Friday, 14 February 2014

MODALS ------ Uses of Modals - Different Types of Verbs -----Transitive, Intransitive, Helping Verbs-Modals (Chapter One)


USES OF MODALS

A sentence generally comprises of subject, verb and object.  
Verb is a word showing some action or deed in the sentence.


The child drinks milk.


In this sentence ‘drinks’ shows  an  'action'. It is a verb. 




Types of Verbs : ------ Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb.


Transitive verb 

is a word that denotes an action which passes on from the subject to an object.


In other words a transitive verb governs the object.


In the above sentence drinks is a transitive verb.


The word 'drink' conveys an action between 'the child' and  'milk'.



Intransitive verb 

is a word that denotes an action which does not pass on to an object.


The child weeps.



In the above sentence the word ‘weeps’ denotes action but it does not pass on to any object. 


So there is no object in the sentence.


 A sentence with an intransitive verb has no object. 


Come, go,laugh,sleep are similar words. 


These are intransitive verbs according to their use in a particular sentence.



Such verbs are called Principal Verbs but along with these there are words which are used in the sentence to help to form the tense or the mood of the Principal Verb. 



These  are called ‘Auxiliary’ or ‘Helping’ verbs or ‘Modals’.


Main features of Modals are:



These are used in the sentence to express a request, permission. willingness, possibility,ability or power to act.


These verbs are used along with the main verb. These are not used alone.


Along with a modal first form of verb is used


A Modal remains unchanged irrespective of number or gender of the subject.


The word 'to' is used along  with 'ought' and 'used'.





Examples:



We should help him.
He may not come today.


In these sentences ‘should’ and ‘may’ are helping verbs.


The main helping verbs are:


Is,am,are,was,were,been,being,has,have,had,do,does,
did,may,might,can,could,shall,should,will,would,ought,
should etc.




Some verbs are used both as transitive as well as intransitive verbs.



Examples:


Birds fly in the sky.

Boys fly kites.



The slate broke.

He broke the slate.



The train stopped.

 I stopped him from going there.



The office opens at 10 a.m.

He opened the door.



The examination begins tomorrow.

I shall begin my work now.



Boys run in the garden.

He ran a thorn into his foot.

He runs a factory.



Rise, Lie & fall are intransitive verbs but raise, lay & fall are transitive verbs.


The sun rises in the east.The child raised his head.


The old man lies in the bed.She laid the book  on the table.


The tree fell down.He felled the tree.


Reflexive Verbs:

A verb which has a reflexive pronoun as its object, is called a Reflexive Verb; as,


The boy hurt himself.The boys cried themselves hoarse.



In the above sentences, the words in italics are Reflexive verbs and the words in italics after them are Reflexive objects.




Impersonal Verbs :


An impersonal Verb is one which has no real subject; as, 

It rains. It hails. It is very fine.It is very pleasant.

In the aforesaid sentences,the subject 'it' may refer either to the sky or the weather.  



Causative Verbs:

A verb in respect of which the work is got done instead of doing by the subject is called a causative verb ; as ,


He got her punished.


The subject  himself  'He' is not doing the work but on his behalf someone else is doing the same.


Examples: 


Let him sit here.
Did you get the door opened?
Get this letter posted.
The mother made her do this work. 



In the aforesaid sentences causative verbs are used.





OBJECTS :         Direct   &  Indirect



Sentences with two objects.


Some verbs govern two objects, one of which is a person and the other is a thing ; as,


He gave me (person) a gift (thing).


She told her son (person) a story (thing).


She gave the child (person) a toy (thing).

The name of a person or animal is called the Indirect object and the name of the thing is called the Direct object.


Intransitive verbs sometimes take after them an object similar in meaning to the verb.Such an object is called Cognate Object.


She sighed a deep sigh.


The child sleeps a sound sleep.


They laughed a hearty laugh.


I dreamt a horrible dream.


The patient  died a natural death.


He fought a good fight.


The girls sang a beautiful song.


Boys ran a race.



He had to wait for the fruit to fructify.


The words - sighed,sleeps,laughed, dreamt,died,fought,sang & ran are verbs.


The words -- sigh,sleep,laugh,dream,death,fight,song  & race are Cognate objects.




Some more Examples:


He did not object to the object.


The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.


I was content to know the content of the message.


The insurance was invalid for the invalid.


The blessed virgin blessed her.


The king subjected the subject to his tyranny.




The Use Of  Is, Am, Are, Was & Were  :



Is, Am & Are ---- are used in present tense.   'Am' is used with I in present tense


Examples:

I am going to the market. 

