USES OF MODALS
generally comprises of subject, verb and object.
Verb is a
word showing some action or deed in the sentence.
The child drinks milk.
sentence ‘drinks’ shows an 'action'. It is a verb.
Types of Verbs : ------ Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb.
is a word that denotes an action which passes on from the subject to an object.
In other words a transitive verb governs the object.
In the above
sentence drinks is a transitive verb.
The word 'drink' conveys an action between 'the child' and 'milk'.
is a word that denotes an action which does not pass on to an object.
The child weeps.
In the above sentence the word ‘weeps’ denotes action but it does not pass on to any object.
So there is no object in the sentence.
A sentence with an intransitive verb has no object.
Come, go,laugh,sleep are similar words.
These are intransitive verbs according to their use in a particular sentence.
Such verbs are called Principal Verbs but along with these there are words which are used in the sentence to help to form the tense or the mood of the Principal Verb.
These are called ‘Auxiliary’ or ‘Helping’ verbs or ‘Modals’.
Main features of Modals are:
These are used in the sentence to express a request, permission. willingness, possibility,ability or power to act.
These verbs are used along with the main verb. These are not used alone.
Along with a modal first form of verb is used.
A Modal remains unchanged irrespective of number or gender of the subject.
The word 'to' is used along with 'ought' and 'used'.
He may not come today.
sentences ‘should’ and ‘may’ are helping verbs.
helping verbs are:
Some verbs are used both as transitive as well as intransitive verbs.
Birds fly in the sky.
Boys fly kites.
The slate broke.
He broke the slate.
The train stopped.
I stopped him from going there.
The office opens at 10 a.m.
He opened the door.
examination begins tomorrow.
I shall begin my work now.
Boys run in the garden.
He ran a thorn into his foot.
He runs a factory.
Rise, Lie & fall are intransitive verbs but raise, lay & fall are transitive verbs.
The sun rises in the east.The child raised his head.
The old man lies in the bed.She laid the book on the table.
The tree fell down.He felled the tree.
A verb which has a reflexive pronoun as its object, is called a Reflexive Verb; as,
The boy hurt himself.The boys cried themselves hoarse.
In the above sentences, the words in italics are Reflexive verbs and the words in italics after them are Reflexive objects.
Impersonal Verbs :
An impersonal Verb is one which has no real subject; as,
It rains. It hails. It is very fine.It is very pleasant.
In the aforesaid sentences,the subject 'it' may refer either to the sky or the weather.
A verb in respect of which the work is got done instead of doing by the subject is called a causative verb ; as ,
He got her punished.
The subject himself 'He' is not doing the work but on his behalf someone else is doing the same.
Let him sit here.
Did you get the door opened?
Get this letter posted.
The mother made her do this work.
In the aforesaid sentences causative verbs are used.
OBJECTS : Direct & Indirect
Sentences with two objects.
govern two objects, one of which is a person and the other is a thing ; as,
He gave me
(person) a gift (thing).
She told her
son (person) a story (thing).
She gave the
child (person) a toy (thing).
The name of a person or animal is called the Indirect object and the name of the thing is called the Direct object.
Intransitive verbs sometimes take after them an object similar in meaning to the verb.Such an object is called Cognate Object.
She sighed a deep sigh.
The child sleeps a sound sleep.
They laughed a hearty laugh.
I dreamt a horrible dream.
The patient died a natural death.
He fought a good fight.
The girls sang a beautiful song.
Boys ran a race.
He had to wait for the fruit to fructify.
The words - sighed,sleeps,laughed, dreamt,died,fought,sang & ran are verbs.
The words -- sigh,sleep,laugh,dream,death,fight,song & race are Cognate objects.
Some more Examples:
He did not object to the object.
The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.
I was content to know the content of the message.
The insurance was invalid for the invalid.
The blessed virgin blessed her.
The king subjected the subject to his tyranny.
The Use Of Is, Am, Are, Was & Were :
Is, Am & Are ---- are used in present tense. 'Am' is used with I in present tense.
I am going to the market.
I am not going to the market.
Am I going to the market?
'Is' is used with Third Person singular number i.e. he she & it or a name in singular .
The child is making a noise.
He is my elder brother.
She is sitting in her office.
It is raining today.
'Are' is used with First Person plural, second person singular & plural and third person plural.
We are very happy.
All of you are not in the wrong.
Are the grapes sour?
They are our neighbors.
'Was & Were' are used in past tense.
'Was' is used with First & Third person singular i.e I, he she & it or a name in singular in past tense.
He was my teacher.
I was his neighbor.
She was not going to her office.
Was he at fault?
'Were' is used with First person plural, second person singular and plural & Third person plural in past tense.
Were you not well yesterday?
They were plucking flowers.
Boys were playing a match in the ground.We were wandering in the garden.
'Were' is also used to express strong desire for an act.
If I were a king!
If only I were a millionaire!
If I were a king!
If only I were a millionaire!
The Use Of Have, Has & Had :
'Have & Has' are used in present tense whereas Had is used in past tense.
