Monday, 27 May 2013

FUTURE TENSE USAGE

CHAPTER THREE


FUTURE TENSE 

In this tense work is done in time to come.


FUTURE INDEFINITE TENSE

In this tense work is done in future time but the time of action is not specified. It is not clear when an action will be taken. It is to  be in the coming time.


For Example :
  • I shall go to Delhi.
  • John will start his factory.
  • Boys will not play a match.



AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In affirmative sentence, In case of First person singular and  plural ‘Shall’ with first form of verb is used. 

For Second & third Person singular and plural ‘will’ with first form of verb is used.


For Example :
  • His brother will appear in the examination next year.
  • I shall pay all my debts within two months.
  • Girls will sing a song,
  • You will go to your office in the morning.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In negative sentences with ‘shall or will’ not is used before first form of verb.


For example :
  • I shall not waste my time.
  • She will not cook food.
  • You will not join us.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In Interrogative sentences shall or will is used before Subject. First form of verb is used.

Interrogative sign is used at the end  of the sentence.


For Example: 
  • Shall we travel by bus?
  • Will you fetch me a glass of water?
  • Will they go out for a morning walk?





FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with ‘shall or will’,' be' is used. First form of verb and ‘ing’ is used.


For Example: 
  • We shall be taking our examination.
  • You will be leaving for Delhi.
  • Boys will be purchasing their new books.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In this tense ‘shall  or will’  followed by ‘not’ and 'be' & first form of verb with ‘ing’ is used.


For Example :
  • I shall  not be taking my meals.
  • We shall not be going to Delhi.
  • You will not be combing your hair.
  • Boys will not be making any mischief.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In this sentence ‘shall or will’ is used before subject with be and first form of verb with ‘ing’. Interrogative sign will be used at the end of the  sentence.


For Example :
  • Will you be going to  your office ?
  • Shall I be participating in the feat?
  • Will she be purchasing her clothes?



Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and 'not' & 'be' is  used before first  form of verb with 'ing'  in the sentence.


For Example :
  • Shall I not be solving these sums?
  • Will the boys not be attending this meeting?
  • Will Mohan not be taking his meals?
  • Will you not be writing an article for the newspaper?





FUTURE  PERFECT TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with ‘shall or will’, have & third form of verb is used.


 For Example: 

  • I shall  have taken my meals.
  • The teacher will have marked attendance by then.
  • Boys will have won the match.
  • You will have finished your work by tomorrow evening.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES


In this sentence with ‘shall or will’, not   have & third form of verb is used.


For Example: 
  • I shall not have taken the examination.
  • Boys will not have won the match.
  • You will not have reached the school by 7 A.M.
  • The thief will not have escaped before the police reached there.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In this sentence ‘shall or will’,is used before subject. have & third form of verb is used.

Sign of interrogation is used at the end of the sentence.


For Example: 
  • Shall we have rented our house to them?
  • Will you have met the teacher?
  • Will the boys have finished their work ?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and not & have is  used before third  form of verb  in the sentence.


For example :
  • Will you not have joined your friends?
  • Shall we not have crossed the river ?
  • Will they not have started  their journey?





FUTURE  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


In this tense with -- shall or will +  have been +  first form of verb & ing  is used. For showing time -- Since or for is used. 

Since is used for a point of time & For is used for duration of time i.e. Since morning, For two hours.


For Example: 
  • We shall  have been living here for the last two years.
  • The boys will have been making a noise since 1 p.m.
  • You have been doing your job for three years.




NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In these sentences with ‘shall or will + have + not + been  + first form of verb & ing  is used. For showing time  --- Since or For is used.


For Example: 
  • I shall not  have been reading my book for two hours.
  • You will not have been singing since morning.
  • They will not have been doing their work since morning.




INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In these sentences--- shall or will  is used before subject. 

And - have + not + been + first form of verb & ing  is used. 

To express time 'Since' or 'for' is used.


For Example: 
  • Shall we   have been playing a match since morning?
  • Will you have been taking this medicine for a week?
  • Will he have been staying with you for a year?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences ‘shall or will’ is used before subject and not & have been is used before first  form of verb and ‘ing’  in the sentence. 

