Friday, 26 July 2013

English Grammar Tenses - Present Tense, Past Tense, Future Tense


PRESENT TENSE


PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES 

  • In case of 1st person,2nd person singular & plural,  & 3rd person plural First form of verb is used.
  • In case of 3rd person singular, First form of Verb + ‘s’ or ‘es’   is used.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st person,2nd person singular & plural,  & 3rd person plural ‘do not’ +  First form of verb is used.
  • In case of 3rd person singular, ‘does not’ + First form of Verb 

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Do or Does is used before subject & First form of verb is used. Interrogative sign is used at the end of the sentence.




PRESENT PERFECT TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st person,2nd person singular & plural,  & 3rd person plural ‘Have’ + third form of verb is used.
  • In case of 3rd person singular, ‘Has’ + third form of Verb  is used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st person,2nd person singular & plural,  & 3rd person plural ‘Have not’ +  Third form of verb is used.
  • In case of 3rd person singular, ‘Has not’ + Third form of Verb  


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Has or Have is used before subject & Third form of verb is used. Interrogative sign is used at the end of the sentence.




PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st person singular ‘Am’ + First form of verb + ing is  used.  
  • In case of 1st person plural, 2nd  person singular and plural & 3rd person plural  ‘Are’ + First form of verb+ ing is used.
  • In case of 3rd person singular ‘is’ + First form of Verb +ing is used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • ‘Is, Am or Are’ + Not + First form of verb + ing is used.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • ‘Is, Am or Are’ is used before subject. 
  • First form of verb + ing is used. Sign of interrogation is used.





PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st person, 2nd person  singular & plural & 3rd  person plural ‘Have been’ + First form of verb + ing is  used.  
  • In case of  3rd person singular ‘Has been’ + First form of verb+ ing is used. 
  • To express time ‘for and since’ are used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • ‘Has or Have + Not + been’ + First form of verb + ing is used. 
  • To express time ‘for and since’ are used.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • ‘Has or Have’ is used before subject. First form of verb + ing is used. Sign of interrogation is used. 
  • To express time ‘for and since’ are used.




PAST TENSE



PAST INDEFINITE TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • Second form of verb  is used.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Did +not + First form of verb is used.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Did is used before Subject + First form of verb is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.




PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • In case of 1st & 3rd person singular was + first form of verb +ing is used. 
  • In case of 1st person plural,2nd person + 3rd person plural, were +first form of verb + ing is used.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Was or Were + not + First form of verb + ing is used.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Was or Were is used before Subject +First form of verb  + ing is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.




PAST PERFECT TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had + Third form of verb  is used.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had + not + Third form of verb is used.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had is used before Subject +Third form of verb  is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.




PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had Been + first form of verb +ing is used. 
  • To express time ‘for or since’ is used.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had + not +Been + First form of verb + ing is used.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES
  • Had is used before Subject +Been+ First form of verb + ing  is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.









FUTURE TENSE


  • Future Indefinite Tense 
  • Future  Continuous Tense 
  • Future Perfect Tense 
  • Future Perfect Continuous Tense





FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

  • In case of 1st person singular Shall + First form of verb  is used. 
  • In case of 1st person plural,second person & third person Will + First form of verb is used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will +not + First form of verb is used.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will is used before Subject +First form of verb is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.




FUTURE PERFECT TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

  • In case of 1st person singular Shall + Have +third form of verb  is used. 
  • In case of 1st person plural,second person & third person Will +Have + third form of verb is used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will +Have+not + third form of verb is used.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will is used before Subject +Have+third form of verb is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.




FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

  • In case of 1st person singular Shall + Have been + First form of verb +ing is used. 
  • In case of 1st person plural, second person & third person Will +Have been + first form of verb + ing is used. 
  • To express time ‘For or Since is used.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will +Have been +not + first form of verb +ing is used. 
  • Since or For is used.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Shall or Will is used before Subject +Have + third form of verb is used. 
  • Sign of interrogation is used.









:::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::EXAMPLES ::::::::::::::::::::::::;




PRESENT  TENSE


PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys play a football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys do  not play a football match..


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Do boys play a football match?



PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys are playing a  football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys are not playing a football match..


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Are boys playing a football match?



PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys have played a football match..


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys have not played a football match..


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Have boys played a football match?



PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys have been playing a football match for two hours


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys have  not been playing a match for  two hours..


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Have boys been playing a football match for two hours?






PAST TENSE

PAST INDEFINITE TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys played a football football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys did not play a football match.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Did boys play a football match?



PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys were playing a football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys were not playing a football match.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Were boys playing a football match?



PAST PERFECT TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys had played a football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys had not played a football match.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Had boys played a football match?



PAST PERFECT  CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys had been playing  a  football match since morning


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys had not been playing a football match since morning..


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Had boys been playing a football match since morning?




FUTURE TENSE

FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will play a football match.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will not play a football  match.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Will boys play a football match?



FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will be playing a football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will not be playing a football match..

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Will boys be playing a football match?



FUTURE PERFECT TENSE



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will have played a football match.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Boys will not have played a football match.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


  • Will boys have played a match?




FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

  • Boys will have been playing a football match since 2 p.m.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Boys will not have been playing a football match since 2 p.m.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

  • Will  boys have been playing a football match since 2 p.m.?







Thursday, 25 July 2013

Corrections----Clarifications & Tips.



Errors in sentences occur due to the fact that different parts of speech, Noun, Pronoun, verb, prepositions, number, gender, adjectives and adverbs etc. are not used properly.



To locate an error in a sentence knowledge in this regard is essential. Further, practice of reading and writing clears the doubts about proper usage  of  different  parts  of the sentence.



An attempt is made in the following pages to clarify certain points in this regard.

 It is not exhaustive nor will it be directly used in solving questions in the examination.  However it will certainly help in making the basic concepts in this regard clear to the reader.


CHAPTER  ONE

1.  Use of  Singular & Plural numbers:

(A) Generally, inter-alia, we add ‘s’ or ‘es’ to make a plural of a noun. 



But in compound words a little more care is needed.
Examples:
  • Son-in-law  becomes Sons- in- Law and not laws. 
  • Looker-on= Lookers -on. 
  • Passer-by = Passers-by
  • Coat-of-mail= Coats -of-mail & 
  • Fisher-man = Fisher-men.
But there are some exceptions also. 



Example :
  • Lord-justice changes to Lords-justices 
  • Man-servant=Men –servants.
  • Plural of 
  • C.A. is C.A.’s, 
  • M.A. = M.A.’s,
  • B.A.=B.A.'s



Look at the following plural words : 
  • Focus=foci, 
  • radius=radii,
  • Terminus=Termini,
  • Basis=bases, 
  • crisis=crises,
  • oasis= oases,
  • index=indices,
  • Mr.=Messrs.


(B) Certain words when changed to plural form give different meaning to that in their singular form 



Example : 
  • Force = strength,
  • Forces = army,
  • Physic = a medicine,
  • Physics = a subject.
  • Iron = metal, 
  • Irons = fetters made of iron, 
  • Beef=flesh of a cow, 
  • Beeves=Cattle(bulls or cows),
  • Good=benefit, 
  • Goods=moveable property, 
  • Return = come back, 
  • Returns=statistics or income, 
  • Air=atmosphere, 
  • Airs=demeanour.


(C)  In certain cases where a word has two plurals but these two have different meanings 



Example : 
  • Brother :
  • 1. Brothers – sons of a father 
  • 2. Brethren - Person of same society or profession etc.
  • Cloth :
  • 1. Cloths – pieces of cloth not stitched.
  • 2. Clothes - Garments.
  • Genius :
  • 1. Geniuses- Men of  original mental power,
  • 2. Genii - imaginary spirits.   
  • Die
  • 1. Dies - used for coining, 
  • 2. Dice - small cubes for gaming. 
  • Beef :
  • 1. Beefs – kind of beefs 
  • 2. Beeves - cattle. 
  • Index
  • 1. Indices - signs in Algebra. 
  • 2. Indexes - of a book.


(D) Nouns having two meanings in singular but one meaning in plural form.



Example : 
  • Abuse {Singular} : 
  • 1.wrong use 
  • 2. Reproach, 
  • Abuses {Plural} : wrong uses

  • Foot {Singular} :
  • 1.Part of body (पैर) 
  • 2. Infantry,
  • Feet {Plural} : Parts of body

  • Issue {Singular} :
  • 1.  Result 
  • 2. Off-spring  
  • Issues {Plural} :  results

  • People {Singular} :
  • 1.Nation 
  • 2.Persons  
  • Peoples {Plural} : Nations

  • Wood {Singular} :
  • 1.Material  
  • 2.Forest  
  • Woods {Plural} :  forests

  • Light {Singular} :
  • 1. of Sun or lamp (रोशनी) etc. 
  • 2. A lamp
  • Lights {Plural} : lamps.

  • Practice {Singular} :
  • 1. Habit 
  • 2. Professional work. 
  • Practices {Plural} : Habits.   


Nouns having one meaning in singular and two meanings in plural.



Example : 
  • Colour {Singular} :  hue  
  • Colours {Plural} :
  • 1. Hues 
  • 2. Flags of army groups

  • Custom {Singular} : habit  
  • Customs {Plural} :
  • 1. Habits 
  • 2. Tax



  • Quarter {Singular} : one fourth part 
  • Quarters {Plural} :
  • 1. Fourth part 
  • 2. Lodgings

  • Spectacle {Singular} : Sight  
  • Spectacles {Plural} :
  • 1. Sights seen 
  • 2. Glasses to help to see

  • Letter {Singular} : alphabets  
  • Letters {Plural} :
  • 1. Alphabets 
  • 2. Epistles.