I am not going to the market.

Am I going to the market? 



'Is' is used with Third Person singular number i.e. he she & it or a name in singular .



Examples :


The child is making a noise.

He is my elder brother.

She is sitting in her office.

It is raining today.




'Are' is used with First Person plural, second person singular & plural  and third person plural. 


Examples:


We are very happy.

All of you are not in the wrong.

Are the grapes sour?

They are our neighbors.



'Was & Were' are used in past tense. 

'Was'  is used with First & Third person singular i.e I, he she & it or a name in singular in past tense.


He was my teacher.

I was his neighbor.

She was not going to her office.

Was he at fault?  



'Were' is used with First person plural, second person singular and plural & Third person plural in past tense.



Examples:

Were you  not well yesterday?

They were plucking flowers.

Boys were playing a match in the ground.We were wandering in the garden.



'Were'  is also used to express strong desire for an act.

Examples:

If I were a king!

If only I were a millionaire!




The Use Of  Have, Has & Had   :


'Have & Has'  are used in present tense whereas Had is used in past tense. 
Have is used with first person & second person  singular and plural & third person plural in present tense. 


Examples:

I have a beautiful purse.
We have no money.
Have you any spare pen with you?
He has  enough money to spend and spare.
They have five goats.
Here 'have' means 'to possess'.




'Have & Has'  are used in following tenses:


Present Perfect Tense.Present Perfect Continuous Tense.Past Perfect Tense.Past Perfect Continuous Tense.Future Perfect Tense.Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Examples:

Present Perfect Tense

He has paid all his dues.
I have not collected my notebooks.
Have you taken your medicine?
They have gone to the market.
We have not seen him.


Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I have been doing my work for two  hours.
We have been playing cricket since morning.
Have you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Has the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They have been making a noise for an hour.



Past Perfect Tense

I had never been to Delhi.
You had made no mistake.
We had paid our respects to them.
She had plucked many flowers in the garden.
They had shown us their pictures.


Past Perfect Continuous Tense

I had been doing my work for two  hours.
We had been playing cricket since morning.
Had you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Had the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They had been making a noise for an hour.




Future Perfect Tense

I shall have not made this mistake.

We shall have done our work by then.
You will have not missed them.
Will they have gone to such an extent?



Future Perfect Continuous Tense

I shall have been working for two hours.

We shall have been playing since morning.
Will you have been studying for one hour?
She has been suffering from fever for two days.

Have they been making toys for two days?




The Use Of  Shall & Will   :

'Shall'  is used to express simple future tense in the first person & 'Will' in the second and third person; as,


I shall be late for the office.
The boys will succeed in the competition.
Your brother or you will win the race.
His brothers will start a sugar factory.



Shall with the second or third person expresses a command, a promise, a threat or a determination; as,


(a) Command:

He shall go to Simla.
You shall not play.



(b) Promise :

We shall  be free tomorrow.



(c) Threat:

He shall be fined.



(d) Determination :

He shall leave this very instant.You shall carry out the orders, whether you like them or not.


In asking questions shall is used  in the first person and will in the second & third person; as,


Shall I call him?Will he come to see me on Monday?Will you help me in doing this sum ?



The Use Of  Should & Would   :


'Should' is the past tense of  'Shall'. A Noun clause is used in this case.


We said that we should help our friends.
I said that I should not go to the market.


In these sentences, 'should'  gives the meaning of future tense.

'Should' also expresses the meaning of 'advice', 'suggestion', 'counsel'. or 'duty';as in the following sentences:


One should do one's duty.The children should respect their elders.He should not make any mistake now.



'Would' is the past tense of  'Will'. It is used in this form.

It is used in  the Indirect form of speech as in the following sentences :

She said that she would not go to the office that day.
I asked him if he would lend me his watch.
He told me that he  would not help me.
John told her that he would make no mistake then.



Would is used to express  a request.It is used in the present tense; as,


Would you please fetch me a glass of water?
Would you help me in solving these sums?
Would you attend to the customers, please?



Would is used to express of a habit of past time. It is used in the past tense.


He would travel by a bus.
My father would get angry over trifles.
Boys would act in a responsible manner in their childhood.




Would is used to express a strong determination. 


Come what may, I would reach there tomorrow in the morning.She told that she would make all efforts to solve this problem.He would have his own way.




Would is used in conditional sentences.


If I were you, I would have behaved in the same manner.If he were here, I would have talked to him.If you were with us, you too would have helped her.

