Thursday, 25 July 2013

Corrections----Clarifications & Tips.

Errors in sentences occur due to the fact that different parts of speech, Noun, Pronoun, verb, prepositions, number, gender, adjectives and adverbs etc. are not used properly.

To locate an error in a sentence knowledge in this regard is essential. Further, practice of reading and writing clears the doubts about proper usage  of  different  parts  of the sentence.

An attempt is made in the following pages to clarify certain points in this regard.

 It is not exhaustive nor will it be directly used in solving questions in the examination.  However it will certainly help in making the basic concepts in this regard clear to the reader.


1.  Use of  Singular & Plural numbers:

(A) Generally, inter-alia, we add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to make a plural of a noun. 

But in compound words a little more care is needed.
  • Son-in-law  becomes Sons- in- Law and not laws. 
  • Looker-on= Lookers -on. 
  • Passer-by = Passers-by
  • Coat-of-mail= Coats -of-mail & 
  • Fisher-man = Fisher-men.
But there are some exceptions also. 

Example :
  • Lord-justice changes to Lords-justices 
  • Man-servant=Men –servants.
  • Plural of 
  • C.A. is C.A.’s, 
  • M.A. = M.A.’s,
  • B.A.=B.A.'s

Look at the following plural words : 
  • Focus=foci, 
  • radius=radii,
  • Terminus=Termini,
  • Basis=bases, 
  • crisis=crises,
  • oasis= oases,
  • index=indices,
  • Mr.=Messrs.

(B) Certain words when changed to plural form give different meaning to that in their singular form 

Example : 
  • Force = strength,
  • Forces = army,
  • Physic = a medicine,
  • Physics = a subject.
  • Iron = metal, 
  • Irons = fetters made of iron, 
  • Beef=flesh of a cow, 
  • Beeves=Cattle(bulls or cows),
  • Good=benefit, 
  • Goods=moveable property, 
  • Return = come back, 
  • Returns=statistics or income, 
  • Air=atmosphere, 
  • Airs=demeanour.

(C)  In certain cases where a word has two plurals but these two have different meanings 

Example : 
  • Brother :
  • 1. Brothers – sons of a father 
  • 2. Brethren - Person of same society or profession etc.
  • Cloth :
  • 1. Cloths – pieces of cloth not stitched.
  • 2. Clothes - Garments.
  • Genius :
  • 1. Geniuses- Men of  original mental power,
  • 2. Genii - imaginary spirits.   
  • Die
  • 1. Dies - used for coining, 
  • 2. Dice - small cubes for gaming. 
  • Beef :
  • 1. Beefs – kind of beefs 
  • 2. Beeves - cattle. 
  • Index
  • 1. Indices - signs in Algebra. 
  • 2. Indexes - of a book.

(D) Nouns having two meanings in singular but one meaning in plural form.

Example : 
  • Abuse {Singular} : 
  • 1.wrong use 
  • 2. Reproach, 
  • Abuses {Plural} : wrong uses

  • Foot {Singular} :
  • 1.Part of body (पैर) 
  • 2. Infantry,
  • Feet {Plural} : Parts of body

  • Issue {Singular} :
  • 1.  Result 
  • 2. Off-spring  
  • Issues {Plural} :  results

  • People {Singular} :
  • 1.Nation 
  • 2.Persons  
  • Peoples {Plural} : Nations

  • Wood {Singular} :
  • 1.Material  
  • 2.Forest  
  • Woods {Plural} :  forests

  • Light {Singular} :
  • 1. of Sun or lamp (रोशनी) etc. 
  • 2. A lamp
  • Lights {Plural} : lamps.

  • Practice {Singular} :
  • 1. Habit 
  • 2. Professional work. 
  • Practices {Plural} : Habits.   

Nouns having one meaning in singular and two meanings in plural.

Example : 
  • Colour {Singular} :  hue  
  • Colours {Plural} :
  • 1. Hues 
  • 2. Flags of army groups

  • Custom {Singular} : habit  
  • Customs {Plural} :
  • 1. Habits 
  • 2. Tax

  • Quarter {Singular} : one fourth part 
  • Quarters {Plural} :
  • 1. Fourth part 
  • 2. Lodgings

  • Spectacle {Singular} : Sight  
  • Spectacles {Plural} :
  • 1. Sights seen 
  • 2. Glasses to help to see

  • Letter {Singular} : alphabets  
  • Letters {Plural} :
  • 1. Alphabets 
  • 2. Epistles.

