Tuesday, 22 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , CORRECTING ERRORS AND PUNCTUATING A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH



English Grammar Editing 
- Error Spotting, Correcting And Punctuating.


Editing  starts with the inception of thoughts about writing in writer's mind. The writer first of all forms a thought in his mind to write something and then translates that idea into sentences to write about it. But consciously or  unconsciously he then  starts thinking  of writing it in a better way. Thus in a way editing starts when writing itself starts. By the time the thoughts or concepts in the writer's mind come into a written form they already have undergone the process of editing.


Generally a writer notes down what comes into his mind about the topic. He  goes through it and rethinks about the concept. He brings a better version of it in his mind and puts it down by correcting or improving the previous written- version. What a writer writes in the first go is called a draft. The writer  reads this draft again and it may go for a number of times. He, during this process, goes on improving the version of his writing. This is called on-going editing.  


For editing a given draft sentence or paragraph, one has to know what the writer thought while writing. His thoughts should synchronize with those of the writer. One should also know the way of presentation of thoughts required by the writer. Only then a writing can be edited.

A writing involves use of words and phrases as the writer wants to impress upon the reader. So a  proper use of language and words is very essential to know while editing a writing. Vocabulary is the key ingredient required for editing. A complete knowledge about the subject or topic and its terminology is very essential for editing.    

Before editing one should read and re-read the given sentence or paragraph to bring home the basic idea contained in it from the point of view of the writer.

For the purpose of the examination certain key points are necessary to know while editing  a given passage or a sentence. It is essential to know about the subject and the language used in the passage. One should try to understand the idea contained in the passage and the meaning of the words used in it.

First of all  a causal reading from beginning to the end of the paragraph should be given. This gives a sketchy idea of the subject matter. For further making the idea clear the passage be read again until it is clear to the mind. Try to locate difficult words and know their meaning. If a word is not clear try to know its meaning by linking it with other words and find out the underneath thought meant to be conveyed by the writer. Make sure that appropriate words are used according to the subject contained in the passage. Sometimes similar words with different meanings are used to confuse the candidates. Replace such words with the correct words. Punctuate the passage as and wherever required. After making corrections read the passage again and try to note if there is still any amendment or improvement required in it. Vocabulary is the main tool that helps in the process. Besides practice paves the way for an effective form of editing.  

To sum up steps for editing English Grammar


  • Good Command over English Language.
  • Purpose of Editing.
  • Knowledge of style of Editing.
  • Proper grasping of the subject.
  • Thorough Reading
  • Spotting of Errors


Here follow some exercises for practice of candidates. 


ONE



The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



 Once a king rules in a state. The king            rules - ruled
was very cheerful and his queen always
remained very sad. She always remain
in a pensive mood most sitting in her
chamber. This made the king worry and
he tried to find out the reason for her
sadness. The queen's maids also attempt
to make her happy but no avail. The
king made a announcement in his state
that he will give a huge amount as a prize
to the person who make the queen happy.
Many people came and try but none 
was successful. One day a sage came by
the king and told him that he wants to 
try  make the queen happy. The king gave
to him his permission. The sage brought
a number of small children with himself.
As the queen saw those children she start
playing with theirs. She spent a lot of
time with them. She felt very happy with
their accompany. She did not want to 
leave them. This gave immense enjoy to
both the king and queen because they
had no issues of their own. The king 
thank the sage and gave him a lot of 
money as reward to his act.












 

Thursday, 17 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR --- SPOTTING, MENDING, CORRECTING AND PUNCTUATING A GIVEN PASSAGE OR SENTENCE.


Editing In English Grammar 

-  Editing in English Grammar is done to improve or correct the given words or sentences for an effective and elaborate version of writing.



Editing in English Grammar is a stage in the process of writing with a writer endeavoring to improve or correct words or sentences. To make the writing more effective and lucid, the sentences are made precise or clearer or sometimes more elaborate. For this, modification or simplification is required to make sentences or passage correct, consistent, accurate and complete. It involves adding,deleting and rearranging words or recasting sentences. It is finding and mending faults to clarify ideas contained in the writing. 

Editing is done while writing itself. A writer writes but thinks about better words or way of his writing and applies to the sentence during his writing. Sometimes while writing a writer thinks of more than one sentences and writes choosing the best of these. In this process the writer also gets new ideas and the same are added to the writing. This is called On Going Editing.


But in most of the cases a writer writes at the first instance what comes to his mind, prepares a rough work and then he reads it again to get a view of his work. In this process he comes across some mistakes or omissions which he corrects subsequently. It is called Draft Editing because first of all in it a draft is prepared and then it is corrected and improved.




From examination point of view Draft Editing is very important because in an examination a candidate is required to edit and correct an unedited draft paragraph or sentence. 

