Tuesday, 31 December 2013

Narration- Change of Imperative Sentences from Direct to Indirect form of speech---Method in simple way with examples



Change of Different types of sentences from Direct speech into Indirect speech                                                                              (Contd. From Previous Chapter)




IMPERATIVE  SENTENCES


In Imperative sentences, reported speech contains a  command, order, request, advice or proposal etc.  Verb in the reporting speech is changed according to  the mood of the reported  sentence.


Imperative mood is changed into infinitive mood by adding the word ‘to’.

Comma and inverted commas are removed without using any conjunction.

In negative sentences the word ‘Do’ is removed and in its place ‘not to’ is used.

The words ‘Sir or Madam’ in the reported speech are removed and a word ‘respectfully’ is added in the reporting speech.

The words ‘said to’ in reporting speech are changed into the words given here under according to the sense contained in the reported speech.



                                                              






1. In such cases, the reported speech contains an order & mostly the reported  speech starts with first form of verb.The words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are replaced by the word ‘ordered’. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word’to’.  


For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.



For Example:

The teacher said to the boys,“Leave the room at once.”

The teacher ordered the boys to leave the room at once.


NEGATIVE SENTENCE :


The teacher said to the boys,“Do not make a noise.”



The teacher ordered the boys not to make a noise.



2. If the reported speech contains a request, the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into requested. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word ‘to’. In such cases mostly the reported speech contains the word ‘Please’. The word ‘Please’ is removed without any word in its place.



For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.

For Example:


The boy said to his friend, “Please lend me your book.”


The boy requested his friend to lend him his book.



The son said to his father," Please do not go to office today. "



The son requested his father not to go to office that day.



3. If the reported speech contains an advice, the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into advised. Coma and inverted commas are replaced by word ‘to’.  


For a negative sentence 'Do not' in the reported speech is removed and in place of inverted commas 'not to ' is used.



For Example:

His father said to John, “Work hard lest you should fail.”


His father advised John to work hard lest he should fail.


The teacher said to him," Do not waste your time."


The teacher advised him not to waste his time.



4. If the reported speech starts with the words ‘Let us’ the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into ‘proposed to’ or ‘suggested to’. 



Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word ‘that’.  


The words ‘Let us’ are replaced with the words ‘we should or they should’ according to subject and object in the reporting speech. 


If either of subject or object in reporting speech is first person, the words ‘we should’ are used and if  these are in third person, the words ‘they should’ are used. 


For a negative sentence  in the same way not  is used in the   sentence in indirect form.


For example: 

She said to me, “Let us  go out for a picnic.”


She proposed to me that we should go out for a picnic.


He said to his wife, “Let us go for shopping.”


He suggested to his wife that they should go for shopping.



He said to them," Let us not quarrel with each other."


He suggested to them that they should not quarrel with each other.




5. If the reported speech starts with the words ‘Do not’ the words ‘said to’ in the reporting speech are changed into  ‘forbade’ . Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word ‘to’.  The words ‘Do not’ are removed. 




For Example:

He said to me, “Do not make haste.”


He forbade me to make haste.



The word ‘forbade’ itself contains the meaning of not so the words ‘not or do not’ are not used thereafter in the sentence.


Both the words Please and Do not are sometimes used in a single sentence e.g.



The old man said to the boys, “Please do not disturb me.”


In such sentences ‘said to’ is  changed into ‘requested’ and inverted commas into 'to' but it is preceded by 'not'.



The old man requested the boys not to disturb him.



The  shopkeeper  said to the customer,“Please do not eat raw and overripe fruit.”



The shopkeeper requested the customer not to eat raw and  overripe fruit.  




The host said to the guests,"Please do not stand on any ceremony."



The host requested the guests not to stand on any ceremony.





If the reporting speech is in past tense following changes will be made in the reported speech: 


                                                                   

















IMPERATIVE SENTENCES   -------starting with the word "Let"








6. If the reported speech starts with the word 'Let' the words 'said to'in the reporting speech are changed into "told or asked" . Coma and inverted commas are replaced by the word 'to'.





For Example:    


He said to the peon, “Let the boys come in.”


He told the peon to let the boys come   in.


The host said to the boy, “Let the guests start their dinner.”


The host told the boy to let the guests start their dinner.



The shopkeeper said to the customer, “Let me finish my work first.”


The shopkeeper told the customer to let him finish his work first.



The nurse said to the visitors ,“Let the patient take rest for some time now.”


The nurse told the visitors to let the patient take rest for some time then.




These sentences are attempted in another way also as follows:


The words “said to” are replaced by “told” and  ,“ ”  by that  and words “ might be allowed to"  after the subject are used in Indirect form of speech. For example the sentence written above will be:




The nurse told his relatives that the patient might be allowed to take rest  for some time then.




The Manager said to him” Let the visitor come in.”  

  

The Manager told him that the visitor might be allowed to come in.