To express time 'For' or 'Since' is used.

For Example :
  • Shall we  not have been entertaining the guests since morning?
  • Will you not have been flying kites since morning ?
  • Will the birds not have been flying in  the sky for two hours?


















SOME CONDITIONAL SENTENCES :

Besides this, there are some sentences in which one  action is reported dependent on other action.

In both the cases, action is to take place at some future time. But  formation of these sentences is not necessarily to be done as per Future Tense.


1.It may be Present tense in both the sentences


For Example :
  • If you go to Delhi, bring a bag for me.


Explanation:Action of both the verbs 'go' & 'bring' is to take place in future but in sentences present tense is used.



For Example : 
  • If you work hard, you may succeed.

Explanation :
Both the actions "work" and "succeed" are to take in future time but in formation of sentence, we use present tense here.


If you meet him , convey my regards to him.

Action in respect of both the verbs 'meet' and 'convey' is to take place in future.


2. Present tense in one sentence and future tense in the second sentence is used.

For Example :
  • If it rains tomorrow, I shall not go to school.
Explanation:
Here action of both the verbs 'rain' and'go' is to take place in future time but future  tense in the main sentence and present tense in the other part is used.

For Example :
  • As you sow so shall you reap.



In both the cases sow and reap action is to take place but tense of future  tense in the main sentence and present in the other is used.











USE OF ONE SENTENCE IN ALL THE FORMS OF TENSES 


 

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है  । 

HE GOES TO HIS OFFICE.


PRESENT TENSE



INDEFINITE  TENSE


इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'ता  है , ते हैं  और  ती है ' आता  है जैसे कि 


First Person & Second Person Singular & Plural & Third Person Plural  --First form of verb is used.
Third Person  Singular -- First form of verb + s or es is used. 



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है  ।                             मैं अपना पाठ  याद  करता हूँ।      

He goes to his office.                                           


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नही जाता  है  ।

He does not go to his office.


क्या   वह अपने  कार्यालय  जाता  है ?

Does he go to his office?



क्या   वह अपने  कार्यालय नही  जाता  है ?

Does he not go to his office?



CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   है , रहे  हैं  और  रही  है ' आता  है जैसे कि 



First Person Singular ---  Am + First form of verb + ing.
Third Person Singular -----Is+ First form of verb + ing.
First Person & Third Person Plural   & Second Person Singular & Plural--
Are + First form of verb + ing.




वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ।

He is going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नही  जा  रहा  है  ।

He is not going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ?

Is he going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  है  ?

Is he not going to his office?




PERFECT TENSE





इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )    है , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) हैं  और  ई (ीमात्रा) है ' आता  है  या   चुका  है   चुकी  है और  चुके  हैं   आता है  जैसे कि

First Person & Second Person Singular and Plural, Third Person Plural ---- 

Have + Third form of verb is used.
Third Person Singular ---- Has + Third form of verb is used



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  है  ।    या       

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका   है  ।

He has gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं गया   है  ।

He has not gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया   है  ?

Has he gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं गया   है  ?

Has he not gone to his office?





PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 


इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   है , रहे  हैं  और  रही  है ' आता  है  और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। 



First Person & Second Person Singular & Plural & Third Person Plural    --

Have +been + First form of verb + ing + (For time) Since or For is used.

Third Person Singular -----Has+been+ First form of verb + ing (For time) Since or For  is used.




वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ।

He  has been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   जा  रहा  है  ।

He has not been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  है  ?

Has he  been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  है  ?

Has he not been going to his office for two months?




PAST TENSE




INDEFINITE  TENSE



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा ) , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  )  और  ई (ीमात्रा)  ' आता  है  जैसे कि 



Second form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया ।    

He went to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया । 

He did not go to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया ?

Did he go to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया ? 

Did he not go to his office?



CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   था  , रहे  थे   और  रही  थी ' आता  है जैसे कि 



First Person Singular  & Third Person Singular -----Was+ First form of verb + ing.
First Person & Third Person Plural   & Second Person Singular & Plural--
Were + First form of verb + ing.




वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  था  ।

He was going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ।

He was not going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ?

Was he going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  था  ?


