· Use of ‘Since’ & ‘For’
In Perfect Continuous tense of Present, Past and Future tenses, ‘since’ and ‘for’ are used to depict time.
Since is used for a ‘point of time’ i.e. morning, January & 2003 etc.
For is used where there is duration of time. i.e. two hours, one year & one month etc.
- Boys have been playing since morning.
- Girls have been singing for two hours.
· Conditional sentences
In case of sentences, where two actions are taking place in the past, one taking place first and the second thereafter, Past Perfect tense is used in first and past indefinite in the second sentence. i.e.
- The train had left before I reached the station.
- It had started raining before I reached home.
· Sentences with Principal & Subordinate clauses in past tense.
If in Principal clause Past tense is used subordinate clause too will have Past tense.
- The teacher noticed that the boy was making a noise.
- There is exception to this, In case of Universal Truth.
Past tense in Principal clause & Present tense in subordinate clause:
- My mother said that God helps them who helps themselves.
· Sentences with two actions in the past, one dependent on the other.
In such cases, in one sentence past perfect tense is used and in the second future perfect is used.
- Past Perfect = Had + third form of verb.
- Future Perfect = would have+ third form of verb.
In such cases actual action does not take place but if first action would have taken place second too would have happened. i.e.
- If I had worked hard I would have passed.
In this case I have not worked hard nor have I passed. Here action required was to take place in both the clauses in past but has not taken place.
- ‘If I had worked……’ is also written in this way also
- ‘Had I worked hard…..’
· Sentences with both Principal as well as subordinate clause having actions taking place in future tense.
In such cases, two actions are to take place in future, one depending on the other. In these sentences in principal clause, present indefinite tense is used and in subordinate clause, future indefinite tense is used.
Present Indefinite Tense= 1st form of Verb +s or es.
Future Indefinite Tense= will or shall + 1st form of verb.
- If I go to Delhi, I shall bring a watch for you.
Here both the actions are to take place in future.
· Use of ‘As if’
In sentences having ‘As if’, action shown is not actual but it is pretended about the action.
- He walks as if he were lame.
Note :Here he is not lame but he pretends to be lame.
Here Principal clause is as per requirement and in subordinate clause, word ‘were’ is used.
He talks as if he were a king.
· Use of Unless & Until
Words Until & Unless are themselves negative in their meaning and donot require word ‘not’ with them.
- Unless you work hard, you cannot pass.
- Until he realises his fault, I shall not forgive him.
· Use of ‘Either…or’ & ‘Neither…nor’
Words ‘Either…or’ & ‘Neither…nor’ show relation between two subjects or objects. Here verb is used according to which is nearer to it. i.e.
- Either he or you are to attend the meeting.
- Neither I nor she will come tomorrow.
· Use of ‘As well as’, ‘along with’ ‘In addition to’ & ‘together with’ etc.
With the help of these words two subjects are joined together. Here verb is used according to the subject preceding these words.
- I as well as you shall go there.
- The boss along with all the employees is going there.
- Food in addition to clothes was provided to the poor.
· Sentences making comparison between two.
In such sentences comparison should be between the equal things i.e. words making comparison should be used with words which are to be compared.
My salary is more than John. ……incorrect.
My salary is to be compared with the salary of John and not with John.
This sentence gives impression that my salary is being compared with John. It should be….
My salary is more than the salary of John.
If salary word is not to be repeated it will be….
My salary is more than that of John.
Here ‘that of’ means ‘salary of’.
· Sentences making comparison with any other
In such sentences, comparison is made with any other thing.
He is more intelligent boy than any other boy in the class. And not ……….
He is more intelligent than any boy in the class…..incorrect.
Generally in comparison between two things word ‘than’ is used but there are some exceptions to it.
With words like senior,junior,anterior,posterior,prior & prefer etc. word ‘to’ is used.
- He is junior to me.
- I prefer milk to tea.
- This box is inferior to that.
· Use of Scarcely, Hardly, No sooner etc.
Scarcely and Hardly are followed by when…
No sooner is followed by than
- Hardly had I reached the office when it started raining.
- Scarcely had I reached home when lights went off.
- No sooner did I reach the station than the train left.
· Use of Although & Though
- Although and though are followed by yet.
- Although he worked hard yet he did not succeed.
- Though he walked fast yet he could not catch the train.