  • Pain {Singular} : suffering 
  • Pains {Plural} :
  • 1. Sufferings  
  • 2. Care

  • Manner {Singular} : mode or way 
  • Manners {Plural} : 
  • 1. Ways  
  • 2. Behavior

  • Effect {Singular} : result  
  • Effects  {Plural} : 
  • 1. Results  
  • 2. Goods


(E) Following nouns are used in singular form:


  • Scenery
  • Advice 
  • Poetry 
  • Furniture 
  • Information
  • Issue 
  • Off-spring


(F) Following nouns are plural in form but singular in sense:


  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Mechanics
  • News
  • Summons
  • Innings
  • gallows
  • Means


(G) The names of sciences are used in the singular number:


  • Mathematics
  • Physics
  • Ethics
  • Politics
  • Conics


(H) Some of the Nouns  are same in singular & plural forms.


  • Fish
  • Deer
  • Sheep
  • Swine. 


(I) Following nouns are in singular form but are used in plural form:


  • Cattle
  • People
  • Gentry
  • Clergy
  • Poultry


(J) Following nouns are used only in plural :


  • arms

  • trousers

  • scissors

  • shoes

  • ashes

  • tidings

  • tongs 

  • socks

  • assets

  • pants

  • thanks

  • stockings

  • bowels

  • drawers

  • tidings

  • belongings

  • bellows etc.



(K) When a noun is preceded by a numerical adjective:

 it is not used in plural if it is accompanied by a number or quantity 



Example : 
  • We do not use “ a ten- rupees note” it is “a ten -rupee note”
  • It will not be “two ten- rupees notes” but “two ten- rupee notes”
  • A seven day week
  • Four pair of shoes
  • A  dozen pens
  • A four metre rod 
  • A twenty-kilo weight 
  • Sixty head of cattle.


Following nouns are generally used in plural :


Alms : These alms will be given to the poor children.


Riches : Riches have turned his head.


Pains : He took pains to achieve his goal.


Odds : He fought against all odds and won.


Amends : He made no amends for his mistakes.


(COMMENTS SOLICITED)  (DCOMMENT) 




Wednesday, 24 July 2013

IMPORTANT WORDS OF COMPARISON

List of Important Comparisons words


  • As black as coal.               

  • As firm as a rock.        

  • As blind as  a bat.          

  • As  fierce as a tiger.

  • As brave as a lion.            

  • As fat as pig.                     

  • As bright as a day.

  • As fair as a rose.        

  • As brittle as glass.            

  • As fast as a hare.                   

  • As busy as a bee.          

  • As gentle as a lamb.

  • As brisk as a butterfly.       

  • As good as gold.              

  • As bold as a lion.

  • As greedy as a wolf.        

  • As bitter as a gall.              

  • As gay as a lark.             

  • As cheerful as a lark.       

  • As green as grass.

  • As clear as a day.          

  • As graceful as a swan.   

  • As cold as ice.

  • As grave as a judge.        

  • As cunning as a fox.         

  • As hard as a stone.     

  • As dark as pitch.              

  • As happy   as a king.

  • As deep as a well.         

  • As heavy as lead.         

  • As drunk as a lord.

  • As hot as fire.                    

  • As dumb as a statue.         

  • As hungry as a hunter.         

  • As dry as dust.                 

  • As hoarse as a crow.

  • As deaf as a post.        

  • As harmless as a dove.   

  • As easy as A.B.C.

  • As Innocent  as a dove.     

  • As fresh as a daisy.            

  • As light as a feather.     

  • As free as wind.             

  • As lively as a cricket.

  • As loud as thunder                                                                            
                  


Tuesday, 23 July 2013

Sentence Correction Exercise No CS 29, 30, 31,32,33.34,35.

Exercise No. 31
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Now our company has been venturing with the fields of production which it never tried earlier.

(correction tip- The word 'agree' is followed by prepositions- agree with a person, to a proposal, on a point )

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  2.  
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Exercise no CS30
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

He has created such a mess in the office that it has become immanageable for him to control all this.

(correction tip- the verb 'Dare' is never followed by 'to'. e.g. I dare not go there.)

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  2.  
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  5.  

Exercise no CS29
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Had you contacted his brother he would have helped you.

(correction tip- 's is used with living things & not with non-living things.e.g. Ram's arm & not table's leg)

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  2.  
  3.  
  4.  
  5.  
  6.  



Exercise no CS32
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

It is I who has been putting up with this silly fellow for such a long time.

For More knowledge, Visit
English Learning Made Easy And Simple.
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Exercise no CS 33.
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

What makes you laugh?

For More knowledge, Visit

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  2.  
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  5.  
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Exercise no CS 34.
Which of the options given below be written in place of the underlined portion in the sentence so as to give its correct form.

Soon India and Pakistan will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled since January this year.


1.shall convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled since January this year.
2.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which has stalled since January this year.
3.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which has been stalled since January this year.....
4.will convene secretary level meetings of the bilateral process which stalled from January this year.
5.No Error.
6.None of these.



Exercise no CS 35.


Choose the correct word out  of the options given below in the sentence to be used  in blank space  so as to give it a correct meaning.

1. (a.Who/b.Whom).............wishes to see me?
2. (c.Who/d.Whom)..............do you wish to see me?
3. (e.Whom/f.Who)...............do you consider is right?
4. (g. Which/h.What)...............did he say to you?
5. With (i.whom/j.Which).........were you talking?