Was he not going to his office?



PERFECT TENSE




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )   था  , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) थे  और  ई (ीमात्रा) थी  ' आता  है  या   चुका  था    चुकी  थी  और  चुके  थे '   आता है  जैसे कि 



Had + Third form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  था   ।    या       

वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  था   ।

He had  gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ।

He had  not gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ?

Had  he  gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं   गया  था   ?

Had  he not gone to his office?





PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा  था  , रहे  थे   और  रही  थी  ' आता  है  और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। 



Had + been + First form of verb + ing (For time) since or For is used. 



वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा   था   ।

He had been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं  जा  रहा   था   ।

He had not been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा   था   ?

Had he  been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों से अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जा  रहा   था   ?

Had he not been going to his office for two months?




FUTURE TENSE




INDEFINITE  TENSE




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  गा , गी  या  गे  ' आता  है।  

   

First Person Singular & Plural --Shall + First form of verb is used.
Second & Third Person Singular & Plural ---Will + First form of verb is used.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाएगा  ।

He will go to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जाएगा  ।

He will not go to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जाएगा  ?

Will he go to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय नहीं  जाएगा  ?

Will he not go to his office?




CONTINUOUS TENSE 




इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   होगा  , रहे  होगें   और  रही  होगी ' आता  है । 


First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall + be+ First form of verb + ing is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will +be + First form of verb + ing is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will be going to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will not be going to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he be going to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he not be going to his office?



PERFECT TENSE



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  ' आ ( ामात्रा )   होगा   , ऐ  (ेमात्रा  ) होगें   और  ई (ीमात्रा) होगी   ' आता  है  या   चुका  होगा     चुकी  होगी   और  चुके  होगे  '   आता है  जैसे कि 


First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall +Have+ Third form of verb  is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will +Have +Third form of verb is used.



वह  अपने  कार्यालय  गया  होगा    ।    या      

 वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  होगा    ।

He will have gone to his office.


वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा चुका  होगा    ।

He will not have gone to his office.


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  जा चुका  होगा  ?

Will  he have gone to his office?


क्या वह  अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा चुका  होगा ?

Will he  have not gone to his office?



PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE 



इस  काल मेँ  वाक्य के अन्त  में  'रहा   होगा   , रहे  होगे    और  रही  होगें  ' आता  है और  साथ में समय  दिया  होता है  जैसे कि  दो  घन्टों से या  सुबह से  इत्यादि। जैसे कि 



First Person Singular & Plural  --- Shall + Have +been+ First form of verb + ing+ (For time)  Since or For  is used.
Second Person  & Third Person Singular & Plural --Will + Have + been + First form of verb + ing +(For Time ) Since or For is used.




वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will have been going to his office for two months.


वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ।

He will have not been been going to his office for two months.


क्या वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will  he  have been going to his office for two months ?


क्या वह  दो  महीनों   से अपने  कार्यालय  नहीं जा  रहा  होगा   ?

Will he have not been going to his office for two months?













Thursday, 23 May 2013

PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


PAST  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


It is used to show that a work was being done in the past for a time.  It might be continuing   for a particular duration or  from a point of  time i.e. for two hours or since morning. 

To express time words ‘for  or since’ are generally used. 

‘Had’ with 'been' and first form of  verb and -ing is used in these sentences.

For Example :

  • He had been working for two hours.
  • You had been living here since 1995.





AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In affirmative sentence, with all  types of persons ‘had’ is used.

 And with it ‘been’ and first   form  of verb and ‘ing’ is used.   

To express time ‘since’  or ‘for’ is used.


For Example :
  • Girls had been plucking flowers for one hour.
  • You had been reading this book since morning.
  • She had been preparing tea for half an  hour.
  • We had been living in this house for two years.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In negative sentences ‘had been’ is used with first form of verb and ‘ing’ 

and ‘not’ is used between ‘had’ & ‘been’.


For Example :
  • She had not been singing since morning.
  • You had not been taking your meals for two days.
  • They had not been waiting for you for two hours.
  • The child had not been crying for half an hour.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In Interrogative sentences Had is used before Subject.  

