Sunday, 12 January 2014

NARRATION ---Change of Exclamatory & Optative sentences from Direct to Indirect speech ----Explanation with Examples



EXCLAMATORY & OPTATIVE  SENTENCES



In exclamatory or optative sentences, reported speech contains a wish or pray etc.  Verb in the reporting speech is changed into ‘cried out’or ‘exclaimed’ or ‘wished’or ‘prayed’ etc. accordingly.



Exclamatory form is changed into infinitive one. In each case a suitable verb is substituted according to the sense contained in the sentence e.g. ‘exclaimed with joy or happiness’ or ‘exclaimed with sorrow’  or ‘exclaimed with surprise’


Comma and inverted commas are removed using the conjunction that. 

Exclamatory or optative sentences are changed from direct into indirect speech as if they were ordinary assertive sentences. 



Some examples are given here under.


Hurrah, Aha, Ha!                   Exclaimed with happiness or joy.

Alas, Ah !                               Exclaimed with sorrow

What, How, Oh!                     Exclaimed with surprise

Sorry!                                     Exclaimed with regret

Pooh, Pshaw!                         Exclaimed with contempt


Bravo!                                     Applauded him saying that



These words Hurrah, Alas, Bravo What How and Sorry etc. are removed while changing direct into indirect for. In case of sentences containing   what, how the words ‘very’ or ‘great’ are used. Words 'we  or they' are used in reported speech in accordance with the subject  of the reporting speech. If it is first person, 'I' or'we' is used. In case of third person, 'He,She' or they is used. For second person 'you' is used. 

For example : Boys said, " Hurrah ! we have won the match."Here boys are third person plural we will change into they.

Boys exclaimed with joy that they had  won the match.

We said, " Hurrah ! we have won the match."We in reporting speech is first person plural so 'we' in reported hange into they..

We exclaimed with joy that we had won the match.

Just see another sentence.

The mother said," Hurrah ! My son, You have qualified the examination ."

Here 'My son' serves as object in the reporting speech.'My son' is a third person so 'you' will change to third person singular'he'.

The mother exclaimed with happiness to her son that he had qualified the examination.


Another example:

The captain said ," Hurrah! My boys, you have won the match."

The captain exclaimed with joy to his boys that they had won the match.

This sentence is different from the following sentence.


The captain said, "Hurrah ! My boys have won the match. "




The captain exclaimed with joy that his boys had won the match.



Some more examples of such sentences follow for understanding.



The players said, “Hurrah! We have won the match.”

The players exclaimed with joy that they had won the match.


The captain said, “Alas! I have lost the game.”

The captain exclaimed with sorrow that he had lost the game.


Here is another similar example for under standing.


The captain said, " Alas! My boys, we have lost the match." 

The captain exclaimed with sorrow to his boys that they had lost the match.


This sentence is different from the following sentence.


 The captain said, " Alas! My boys have lost the match." 

The captain exclaimed with sorrow that his boys had lost the match.


She said, “What a lovely rose !”  

She exclaimed that it was a very lovely rose.


The teacher said to him, “What a nice fellow you are!”

The teacher exclaimed that he was a very nice fellow.


The crane said, “Fox, how clever you are!”

The crane exclaimed that the fox was very clever.   


She said, “What a pretty the child is !”

She exclaimed that that the child was very pretty.      


The captain said, “Bravo! You have done well, boys.”

The captain applauded the boys saying that they had done well.


She said, “Pooh! What a clumsy fellow he is.”

She exclaimed with contempt that he was a very clumsy fellow.



In sentences starting with the words ‘Good Morning or Good Evening, the verb in the reporting speech is changed into ‘wished’. In case of ‘Good bye’ the word ‘bade’ is used.


The lady said, “Good morning, gentlemen.”

The lady wished the gentlemen good morning.


The boy said, “Good bye, mother”.

The boy bade his mother good bye.


The children said to him, “Good evening, Sir.”

The children respectfully wished him good evening.


John said, “Good bye, friends, I shall take leave of you now.”

John bade his friends good bye and told them that he would take leave of them then.





In sentences containing a wish and generally starting with the word ‘May', the verb in the reporting speech is changed into ‘Prayed’. 'May' is changed according to verb in the reporting speech.



She said,"May you succeed in the examination!"

She prayed that I might succeed in the examination.


He said," May God bless you with success!"

He prayed that God might bless me with success.


The beggar said to him,"May you prosper in your business!"

The beggar prayed that he might prosper in his business.


The old lady said to her," May you live long!"

The old lady prayed that she might live long.


People said," Long live our Prime Minister!"

People prayed that their Prime Minister might live long.

The Priest said to the lady,"May God bless you with a lovely son!"

The Priest prayed that God might bless the lady with a lovely son.


She said to him."May you progress and prosper in life!"

She prayed that he might progress and prosper in life.

She said to him."May you progress and prosper in life, my son!"

She called him her son and prayed that he  might prosper in his life.  OR

She prayed that her son might prosper in his life.












Some Examples of typical sentences :

" Help ! Help! Help! " cried the drowning child.

The drowning child repeatedly called for help.


The old lady said, " God knows  I am innocent." or

The old lady said, " By God! I am innocent." 

The old lady called upon God to witness that she was innocent.


The host said to his guests, "  Welcome." 

The host welcomed his guests. 


The guest said, " O, for a cup of tea !"

The guest expressed his desire for a cup of tea.


The old lady said to the judge, "  By Heaven ! I have not stolen anything." 

The old lady called upon Heaven to witness and told the judge that she had not stolen anything.


The student said to the teacher, "  Yes Sir !  I have  done my homework." 

The student respectfully replied to  the teacher in affirmative and told that he had  done his homework." 

The student said to the teacher, "  No Sir !  I have not  done my homework." 

The student respectfully replied to  the teacher in negative and told that he had not done his homework." 





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