the government

4.  a maiden of bare twenty dressed in rust coloured garments moving her head all around observing all sitting in the hall with a gracious gait walked  into the hall 

5. No smoking in this compartment said ticket inspector to the traveller  i  am not smoking   was the traveller s reply  but you have got your pipe in your mouth   answered the inspector yes  was the sharp reply  ive got my feet in my boots but i am not walking  



PUNCTUATED

1. No one knows when he will come, or whether he will come or not at all, or whether he is even alive.


2. Who was he, why he came, or what he intended to do, will all be found out in time?


3. Matters  moral and religious, social and political,educational and cultural, are now engaging the attention of the government.

4. A maiden of bare twenty, dressed in rust coloured garments,moving her head all around, observing all sitting in the hall, with a gracious gait, walked  into the hall. 

5. " No smoking in this compartment," said ticket inspector to the traveller. " I am not smoking,"was the traveller's reply. " But you have got your pipe in your mouth," answered the inspector. " Yes", was the sharp reply. " I've got my feet in my boots but I am not walking."


  


EXERCISE    Three

UNPUNCTUATED


1.forward my men cried the general and face the foe bravely it is true that they are more in number but what of that if we retreat now our women will scorn us and we shall be branded forever with the names of cowards


2. what presents shall I bring you when I come home said the king to his three queens the first queen said  please bring me a fine silk gown i want a pretty necklace said the second   and what would like beauty like said the kind king i should like a red rose said beauty


3. how noble you are said the blind man to the rich man i am shivering with cold take pity on me and give me some food and clothes i hope you will not disappoint me     


4. come boys said jack to me and peterson we three shall stick together if we cling to this oar we may perhaps reach the shore what say you   will you join me  our lot is cast together said i we shall sink or swim together said peterson what do you see in the distance land  by gods grace we are saved


5. i carry here with me peace and war said fabius choose which you willgive us what you will was the reply then take war said fabius  we accept the gift cried the senators of carthage


PUNCTUATED


1. " Forward, my men, " cried the general, " and face the foe bravely. It is true that they are more in number, but what of that. If we retreat now, our women will scorn us and we shall be branded forever with the names of cowards."


2. " What presents shall I bring you when I come home?" said the king to his three queens. The first queen said, " Please bring me a fine silk gown." " I want a pretty necklace." said the second. " And what would like Beauty like?" said the kind king. " I should like a red rose." said Beauty.


3. " How noble you are", said the blind man to the rich man.  " I am shivering with cold. Take pity on me and give me some food and clothes. I hope you will not disappoint me. "      

4. " Come boys, " said Jack to me and Peterson. " We three shall stick together. If we cling to this oar, we may perhaps reach the shore. What say you ?  Will you join me ? "  " Our lot is cast together, " said I. "We shall sink or swim together, " said Peterson. " What do you see in the distance  ?" " Land ! By God's grace, we are saved. "


5. " I carry here with me peace and war," said Fabius," Choose which you will.""Give us what you will, " was the reply. " Then take war," said Fabius. " We accept the gift, " cried the senators of Carthage.





EXERCISE    Four

UNPUNCTUATED


1.what is ths he cried for he was very much surprised has your son sent all these beautiful jewels go home at once and tell the prince to come to me he shall marry young beautiful princess today


2. what might you be doing i should like to know asked the policeman taking out of his torn out bag a fat notebook  and a very blunt stump of lead pencil some mischief or other i am sure