Been and first form of verb with ing are used. 

To express time for and since are used.

A sign of interrogation is used at the end of the sentence.


For Example:
  • Had he been helping  you for two years?
  • Had you been painting a picture since morning?
  • Had children been dancing for two hours ?
  • Had we been learning our lessons  for the last two hours?

Similarly in interrogative negative sentences Had is used before subject and not is  used before first  form of verb with ing  in the sentence.

For Example :
  • Had I not been solving this sum for two hours ?
  • Had the girls not been dancing for the last two hours?
  • Had Mary not been preparing for her examination since January  ?
  • Had you not been waiting for him since morning?



                                                 






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PAST PERFECT TENSE



PAST PERFECT  TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In this Tense work has already been completed in  previous time. It is  over now.


For this, with' had' third  form of  verb is  used for all the persons.


For example :
  • Girls had sung a song.
  • We had finished  our  work.
  • I had taken my food.
  • You had taken your examination.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In these sentences 'not' is used after had and third form of verb is used for all the persons.


For example :
  • She had not prepared food.
  • I had not met him before.
  • You had not left the room.
  • They had not  made any mistake.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In these sentences 'had' is used  before  subject and third form of verb is used for all the persons.

A sign of interrogation is used at the end of the sentence.

For example :
  • Had you gone to the market ?
  • Had the boys played a match on that day ?
  • Had we taken our food ?
  • Had he gone out for a walk?

Similarly in interrogative negative sentences Had is used before subject and not is  used before third  form of verb.

For example :
  • Had she not helped you?
  • Had you not taken your examination seriously?
  • Had the house not elected him as president?







CONDITIONAL SENTENCES

1. In some sentences out of two actions one is dependent on the other.


    If you had worked hard, you would have succeeded.


EXPLANATION :

In this sentence, action in respect  of verb 'work' was to be done in past and its effect was to be seen in present time i.e. work hard related to past whereas action of verb 'succeed' related to present time.


In this, in the main part of   sentence, third  form of  verb with had is used  In the second part with would have,third  form of verb is used.


If you had walked faster, you would have caught the train.

The first part of the sentence can also be written in this way :


Had you worked hard , you would have succeeded. 

Had you walked faster you would have caught the train.

  

Here " Had you worked hard " = " If you had worked hard".



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PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


PAST CONTINUOUS TENSE


AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In this Tense work  is being done in the past on continuous basis.
For this tense was were and first form of verb with ‘ing’   is used.

With first person singular and third person singular was with first form of verb and ing is used.

With first person plural, second person singular and plural and third person plural ‘were’ with first form of verb and ing is used.

For example :

  • Girls were singing a song.
  • You were going to the market.
  • She was painting a picture.
  • We were taking our meals.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES


In negative sentences ‘not’ is  used after was  were and before verb.

For Example :

  • Boys were not making a  noise.
  • You were not taking your examination.
  • The gardener was not watering the plants.
  • We were not playing football.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In interrogative sentences ‘was,were’ is used before subject. and first form of verb with ‘ing’   is used.
Interrogative sign is used at the end of the sentence.

For Example :

  • Were  you painting  a  picture?
  • Was I walking in the garden?
  • Was she cooking food in the kitchen?
  • Were the boys playing a match ?







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PAST TENSE-PAST INDEFINITE TENSE



CHAPTER TWO

LESSON NO 1


PAST TENSE

In Past Tense work has   already been done during some earlier period.
For this we use second form of verb.   

For Example :
  • He went to Delhi yesterday.
  • Boys played a football match last Sunday.
  • I took my food in the morning.
  • You gave me a good   suggestion.


PAST INDEFINITE TENSE


In this Tense work has been completed in the previous time. It is  over now.
For this, second form of  verb is  used for all the persons.


For example :
  • Girls sang a song yesterday.
  • I lived in this house in 1980.
  • He appeared in the examination last year.
  • You showed me your office.

In Negative sentences ‘did not’ with first form of verb is used.  


Here it is pertinent to note that with ‘did not’ first and not second form is used.


For Example:
  • John did not go to school yesterday.
  • Boys  did  not play a match.
  • I did not like his habits.
  • You did not take your examination.