  • Pain {Singular} : suffering 
  • Pains {Plural} :
  • 1. Sufferings  
  • 2. Care

  • Manner {Singular} : mode or way 
  • Manners {Plural} : 
  • 1. Ways  
  • 2. Behavior

  • Effect {Singular} : result  
  • Effects  {Plural} : 
  • 1. Results  
  • 2. Goods

(E) Following nouns are used in singular form:

  • Scenery
  • Advice 
  • Poetry 
  • Furniture 
  • Information
  • Issue 
  • Off-spring

(F) Following nouns are plural in form but singular in sense:

  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Mechanics
  • News
  • Summons
  • Innings
  • gallows
  • Means

(G) The names of sciences are used in the singular number:

  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Ethics
  • Politics
  • Conics

(H) Some of the Nouns  are same in singular & plural forms.

  • Fish
  • Deer
  • Sheep
  • Swine. 

(I) Following nouns are in singular form but are used in plural form:

  • Cattle
  • People
  • Gentry
  • Clergy
  • Poultry

(J) Following nouns are used only in plural :

  • arms

  • trousers

  • scissors

  • shoes

  • ashes

  • tidings

  • tongs 

  • socks

  • assets

  • pants

  • thanks

  • stockings

  • bowels

  • drawers

  • tidings

  • belongings

  • bellows etc.

(K) When a noun is preceded by a numerical adjective:

 it is not used in plural if it is accompanied by a number or quantity 

Example : 
  • We do not use “ a ten- rupees note” it is “a ten -rupee note”
  • It will not be “two ten- rupees notes” but “two ten- rupee notes”
  • A seven day week
  • Four pair of shoes
  • A  dozen pens
  • A four metre rod 
  • A twenty-kilo weight 
  • Sixty head of cattle.

Following nouns are generally used in plural :

Alms : These alms will be given to the poor children.

Riches : Riches have turned his head.

Pains : He took pains to achieve his goal.

Odds : He fought against all odds and won.

Amends : He made no amends for his mistakes.


Tuesday, 23 July 2013

English Grammar - Sentence Correction Exercises with Solution and Explanation.

Error Correction Exercises:

Exercise No.  1.

Correct the following sentences :

1. Whenever it rains my husband uses his car to go to his office but my children stayed at home.

2. During the festival season, a vast majority of people gathers here to celebrate the occasion with a great pomp and show.

3. Earth's sources are depleting with such a fast pace as we need to protect and sustain these for not only ourselves but also for the future generations.

4. One of the purpose for which I visited his place was to consult him for formulating policy for the new project. 

5. The doctor prescribed medicine after conducting carefully examination of the patient.

6. The leader is so popular among people of this area that whenever he visits here to meet his followers in this hall, it is packed fully to its capacity.

7. The company has decided to organise a training programme for their employees so that they may know about its new marketing policy.

8. The farmer spotted a herd of stray animals in his field which were destroying the crop. 

9. During this period of natural calamity, the worst hit are industrial and agricultre labourers.

10. The minister urged the people of the country to make generously donations for the country's relief fund to help the sufferers. 


1. In this sentence the clause 'whenever it rains' has a correct subject and verb combination Subject and verb both are singular. The clause 'my husband uses his car' has 'my husband' subject singular 'uses' is singular verb and 'his car' is object. This combination is also correct. 'to go to his office' is also correct. The other clause 'My children stayed at home'  has 'my children' is Subject 'stayed at' is verb. These two clauses are joined by the conjunction 'but'. A conjunction joins two things (i.e. clauses in this case) of the same level. But here the first one is in present tense and the latter in past tense. This sentence shows action of continuous nature i.e. the action was in past as well as is in present time. It will be in future also. So it should be in present indefinite tense. Instead of 'stayed' it should be 'stay'.

2. Subject 'a vast majority of people' always has a plural verb . It should be 'gather' instead of 'gathers'.

3.'Such' has with it both  'as' and 'that'. 'As' describes a comparison and 'that' is a 'result'. Here it should be 'that'  instead of 'as'.

4. This sentence describes 'one' out of 'many' so instead of 'purpose' it should be 'purposes'.

5. The clause 'the doctor prescribed medicine' has a correct subject and Verb combination.'Examination' is a noun and 'carefully' describes the noun 'examination' but it is an adverb. To describe a noun an adjective is required. Instead of 'carefully' it should be 'careful examination'.

6. In this sentence 'packed'  is a verb and adverb 'fully' describes it. 'to its capacity' also describes it. Both have the same meaning. Here 'fully' is redundant. It should be 'packed to its capacity' meaning 'packed fully'.

7. The clause 'the company programme' is in Present Perfect Tense. It  has a correct Subject Verb and Object combination.In 'for their employees', 'employees' is s noun and 'their' is adjective. It describes 'the company' and not 'employees'.It should be in singular form 'its' instead of 'their'.

8. 'A herd of animals' acts as a singular noun and with it the verb 'were destroying' should be in singular 'was destroying'.

9. In this sentence 'labourers' is a noun and  'industrial and agriculture' describe it . The conjunction and joins the  two. Both should be in the form of adjectives i.e. 'Industrial and agricultural'.

