Monday, 27 May 2013

FUTURE TENSE USAGE

CHAPTER THREE


FUTURE TENSE 

In this tense work is done in time to come.


FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

In this tense work is done in future time but the time of action is not specified. It is not clear when an action will be taken. It is to  be in the coming time.


For Example :
  • I shall go to Delhi.
  • John will start his factory.
  • Boys will not play a match.



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In affirmative sentence, In case of First person singular and  plural ‘Shall’ with first form of verb is used. 

For Second & third Person singular and plural ‘will’ with first form of verb is used.


For Example :
  • His brother will appear in the examination next year.
  • I shall pay all my debts within two months.
  • Girls will sing a song,
  • You will go to your office in the morning.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In negative sentences with ‘shall or will’ not is used before first form of verb.


For example :
  • I shall not waste my time.
  • She will not cook food.
  • You will not join us.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In Interrogative sentences shall or will is used before Subject. First form of verb is used.

Interrogative sign is used at the end  of the sentence.


For Example: 
  • Shall we travel by bus?
  • Will you fetch me a glass of water?
  • Will they go out for a morning walk?





FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with ‘shall or will’,' be' is used. First form of verb and ‘ing’ is used.


For Example: 
  • We shall be taking our examination.
  • You will be leaving for Delhi.
  • Boys will be purchasing their new books.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In this tense ‘shall  or will’  followed by ‘not’ and 'be' & first form of verb with ‘ing’ is used.


For Example :
  • I shall  not be taking my meals.
  • We shall not be going to Delhi.
  • You will not be combing your hair.
  • Boys will not be making any mischief.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In this sentence ‘shall or will’ is used before subject with be and first form of verb with ‘ing’. Interrogative sign will be used at the end of the  sentence.


For Example :
  • Will you be going to  your office ?
  • Shall I be participating in the feat?
  • Will she be purchasing her clothes?



Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and 'not' & 'be' is  used before first  form of verb with 'ing'  in the sentence.


For Example :
  • Shall I not be solving these sums?
  • Will the boys not be attending this meeting?
  • Will Mohan not be taking his meals?
  • Will you not be writing an article for the newspaper?





FUTURE  PERFECT TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with ‘shall or will’, have & third form of verb is used.


 For Example: 

  • I shall  have taken my meals.
  • The teacher will have marked attendance by then.
  • Boys will have won the match.
  • You will have finished your work by tomorrow evening.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES


In this sentence with ‘shall or will’, not   have & third form of verb is used.


For Example: 
  • I shall not have taken the examination.
  • Boys will not have won the match.
  • You will not have reached the school by 7 A.M.
  • The thief will not have escaped before the police reached there.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In this sentence ‘shall or will’,is used before subject. have & third form of verb is used.

Sign of interrogation is used at the end of the sentence.


For Example: 
  • Shall we have rented our house to them?
  • Will you have met the teacher?
  • Will the boys have finished their work ?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and not & have is  used before third  form of verb  in the sentence.


For example :
  • Will you not have joined your friends?
  • Shall we not have crossed the river ?
  • Will they not have started  their journey?





FUTURE  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with -- shall or will +  have been +  first form of verb & ing  is used. For showing time -- Since or for is used. 

Since is used for a point of time & For is used for duration of time i.e. Since morning, For two hours.


For Example: 
  • We shall  have been living here for the last two years.
  • The boys will have been making a noise since 1 p.m.
  • You have been doing your job for three years.




NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In these sentences with ‘shall or will + have + not + been  + first form of verb & ing  is used. For showing time  --- Since or For is used.


For Example: 
  • I shall not  have been reading my book for two hours.
  • You will not have been singing since morning.
  • They will not have been doing their work since morning.




INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In these sentences--- shall or will  is used before subject. 

And - have + not + been + first form of verb & ing  is used. 

To express time 'Since' or 'for' is used.


For Example: 
  • Shall we   have been playing a match since morning?
  • Will you have been taking this medicine for a week?
  • Will he have been staying with you for a year?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and not & have been is used before first  form of verb and ‘ing’  in the sentence. 

To express time 'For' or 'Since' is used.

For Example :
  • Shall we  not have been entertaining the guests since morning?
  • Will you not have been flying kites since morning ?
  • Will the birds not have been flying in  the sky for two hours?


















SOME CONDITIONAL SENTENCES :

Besides this, there are some sentences in which one  action is reported dependent on other action.

In both the cases, action is to take place at some future time. But  formation of these sentences is not necessarily to be done as per Future Tense.


1.It may be Present tense in both the sentences


For Example :
  • If you go to Delhi, bring a bag for me.


Explanation:Action of both the verbs 'go' & 'bring' is to take place in future but in sentences present tense is used.



For Example : 
  • If you work hard, you may succeed.

Explanation :
Both the actions "work" and "succeed" are to take in future time but in formation of sentence, we use present tense here.


If you meet him , convey my regards to him.

Action in respect of both the verbs 'meet' and 'convey' is to take place in future.


2. Present tense in one sentence and future tense in the second sentence is used.

For Example :
  • If it rains tomorrow, I shall not go to school.
Explanation:
Here action of both the verbs 'rain' and'go' is to take place in future time but future  tense in the main sentence and present tense in the other part is used.

