Saturday, 2 August 2014

CHANGE THE VOICE -------ACTIVE AND PASSIVE VOICE -SIMPLE SENTENCES

 

While writing a sentence we use a word in the beginning of the sentence upon which we want to give more stress or importance according to action described in the sentence. Or in other words  we use a word as a subject or an object in the sentence according to importance of its action.




 For example: 


1. I wrote a letter to him.

2. I wrote him a letter.


3. A letter was written to him by me.


In all the sentences written above action takes place between  the words I (me) , letter and Him ( He) . But in the beginning of the sentence only that word is used on which we want to give more stress or importance.



In case of 1. & 2. the word 'I' is shown more important and is written in the beginning of the sentence and the word 'letter' is in a secondary position. 

Besides this in these two sentences choice is also to be made between He (him) and letter. 




In case of 3 a letter is given more importance than the words I or him and is written in the beginning of the sentence.


Due to this reason while writing, we use different forms of sentences. More important words are used as Subject and those of secondary place are used as object in the sentence. For this we make necessary changes in the sentence. 



The two forms of sentences are called Active and Passive forms of sentences and this process of making a change from active to passive form of a sentence is called 'change of the voice'.




In examination there are questions in the form of change of sentences from one form of voice to another i.e. from active to passive form or vice versa  & there are questions to rectify errors due to wrong change of form of sentences.



A sentence generally has in it a  Subject , Verb and object. Some sentences do not have an object but for change of voice an object in a sentence is necessary.








Change of Voice -  in case of Simple sentences ---

Present Indefinite Tense and Past Indefinite Tense  sentences :

While changing a sentence from active to passive form, we bring object in place of subject and move subject to the place of object. A word 'by' is used before subject (at object place).

 In case of  Present Indefinite tense  words -- 'is am are' (according to changed subject) + third form  of verb is used.

 In case of  Past Indefinite Tense words -- was , were ( according to changed subject)  + third form of verb - are used.



While changing subject to object we make changes as follows:


I is changed to me and we to us.


First Person :

I           My       Me
We      Our      Us


You (singular and plural) remains  you.  

Second Person 

You   Your    You

He changes to him.  She changes to her. They changes to them.

Third Person

He      His        Him
She     Her       Her
They   Their    Them.








SIMPLE SENTENCES-

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


For example :-


I sing a song.             A song is sung by me.
We sing a song.        A song is sung by us.


He sings a song.        A song is sung by him.
She sings a song.       A song is sung by her.
They sing a song.       A song is sung by them.

A girl sings a song.    A song is sung by a girl.

Girls sing a song.       A song is sung by girls.


You sing a song.        A song is sung by you.







 PAST INDEFINITE TENSE


Similarly in case of Past tense 'was and were' are used.



For Example :



I painted a beautiful picture.           A beautiful picture was painted by me.
We painted a beautiful picture.       A beautiful picture was painted by us.

You painted a beautiful picture.       A beautiful picture was painted by you.


He painted a beautiful picture.         A beautiful picture was painted by him.
She  painted a beautiful picture.       A beautiful picture was painted by her. 
They painted a beautiful picture.      A beautiful picture was painted by them.

A girl painted a  beautiful picture.    A beautiful picture was painted by a girl.

Girls painted a beautiful picture.       A beautiful picture was painted by girls.




CONTINUOUS TENSES ----

PRESENT  CONTINUOUS TENSE & PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE :


In case of Present Continuous Tense,


  " is,am,are + first form of verb + ing " are changed to

   " is,am,are + being+ third form of verb ".



In case of Past Continuous Tense,  


"was,were + first form of verb + ing " are changed to

" was,were + being+ third form of verb ".


For Example :


I am writing a letter.                     A letter is being written by me.
We are writing a letter.                 A letter is being written by us.


You are writing a letter                 A letter is being written by you.


He is writing a letter.                    A letter is being written by him.
She is writing a letter.                   A letter is being written by her.
They are writing a letter.               A letter is being written by them


Boy is writing a letter.                   A letter is being written by boy.
Boys are writing a letter.              A letter is being written by boys.



I was watering plants.                     Plants were being watered by me.

We were watering plants.               Plants were being watered by us.


You were watering plants.              Plants were being watered by you. 


He was watering plants.                 Plants were being watered by him. 

She was watering plants.                Plants were being watered by her.

They were watering plants.                          Plants were being watered by them.


For Negative & Interrogative sentences :


I am not watering plants.                                 Plants are not being watered by me.

Am I watering plants?                                      Are plants being watered by me?


We are not watering plants.                            Plants are not being watered by us.


Are we watering plants ?                                 Are plants being watered by us?


 You are not watering plants.                          Plants are not being watered by you.


Are you watering plants?                                Are plants being watered by you? 




He is not watering plants.           Plants are not being watered by him.


Is he watering plants?                 Are plants being watered by him?


They are not watering plants.     Plants are not being watered by them.


Are they watering plants?          Are plants being watered by them ?