10. In this sentence 'donations' is a noun and 'generously' describes it but it is an adverb. Here it should be adjective instead of adverb i.e.'generous donations'.

Exercise No.  2.

Correct the following sentences :

1. Though he undoubtedly is a very honest and sincere person yet  nobody but his friends believe upon him.

2. With a view to provide such facility to its employees, the company is planning to build schools and parks in the colony.  

3. From the response of the people of this vicinity,it appears that they are not interested in purchasing these things no more.

4. It is noticed that during the last week procurement of wheat and pulses crops in various markets have picked up considerably.

5. The local authorities warned the traders of the city that if they resort to hoarding of essential goods, a strict action would be taken against them.

6. The climatic changes during the last decade or so has an adverse effect on the pattern of seasons of the subcontinent.

7. It is worth appreciating that the residents of the city are behaving proper like law abiding citizens.

8. One of the evident reason that he does not visit you is that he attends his office till late hours these days.

9. Promptly actions taken by the authorities have saved the situation from worsening further.

10. Between the period April to June farmers are busy in harvesting of wheat crop.


1. In this sentence first part '... he undoubtedly is a very honest ......' in present tense is correct. The second part is also in present tense. These two are connected by yet. Nobody (not his friends)is subject, a Pronoun in singular and it should have singular verb i.e. believes and believe. Nobody, everybody or anybody take singular verb with them.

2. 'Such' is a word that takes singular as well as plural noun with it. For singular it should be 'such a facility' and for plural it should be such facilities. The hinder part of the sentence tells about more than one facilities. So it will be such facilities.

3. In this sentence there are two negatives which is incorrect. It should be either 'are not interested any more' or 'are interested no more'.

4. In this sentence 'procurement' (and not crops of wheat and pulses) is the subject in singular and with it verb should be in singular 'has picked up' instead of 'have picked up'.

5. Try to understand this sentence in the way of narration. He said to them,"if you refuse a strict action will be taken against you." Its indirect form is He warned them that if they 'refused' a strict action would be taken against them. Similarly it should be 'resorted' instead of 'resort'.
in other words the first clause in the sentence 'the local authorities......the city' is in past tense. It is joined with the other clause 'if they ..... goods' by conjunction 'that'. This clause also should be in past tense. So it should be 'resorted' instead of 'resort'.

6. The climatic changes is Subject in plural and with it the verb is 'has' whereas it should be in plural 'have'.

7.' ........ residents ........ are behaving' Residents is subject in plural. Verb is behaving and to describe it the word is 'proper' which is a noun. To describe a verb, an adverb is required. It should be 'properly'. 

8.In 'one of the evident reason' it should be 'one of the evident reasons'.

9.This sentence is in passive voice.  'Action' is object placed in the beginning of the sentence and subject 'the authorities' is in the last of the sentence. 'Promptly' describes the noun 'action'. But is an adverb. Instead of an adverb an adjective 'prompt' is required.

10. Between is used about any time from a particular time to another time. Here instead 'During' is required.

Exercise No.  3.

Correct the following sentences :

1. "This sort of customers are in the habit of making unusual demands and they are never satisfied." said the shopkeeper.

2. The boy carrying his luggage on his shoulder walks a little distance on foot before he boarded a bus to reach his house in the city.

3. It is hard deny that the chairman is adept in taking good decision and implement them without any hindrance.

4. The boy imitated his father and he sang like his father did.

5. He made his preference clearly when he declared that he will accept the deal only if the total amount is paid in advance.

6. He is the person who I think they selected as their captain.

Exercise No. 29

Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Now our company has been venturing with the fields of production which it never tried earlier.

(correction tip- The word 'agree' is followed by prepositions- agree with a person, to a proposal, on a point )


Exercise no CS30

Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

He has created such a mess in the office that it has become immanageable for him to control all this.

(correction tip- the verb 'Dare' is never followed by 'to'. e.g. I dare not go there.)


Exercise no CS31
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Had you contacted his brother he would have helped you.

(correction tip- 's is used with living things & not with non-living things.e.g. Ram's arm & not table's leg)


Exercise no CS32

Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

It is I who has been putting up with this silly fellow for such a long time.


Exercise no CS 33.

Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

What makes you laugh?


Exercise no CS 34.

Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Soon India and Pakistan will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled since January this year.

1.shall convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled since January this year.

2.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which has stalled since January this year.

3.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which has been stalled since January this year..
4.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled from January this year.

5.No Error.

6.None of these.

Exercise no CS 35.

Choose the correct word out  of the options given below in the sentence to be used  in blank space  so as to give it a correct meaning.

1. (a.Who/b.Whom).............wishes to see me?
2. (c.Who/d.Whom) you wish to see me?
3. (e.Whom/f.Who) you consider is right?
4. (g. Which/h.What)...............did he say to you?
5. With (i.whom/j.Which).........were you talking?