For Example :
  • As you sow so shall you reap.



In both the cases sow and reap action is to take place but tense of future  tense in the main sentence and present in the other is used.











USE OF ONE SENTENCE IN ALL THE FORMS OF TENSES 


 

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है  । 

HE GOES TO HIS OFFICE.


PRESENT TENSE



INDEFINITE  TENSE


इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'ता  है , ते हैं  और  ती है ' आता  है जैसे कि 


First Person & Second Person Singular & Plural & Third Person Plural  --First form of verb is used.
Third Person  Singular -- First form of verb + s or es is used. 



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है  ।                             मैं अपना पाठ  याद  करता हूँ।      

He goes to his office.                                           


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नही जाता  है  ।

He does not go to his office.


क्या   वह अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है ?

Does he go to his office?



क्या   वह अपने  कार्यालय नही  जाता  है ?

Does he not go to his office?



CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   है , रहे  हैं  और  रही  है ' आता  है जैसे कि 



First Person Singular ---  Am + First form of verb + ing.
Third Person Singular -----Is+ First form of verb + ing.
First Person & Third Person Plural   & Second Person Singular & Plural--
Are + First form of verb + ing.




वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ।

He is going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नही  जा  रहा  है  ।

He is not going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ?

Is he going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  है  ?

Is he not going to his office?




PERFECT TENSE





इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )    है , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) हैं  और  ई (ीमात्रा) है ' आता  है  या   चुका  है   चुकी  है और  चुके  हैं   आता है  जैसे कि

First Person & Second Person Singular and Plural, Third Person Plural ---- 

Have + Third form of verb is used.
Third Person Singular ---- Has + Third form of verb is used



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  है  ।    या       

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका   है  ।

He has gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं गया   है  ।

He has not gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया   है  ?

Has he gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं गया   है  ?

Has he not gone to his office?





PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 


इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   है , रहे  हैं  और  रही  है ' आता  है  और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। 



First Person & Second Person Singular & Plural & Third Person Plural    --

Have +been + First form of verb + ing + (For time) Since or For is used.

Third Person Singular -----Has+been+ First form of verb + ing (For time) Since or For  is used.




वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ।

He  has been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   जा  रहा  है  ।

He has not been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ?

Has he  been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  है  ?

Has he not been going to his office for two months?




PAST TENSE




INDEFINITE  TENSE



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा ) , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  )  और  ई (ीमात्रा)  ' आता  है  जैसे कि 



Second form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया ।    

He went to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया । 

He did not go to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया ?

Did he go to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया ? 

Did he not go to his office?



CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   था  , रहे  थे   और  रही  थी ' आता  है जैसे कि 



First Person Singular  & Third Person Singular -----Was+ First form of verb + ing.
First Person & Third Person Plural   & Second Person Singular & Plural--
Were + First form of verb + ing.




वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  था  ।

He was going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ।

He was not going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ?

Was he going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ?


Was he not going to his office?



PERFECT TENSE




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )   था  , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) थे  और  ई (ीमात्रा) थी  ' आता  है  या   चुका  था    चुकी  थी  और  चुके  थे '   आता है  जैसे कि 



Had + Third form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  था   ।    या       

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  था   ।

He had  gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ।

He had  not gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ?

Had  he  gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ?

Had  he not gone to his office?





PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा  था  , रहे  थे   और  रही  थी  ' आता  है  और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। 



Had + been + First form of verb + ing (For time) since or For is used. 



वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा   था   ।

He had been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं  जा  रहा   था   ।

He had not been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा   था   ?

Had he  been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जा  रहा   था   ?

Had he not been going to his office for two months?




FUTURE TENSE




INDEFINITE  TENSE




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  गा , गी  या  गे  ' आता  है।  

   

First Person Singular & Plural --Shall + First form of verb is used.
Second & Third Person Singular & Plural ---Will + First form of verb is used.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाएगा  ।

He will go to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जाएगा  ।

He will not go to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाएगा  ?

Will he go to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जाएगा  ?

Will he not go to his office?




CONTINUOUS TENSE 




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   होगा  , रहे  होगें   और  रही  होगी ' आता  है । 


First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall + be+ First form of verb + ing is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will +be + First form of verb + ing is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will be going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will not be going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he be going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he not be going to his office?



PERFECT TENSE



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )   होगा   , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) होगें   और  ई (ीमात्रा) होगी   ' आता  है  या   चुका  होगा     चुकी  होगी   और  चुके  होगे  '   आता है  जैसे कि 


First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall +Have+ Third form of verb  is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will +Have +Third form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  होगा    ।    या      

 वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  होगा    ।

He will have gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा चुका  होगा    ।

He will not have gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  होगा  ?

Will  he have gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा चुका  होगा ?

Will he  have not gone to his office?



PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   होगा   , रहे  होगे    और  रही  होगें  ' आता  है और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। जैसे कि 



First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall + Have +been+ First form of verb + ing+ (For time)  Since or For  is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will + Have + been + First form of verb + ing +(For Time ) Since or For is used.




वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will have been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will have not been been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will  he  have been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he have not been going to his office for two months?