Would is used to express a desire.
Would that I were rich !Would that I were a millionaire!Would that she were young! 



The Use of Can


Can is used to express 'ability', 'capacity', 'permission' or authority to do a work as in following sentences:



The old man is very week. He cannot walk.

This sentence shows inability of the old man to walk.


The lady can play chess.

This sentence shows that the lady has the capacity to play chess.



The boss can grant you permission.

This sentence shows that the boss has the authority to permit.


You can take my motorcycle.

This sentence shows permission granted to use the motorcycle.

Just look at the following sentences:

I am alright now. I can go home.
You are alright now. You can go home.
The boss says that you cannot go home.
I shall inquire if I can go home.





The Use of Could



'Could' is past tense of 'can'. 'Could' is used to express ability in the past time; as in the following sentences: 

He could express his feelings to her.The team could win the match last year.The young lady could deliver her speech fluently.He could not attend the meeting yesterday.He could not help laughing.

'Could' is used in present tense to express a request; as in the following sentences:


Could you lend me your book?
Could you extend a helping hand to the old man? Could you feel convenient to attend the meeting tomorrow?





The Use of May


May is used in present tense to seek and grant permission; as in the following sentences:

May I come in, Sir ?May I go to see my mother?May we accompany you to visit the training centre ?May I leave now?

You may go now.You may take the guests to the market.You may leave the office early today.You may consult your lawyer.


May is used to express 'possibility' or 'probability' of an action; as in the following sentences:


The guests may reach today.

It may take us time to reach there.
They may not finish their work in time.
We may be late to our office.
It may rain tomorrow.


May is used to express a wish; as in the following sentences:   

May the king live long!

May God help them!

May you prosper in your life!


The Use of Might

'Might' is the past tense of 'May'. It is used to express a remote possibility in the past.It is used in the indirect form of speech.



He told me that he might come late in the evening.

His father thought that his son might get through the examination.

The sky is overcast with clouds. It might rain at night.

John is not serious about his studies. He might fail in the examination.



'Might' is used in the Adverbial clause with a function of showing purpose.


He walked fast so that he might catch the train.He worked hard so that he might get through the examination.



'May' in the direct form of speech changes into 'Might' in the indirect form of speech.

'Might' in the direct form of speech remains unchanged 'Might' in the indirect form of speech.


He said to me,"I may not attend the meeting today." He told me that he might not attend the meeting that day.


She said."I might come late in the  evening."She said that she might come late in the evening.




The Use of Must


'Must' shows meaning different than 'should'. It gives the feeling of necessity, compulsion,conclusion or some result; as in the following sentences:

He must have reached his office  by now.

We must do our duty.

It is very late. We must go to bed.

The boss is in the office.We must attend to our job.

We must not meddle with others' affairs.

We must respect our elders.


The Use of Ought to


'Ought to ' shows meaning different than 'should' or 'must'. 

It gives the meaning of obligation or strong possibility. It is followed by 'to' as in the following sentences:

We ought to obey our elders.

We ought to do our duty.

He ought to get through the examination.

Our team ought to win the match.

We ought to help the poor.




The Use of Used to


'Used to' is used in the past tense to express some action of habit (continuous) nature done in the past as is evident in the following sentences:

I used to play hockey when I was young.

He used to visit our house every Sunday.

John used to sell books in those days.

The merchant used to deal in tea.


'Used to' is not used in present or future tenses.






  PHRASAL VERBS


A combination of words that makes a complete sense or meaning is called a sentence. A sentence is used to


---Name a person or thing


---say something about that person or thing


the word or words denoting the person or thing about which something is said are called the subject of the sentence.


the word or words which say something about the person or thing denoted by the subject in the sentence are called the Predicate.


The subject and predicate are absolutely necessary to make a complete sense in a sentence.The subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it comes after the predicate. Just in this sentence to put emphasis in the sentence.

Down went the building like a pack of cards. 

In Imperative sentences the subject is implied and is left out as - 

Stand up.

Here the subject 'you' is left out.


A group of words that makes a sense but not a complete sense, is called a Phrase. 


Examples :
People have come to see the fair from far and near.
The sun rises in the east.She is a lady of virtues.


In the above sentences words in italics form a  phrase.


 A clause is a group of words forming a part of a larger sentence and having a subject and a predicate of its own and  makes a complete sense.


A Clause though is a part of a sentence yet it is independent in itself having its own subject and predicate where as a phrase also forms a part of the sentence but it is not independent in its meaning. 

No doubt both of these make their own sense.