Tuesday, 31 December 2013

Narration- Change of Imperative Sentences from Direct to Indirect form of speech---Method in simple way with examples



Change of Different types of sentences from Direct speech into Indirect speech                                                                              (Contd. From Previous Chapter)




IMPERATIVE  SENTENCES


In Imperative sentences, reported speech contains a  command, order, request, advice or proposal etc.  Verb in the reporting speech is changed according to  the mood of the reported  sentence.


Imperative mood is changed into infinitive mood by adding the word ‘to’.

Comma and inverted commas are removed without using any conjunction.

In negative sentences the word ‘Do’ is removed and in its place ‘not to’ is used.

The words ‘Sir or Madam’ in the reported speech are removed and a word ‘respectfully’ is added in the reporting speech.

The words ‘said to’ in reporting speech are changed into the words given here under according to the sense contained in the reported speech.



                                                              






1. In such cases, the reported speech contains an order & mostly the reported  speech starts with first form of verb.The words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are replaced by the word ‘ordered’. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word’to’.  


For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.



For Example:

The teacher said to the boys,“Leave the room at once.”

The teacher ordered the boys to leave the room at once.


NEGATIVE SENTENCE :


The teacher said to the boys,“Do not make a noise.”



The teacher ordered the boys not to make a noise.



2. If the reported speech contains a request, the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into requested. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word ‘to’. In such cases mostly the reported speech contains the word ‘Please/Kindly’. The word ‘Please/Kindly’ is removed without any word in its place.



For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.

For Example:


The boy said to his friend, “Please lend me your book.”


The boy requested his friend to lend him his book.



The son said to his father," Please do not go to office today. "



The son requested his father not to go to office that day.



3. If the reported speech contains an advice, the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into advised. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word ‘to’.  


For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.



For Example:

His father said to John, “Work hard lest you should fail.”


His father advised John to work hard lest he should fail.


The teacher said to him," Do not waste your time."


The teacher advised him not to waste his time.



4. If the reported speech starts with the words ‘Let us’ the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into ‘proposed to’ or ‘suggested to’. 



Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word ‘that’.  


The words ‘Let us’ are replaced with the words ‘we should or they should’ according to subject and object in the reporting speech. 


If either of subject or object in reporting speech is first person, the words ‘we should’ are used and if  these are in third person, the words ‘they should’ are used. 


For a negative sentence  in the same way not  is used in the   sentence in indirect form.


For example: 

She said to me, “Let us  go out for a picnic.”


She proposed to me that we should go out for a picnic.


He said to his wife, “Let us go for shopping.”


He suggested to his wife that they should go for shopping.



He said to them," Let us not quarrel with each other."


He suggested to them that they should not quarrel with each other.




5. If the reported speech starts with the words ‘Do not’ the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into  ‘forbade’ . Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word ‘to’.  The words ‘Do not’ are removed. 




For Example:

He said to me, “Do not make haste.”


He forbade me to make haste.



The word ‘forbade’ itself contains the meaning of not so the words ‘not or do not’ are not used thereafter in the sentence.


Both the words Please and Do not are sometimes used in a single sentence e.g.



The old man said to the boys, “Please do not disturb me.”


In such sentences ‘said to’ is  changed into ‘requested’ and inverted commas into 'to' but it is preceded by 'not'.



The old man requested the boys not to disturb him.



The  shopkeeper  said to the customer,“Please do not eat raw and overripe fruit.”



The shopkeeper requested the customer not to eat raw and  overripe fruit.  




The host said to the guests,"Please do not stand on any ceremony."



The host requested the guests not to stand on any ceremony.





If the reporting speech is in past tense following changes will be made in the reported speech: 


                                                                   

















IMPERATIVE SENTENCES   -------starting with the word "Let"








6. If the reported speech starts with the word 'Let' the words 'said to'in the reporting speech are changed into "told or asked" . Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word 'to'.





For Example:    


He said to the peon, “Let the boys come in.”


He told the peon to let the boys come   in.


The host said to the boy, “Let the guests start their dinner.”