Have is used with first person & second person singular and plural & third person plural in present tense.
I have a beautiful purse.
We have no money.
Have you any spare pen with you?
He has enough money to spend and spare.
They have five goats.
Here 'have' means 'to possess'.
'Have & Has' are used in following tenses:
Present Perfect Tense.Present Perfect Continuous Tense.Past Perfect Tense.Past Perfect Continuous Tense.Future Perfect Tense.Future Perfect Continuous Tense.
Present Perfect Tense
He has paid all his dues.
I have not collected my notebooks.
Have you taken your medicine?
They have gone to the market.
We have not seen him.
Present Perfect Continuous Tense
I have been doing my work for two hours.
We have been playing cricket since morning.
Have you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Has the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They have been making a noise for an hour.
Past Perfect Tense
I had never been to Delhi.
You had made no mistake.
We had paid our respects to them.
She had plucked many flowers in the garden.
They had shown us their pictures.
Past Perfect Continuous Tense
I had been doing my work for two hours.
We had been playing cricket since morning.
Had you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Had the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They had been making a noise for an hour.
Future Perfect Tense
I shall have not made this mistake.
We shall have done our work by then.
You will have not missed them.
Will they have gone to such an extent?
Future Perfect Continuous Tense
I shall have been working for two hours.
We shall have been playing since morning.
Will you have been studying for one hour?
She has been suffering from fever for two days.
Have they been making toys for two days?
The Use Of Shall & Will :
'Shall' is used to express simple future tense in the first person & 'Will' in the second and third person; as,
I shall be late for the office.
The boys will succeed in the competition.
Your brother or you will win the race.
His brothers will start a sugar factory.
Shall with the second or third person expresses a command, a promise, a threat or a determination; as,
He shall go to Simla.
You shall not play.
(b) Promise :
We shall be free tomorrow.
He shall be fined.
(d) Determination :
He shall leave this very instant.You shall carry out the orders, whether you like them or not.
In asking questions shall is used in the first person and will in the second & third person; as,
Shall I call him?Will he come to see me on Monday?Will you help me in doing this sum ?
The Use Of Should & Would :
'Should' is the past tense of 'Shall'. A Noun clause is used in this case.
We said that we should help our friends.
I said that I should not go to the market.
In these sentences, 'should' gives the meaning of future tense.
'Should' also expresses the meaning of 'advice', 'suggestion', 'counsel'. or 'duty';as in the following sentences:
One should do one's duty.The children should respect their elders.He should not make any mistake now.
'Would' is the past tense of 'Will'. It is used in this form.
It is used in the Indirect form of speech as in the following sentences :
She said that she would not go to the office that day.
I asked him if he would lend me his watch.
He told me that he would not help me.
John told her that he would make no mistake then.
Would is used to express a request.It is used in the present tense; as,
Would you please fetch me a glass of water?
Would you help me in solving these sums?
Would you attend to the customers, please?
Would is used to express of a habit of past time. It is used in the past tense.
He would travel by a bus.
My father would get angry over trifles.
Boys would act in a responsible manner in their childhood.
Would is used to express a strong determination.
Come what may, I would reach there tomorrow in the morning.She told that she would make all efforts to solve this problem.He would have his own way.
Would is used in conditional sentences.
If I were you, I would have behaved in the same manner.If he were here, I would have talked to him.If you were with us, you too would have helped her.
Would is used to express a desire.
Would that I were rich !Would that I were a millionaire!Would that she were young!
The Use of Can
Can is used to express 'ability', 'capacity', 'permission' or authority to do a work as in following sentences:
The old man is very week. He cannot walk.
This sentence shows inability of the old man to walk.
The lady can play chess.
This sentence shows that the lady has the capacity to play chess.
The boss can grant you permission.
This sentence shows that the boss has the authority to permit.
You can take my motorcycle.
This sentence shows permission granted to use the motorcycle.
Just look at the following sentences:
I am alright now. I can go home.
You are alright now. You can go home.
The boss says that you cannot go home.
I shall inquire if I can go home.
The Use of Could
'Could' is past tense of 'can'. 'Could' is used to express ability in the past time; as in the following sentences:
He could express his feelings to her.The team could win the match last year.The young lady could deliver her speech fluently.He could not attend the meeting yesterday.He could not help laughing.
'Could' is used in present tense to express a request; as in the following sentences:
Could you lend me your book?
Could you extend a helping hand to the old man? Could you feel convenient to attend the meeting tomorrow?
The Use of May
May is used in present tense to seek and grant permission; as in the following sentences:
May I come in, Sir ?May I go to see my mother?May we accompany you to visit the training centre ?May I leave now?
You may go now.You may take the guests to the market.You may leave the office early today.You may consult your lawyer.
May is used to express 'possibility' or 'probability' of an action; as in the following sentences:
The guests may reach today.
It may take us time to reach there.
They may not finish their work in time.
We may be late to our office.
It may rain tomorrow.