NARRATION -----Change of Different types of sentences from
Direct speech into Indirect speech
There are two different ways of expressing things. A statement given by the speaker himself is direct form of speech whereas the same statement conveyed by another person to someone is indirect way of speech.
There are two forms of speech :-
Direct form of speech -----
Howard said to his brother, “I am going to the market.”
Indirect form of speech-----
Howard told his brother that he was going to the market.
When the actual form and words of the speaker are used, it is direct speech but when one gives the substance of speech of the speaker it is indirect speech.
Direct speech consists of two parts:-
1. Reporting speech 2. Reported speech
These two parts are separated from each other by a comma (,) and inverted commas (“ ”). The part outside the inverted commas forms reporting speech (i.e. who is reporting and to whom) and that enclosed within the inverted commas is reported speech (i.e. the matter that is being reported).
The first word of the reported speech begins with a capital letter.
In Indirect Speech
- inverted commas are not used, but generally reporting speech and reported speech are joined together by the conjunction like ‘that’, ‘if’ or ‘whether’ etc.
-the comma between reporting speech and reported speech is removed.
- The signs of question mark and exclamation are not used. Instead full stop sign is used.
- The tense of reporting speech is not changed.
-The forms of interrogative, imperative, exclamatory and optative sentences are changed to assertive sentence.
- The tense of reported speech is changed according to the tense of reporting speech.
EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE
EXERCISE NO. Seven
EXERCISE NO. Seven
Change the following sentences into Indirect Speech.
1. She said to me," Good morning! How are you? Why have your visits become few and far between? What are you doing to day? It will be a matter of a great pleasure for me if you join us on tea in the evening today. Will you oblige me?
I said to her," I am fine. I could not see you because I was out of station for some business purpose. Yes, I am free today and shall be very glad to have a cup of tea with you in the evening."
She bade me good morning and asked how I was and why my visits had become few and far between and what I was doing that day. She told me that it would be a matter of great pleasure for her if I joined them on tea in the evening that day. She asked me if I would oblige her.
I told her that I was fine and I could not see her because I had been out of station for some business purpose. I replied to her in affirmative and told her that I was free and would be very glad to have a cup of tea with her in the evening.
2. An old man said to his elder daughter, “What should I pray to God for you and your family?”
She said to him,“Please pray to God that there are enough rains this year so that we may get good crops in our fields.”
He then went to his younger daughter and said to her, “What prayer should I say to God for you and your family?”
She said, “ Father, please pray to God that there are sunny days ahead so that we may get a good business of our earthen pots.”
The old man said to himself,“ Now I am in a great fix. What prayer should I say to God ?”
An old man asked his elder daughter what he should pray to God for her and her family.
She requested him to pray to God that there were enough rains that year so that they might get good crops in their fields.
He then went to his younger daughter and asked her what prayer he should say to God for her and her family.
She requested her father to pray to God that there were sunny days ahead so that they might get a good business of their earthen pots.
The old man told himself that he was in a great fix then and asked himself what prayer he should say to God.
3. A donkey in a stable said," Hurrah ! My good days are in the offing."
A fellow animal said to him," What is the matter? Why are you so happy today?"
The donkey said to him," My master is very kind to me."
The other animal said to him," How is that? How did you come to know this?"
The donkey said to him,"My master called his daughter an idiot today. He told her that he would marry her to a donkey."
A donkey in a stable exclaimed with joy and told that his good days were in the offing.
A fellow animal asked him what the matter was and why he was so happy that day.
The donkey told him that his master was very kind to him."
The other animal asked him how that was and how he had come to know that.
The donkey told him that his master had called his daughter an idiot that day and had told her that he would marry her to a donkey.
4. A brazen pitcher floating in a river said to an earthen pitcher floating nearby, “Why are you so frightened? You need not worry about anything. I am accompanying you and shall stand by you under all circumstances. Let us undertake our journey enjoying ourselves together. ”
The earthen pitcher said to it, “Friend, please keep yourself at a distance from me. I am not worried at all but your presence near me itself is frightening me. Do not come near me lest we should strike against each other and in that case I shall be no more.”
A brazen pitcher floating in a river asked an earthen pitcher floating nearby why it was so frightened and told it that it needed not worry about anything. It told it further that it was accompanying it and shall stand by it under all circumstances. It proposed to it that they should undertake their journey enjoying themselves together.
The earthen pitcher called the brazen pitcher a friend and requested it to keep itself at a distance from it. It was not worried at all but its presence near it itself was frightening it. It forbade it to come near it lest they should strike against each other and in that case it would be no more.
5. The lion said to the hare,” Why are you so late? I am feeling very hungry. I have been waiting for you for a long time. Could you not come early?”
The hare said,”Sir, it is not my fault. I started in time but another lion in the forest prevented me from coming here.”
The lion said.”What! is there any other lion in the forest also?”
The hare said,”Yes, sir, By Heavens! there is another lion in the forest.”
The lion said to the hare,”Let us go and see the other lion first.”
The lion asked the hare why he was so late and told him that he was feeling very hungry and he had been waiting for him for a long time.He further asked him if he could not come early.
The hare respectfully said that it was not his fault and he had started in time but another lion in the forest had prevented him from coming there.
The lion exclaimed with surprise and asked him if there was any other lion in the forest also.
The hare respectfully replied in affirmative.He swore by Heavens and told him that there was another lion in the forest.”
The lion suggested to the hare that they should go and see the other lion first.
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