The host told the boy to let the guests start their dinner.



The shopkeeper said to the customer, “Let me finish my work first.”


The shopkeeper told the customer to let him finish his work first.



The nurse said to the visitors ,“Let the patient take rest for some time now.”


The nurse told the visitors to let the patient take rest for some time then.




These sentences are attempted in another way also as follows:


The words “said to” are replaced by “told” and  ,“ ”  by that  and words “ might be allowed to"  after the subject are used in Indirect form of speech. For example the sentence written above will be:




The nurse told his relatives that the patient might be allowed to take rest  for some time then.




The Manager said to him” Let the visitor come in.”  

  

The Manager told him that the visitor might be allowed to come in.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE
(Sentences on the above pattern


Change the following passage into indirect form of speech.



The teacher said to the students in the class," Let us start studying a new lesson today which is very important from the point of view of the examination." One of the students said to him," Please explain the lesson in brief to us before you start teaching." The teacher said to them," Let me explain the importance of this lesson to you first. Please listen to me carefully. Do not interrupt me while I am speaking." After sometime he said to the students,"Open your books at page forty." He said to one of the students,"Stand up and read out the lesson to all the students in the class." He said to him, "Read the lesson carefully. Do not make a haste." He said to the other students in the class,"Listen to him carefully. Do not disturb him when he is reading. Ask me questions if there is any after he completes reading the lesson. Let him complete his reading first." 





ANSWER



Change the following passage into indirect form of speech.

The teacher proposed to the students in the class that they should start studying a new lesson that day which was very important from the point of view of the examination. One of the students requested, him to explain the lesson in brief to them before he started teaching. The teacher told them to let him explain the importance of that lesson to them first. He requested them to listen to him carefully and forbade them to interrupt him while he was speaking. After sometime he ordered the students to open their books at page forty. He ordered one of the students to stand up and read out the lesson to all the students in the class. He advised him to read the lesson carefully and not to make a haste. He advised the other students in the class to listen to him carefully and forbade them to disturb him when he was reading. He ordered them to ask him questions if there was any after he completed reading the lesson. He told them to let him complete his reading first.



EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE
(Sentences on the above pattern)


Change the following passage into indirect form of speech.

A crow said to a hen," Please sing a song for me as you sing very sweet songs. Let us sit together in a garden and enjoy ourselves." The hen said to the crow, " Do not disturb me as I am busy in doing my work at this time. Go and have fun somewhere else." He said to her," Do not make lame excuses. Get ready and accompany me to the garden." She said to him," Please do not waste my time. Go and take rest as it is very hot outside." He said to her, "Let us go to the bank of the river and sit on a tree there." She said to him,"Go and enjoy yourself as I shall not go anywhere at this time." He said to her, Let me help you finish your work." She said to him, "Do not make a noise here as my children will get scared." "Do not go on harping on your point. Go and do some work." said she to him."It is not good to sit idle without doing any work." she said further.The crow got her point and said to her,"Please come to my place when you finish your work and I shall be waiting for you." Saying so he flew away. 



ANSWER





Change the following passage into indirect form of speech.


A crow requested a hen to sing a song for him as she sang very sweet songs. She proposed to her that they should sit together in a garden and enjoy themselves. The hen forbade the crow to disturb her as she was busy in doing her work at that time. She ordered him to go and have fun somewhere else. He forbade her to make lame excuses.He ordered her to  get ready and accompany him to the garden. She requested him not to waste her time. She advised him to go and take rest as it was very hot outside. He proposed to her that they should go to the bank of the river and sit on a tree there. She ordered him to go and enjoy himself as she will not go anywhere at that time. He told her to let him help her finish her work. She advised him not to make a noise there as her children would get scared. She advised him further  not to go on harping on his point. She ordered him to go and do some work. She further advised him that it was not good to sit idle without doing any work.The crow got her point and requested her to come to his place when she finished her work and he will be waiting for her. Saying so he flew away. 




(Note The purpose of writing such sentences is to bring home the point of understanding the basic rules of making changes though this may not make any sense of the passage)





















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