In these sentences ‘Did’ is used before Subject. First form of verb is used.


For Example:
  • Did you ring him up?
  • Did she tell you anything?
  • Did boys fare well in the examination?
  • Did we say anything wrong to him?









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AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

NEGATIVE SENTENCES

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 


Wednesday, 22 May 2013

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE



PRESENT  PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE


It is used to show that a work is being done for a time. It is still being done now also. It may be continuing   for a particular duration or  from a point of  time i.e. for two hours or since morning.


With time words ‘for  or since’ are generally used. 

Has or Have with been and first form of  verb and ing is used in these sentences.

For Example :
  • He has been sleeping for two hours.
  • You have been working since morning.























AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

In affirmative sentence 

With First person, Second person singular and plural and third person plural ‘have’ is used with ‘been’ and first form  of verb and ‘ing’ is used.


With third person singular ‘has’ is used with ‘been’ and first   form  of verb and ‘ing’ is used. To depict time since  or for is used.


For Example :
  • I have been waiting for you for one hour.
  • Boys have been playing since morning.
  • You have been preparing for your examination for the last two months.
  • She has been working in this office for two years.



NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In negative sentences has have been and not is used with first form of verb and ing.

For example :
  • I have not been working since morning.
  • She has not been dancing for two hours.
  • You have not been watching T.V. for half an hour.
  • Children have not been shouting for an hour.



INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES


In Interrogative sentences Has Have is used before Subject.


For Example: 
  • Has he been waiting for you for two hours?
  • Have you been playing since morning?
  • Have children been doing their work for two hours ?
  • Have we been living here  for the last two years?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences Has Have is used before subject and not is  used before first  form of verb with ing  in the sentence.


For example :
  • Has  she not been singing for two hours ?
  • Have the boys not been playing a match since morning?
  • Has she not been cooking food since 2 P.M. ?
  • Have you not been accompanying him for  two days?











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Tuesday, 21 May 2013

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

PRESENT PERFECT TENSE


It is used to show that a work has been done. It has already been completed and the same is over now.


For Example :
  • Sam has painted a picture.
  • Boys have finished their homework.
In this tense the words "has" "have" are used with third form of verb.


















AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


  • With First person, Second person singular and plural and third person plural ‘have’ is used with third form of verb.
  • With third person singular ‘has’ is used with third form of verb.


For Example :
  • I have written a letter to him.
  • He has committed a mistake.
  • Children have finished their work.
  • We have taken our meals.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES 


In negative sentences with ‘has & have’ not and third form of verb is used.


For Example:
  • Boys have not gone to school today.
  • She has not done her work.
  • I have not taken my meals today.
  • You have not made any mistake.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES 


In Interrogative sentences
  • For First Person,second person singular and plural and third person plural the word have is used before subject.
  • For third person singular the word has.
  • At the end of the sentence Interrogative sign is used.


For Example:
  • Has he gone to the market ?
  • Have you taken your meals?
  • Have they  lent you any money?
  • Has the girl  finished her work?


Similarly in interrogative negative sentences, "Has" "Have" is used before the subject and not issued before third form of verb.


For Example:
  • Have you not gone to school today?
  • Has she not finished her work ?
  • Have I not consulted you?
  • Have the girls not sung a song?




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Sunday, 19 May 2013

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE



PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE


It is used to show that a work is being done. It is still being done.


For Example :


Sam is painting a picture.


This sentence shows that the subject Sam is doing a work in the present time. 

This work is continuing now.


In this tense is, am are along with first form of verb with ing is used.


He is drinking water. 

I am painting a picture. 

You are taking your meals.



 AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES


With First person singular ‘am’ along with first form of verb with ‘ing’ is used.


For Example :


I am writing a letter.


With First person plural,second person singular and plural and third person plural ‘are’ is used with first form of verb and ing .


We are playing a match. 

You are making a noise. 

They are singing a song.


With third person singular ‘is’ is used with first form of verb and ing.


For example :


He is drinking water.

NEGATIVE SENTENCES


‘Is, Am or Are’ + Not + First form of verb + ing is used.


For Example : 

Boys are not playing a football match.

INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

‘Is, Am or Are’ is used before subject. First form of verb + ing is used.

Sign of interrogation is used.


For Example :


Are the boys  playing a football match?

Are the girls not singing a song ?







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Saturday, 18 May 2013

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


Chapter 1

Lesson Number 2 

PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE


It is used to show that a work is actually being  done. In this formation of sentence time limit of action being done is not limited in specific terms. One is not sure about when action is being done and for how long action will be undertaken.


For example : He writes a letter.


This sentence shows that the subject undertakes a work in the present time i.e. He the subject  writes a letter in the present time. But there is no definite time limit for how long action is done. So this is called Present and not definite i.e. Indefinite Tense.


In this tense we use first form of verb.







AFFIRMATIVE SENTENCES

For First Person singular & plural, Second person singular & plural and third person plural subjects – first form of verb is used.
For example:
  • I like sweets. 
  • We drink fresh juice.  
  • You go to the market. 
  • Boys make a noise.
In all the sentences mentioned above first form of verb is used.


For third person singular subject – s or es is used with first form of verb. 

For example with He Or She or a noun i.e. any name (singular), s or es is used with first form of verb according to type and nature of verb.

Just look at the following sentences:
  • John plays football.  
  • She sings a song. 
  • Mother loves her child. 
  • He goes to the school daily.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES

In negative sentences for First Person singular & plural, Second person singular & plural and third person plural subjects – Do not with first form of verb is used.
For example:
  • I do not like sweets. 
  • We do not drink milk. 
  • You do not go to the office. 
  • Boys do not make a noise.
For third person singular subject – s or es with verb Ist form of verb is deleted and does not is used with first form of verb.

For example with He or She or a noun i.e. any name (singular), does not is used with first form of verb according to type and nature of verb.


For example :
  • Mary does not play hockey. 
  • He does not recite a poem. 
  • She does not dance. 
  • This child does not cry.


INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES

In Interrogative sentences for First Person singular & plural, Second person singular & plural and third person plural subjects – Do is used before subject and first form of verb is used. 

Interrogative sign is used at   the end of the sentence. 

For third person singular Does is used before subject and not is used before verb first form.


For example:
  • Do you like sweets? 
  • Do we drink milk? 
  • Does he go to the office? 
  • Do boys make a noise?

In the interrogative negative sentences not is used before verb.


For example:
  • Do you not read a book? 
  • Do we not help you? 
  • Does she not sing a song? 
  • Do children not play?






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Sentence Formation in English - Tenses



Lesson Number 1 

                                     Tenses

Human beings have a tendency to share their feelings, emotions and experiences with others. One needs a suitable medium to convey all this to others. Language is the best suited medium to be used for this. Language differs from place to place & person to person. Language is a broader term. However a sentence is used to convey the message.

Language is the most effective system for communication created by human beings. It records and describes every activity performed by them, establishing  very succinctly the truth of the adage"mind over matter". When we use language we are constantly transforming matter into words through the help  of sounds. 


If gone by dictionary meaning, a sentence is a combination of words arranged in a systematic and meaningful way.

A group of jumbled words does not form a meaningful sentence.

A sentence basically comprises of three main parts namely Subject, Verb & Object. The latter two collectively form predicate.

Instead of going after nomenclature one should try to understand the basics first.It is therefore very essential to learn the formation of a sentence. 


For formation of a sentence we make use of TENSES.


Tenses denote time when a particular work is being accomplished. Tenses are of following types.




Before learning about tenses it is necessary to know that in English Language there are types of persons used to express about a subject or an object. The word  about  whom or which something is said in the sentence is called Subject  all what is said about the subject is called Predicate.







The words I,we,you,he,she & they are used in the part Subject of the sentence. 

Words Me,us,you, him,her and them are used in the part Object of the sentence whereas words my,our,your,his,her and their  are used to show relationship of subject with object. 


For example:I draw a picture.You sing a song. Boys play a match.


In these sentences, I, You and Boys are Subject. 

Draw, sing and play are verbs. 

A picture, a song and a match are Objects in the respective sentences. 

In other words I, You and Boys form Subject the remaining portions of sentences are predicate.




















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