Note : There is no specific pattern of mistakes in the sentence or paragraph. These mistakes may be of commission or omission. There are mistakes of spellings, grammatical mistakes or those of sequence of tenses etc.

There are certain check points required to be observed while editing. First of all, the writer must be sure that he is writing what he thought of or observed. His writing must be in accordance with that. All the required details should be given in the passage or sentence. These should be clear, appropriate and correctly spelled and duly punctuated too.



Steps for Editing in English Grammar
  • Good knowledge of English language.
  • Purpose of editing the work.
  • Spotting and Fixing errors -Factual and Grammatical.
  • Thorough Reading and re-reading the passage.


While editing it should be ensured that -
  • a sentence states its meaning clearly using the right words.
  • Words or sentences are in their right places.
  • Redundant or Duplicate words or sentences are eliminated or deleted.
  •  Words are appropriately  spelled and  punctuation is in place.
  • Omissions are properly detected and corrected.
  • Gap-fill  exercise is made by 'choosing and removing words' method.




Here are some examples to explain the process.



ONE


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.

1. It is a well known historically             historically -historical
2. effect that there is little connect
3. between innate common senses
4. and education qualifications.Some
5. of the successful historical figure
6. and famous beings had no degrees
7. to boast. Some had not even learnt 
8. the basic of alphabet.Today in our day 
9. to day life we often come of such
10. worldly - wise characters whom may 
11. not have gone beyond middle of school.




SOLUTION



The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error in each line. Write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



1. It is a well known historically           historically - historical

2. effect that there is little connect            effect -fact

3. between innate common senses              senses - sense 

4. and education qualifications.Some    education - educational 

5. of the successful historical figure             figure - figures

6. and famous beings had no degrees         beings - persons

7. to boast. Some had not even learnt        boast - boast of

 8. the basic of alphabet.Today in our day    basic - basics

 9. to day life we often come of such     come of - come across

10. worldly - wise characters whom may    whom - who

11. not have gone beyond middle of school.      middle of - middle





TWO


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error of omission in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


1. Success comes those who try and never              Comes to those
2. tire. To a winner one has to learn to
3. strive perseverance, courage and determination
4. Success cannot be achieved a day. The road 
5. to success is not easy one. It is narrow, 
6. rough, patchy, long and full hurdles and
7. obstacles. One has learn to overcome
8. the hurdles and obstacles achieve
9. the desired goal. A little failure not matter.    



SOLUTION:

The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error of omission in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



1.Success comes those who try and never                               Comes to those

2.tire. To a winner one has to learn to                                   be a winner

3.strive perseverance, courage and determination          strive with perseverance

4.Success cannot be achieved a day. The road                        achieved in a

5.to success is not easy one. It is narrow,                               not an easy 

6.rough, patchy, long and full hurdles and                              full of hurdles

7.obstacles. One has learn to overcome                                 has to learn

8.the hurdles and obstacles achieve                                      obstacles to achieve

9.the desired goal. A little failure not matter.                        failure does not




THREE


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


Scientists have find link between prolonged    find - found
exposure to screens and obesity children.      
Children who spends more time using    
technology prone to obesity, a new study
 by researchers suggest. They have observed 
that the average toddler today spends a hour
 watching TV. At the time a child reaches the 
age nine this period extends to more than 
seven hour a day. Children spend much of
 their time engage in one or the other form 
of digital media. It is also observe that 
engaging in media late at night can be high
 destructive to young people's sleep patterns
 which puts them at higher risk of obesity.  











Scientists have find link between prolonged    find - found

exposure to screens and obesity children.       Children- in children

Children who spends more time using                   spends - spend


technology prone to obesity, a new study           prone - are prone

 by researchers suggest. They have observed       suggest - suggests


that the average toddler today spends a hour       a hour - an hour


 watching TV. At the time a child reaches the    At the- By the


age  nine this period extends to more than             age - age of


seven hour a day. Children spend much of          hour - hours


 their time engage in one or the other form       engage - engaging


of digital media. It is also observe that            observe - observed


 engaging in media late at night can be high     high - highly


destructive to young people's sleep patterns     sleep - sleeping


which puts  them at higher risk of obesity.          puts - put








FOUR


The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.

The department of police is a area of                     a - an
administration who remains in maximum
contact to public. Some of the junior
ranked officers which may not be well
educate, remain in touch with the public
more then their officers. This naturally 
gives them a lot of practice experience.
This experience farther gets sufficiently
sharpen by some common sense and 
a highly develop presence of mind.









SOLUTION

The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


The department of police is a area of                                          a - an

administration who remains in maximum                                  who - which

contact to public. Some of the junior                                        to - with

ranked officers which may not be well                                   ranked - ranking

educate, remain in touch with the public                              educate -- educated

more then their officers. This naturally                                 then - than

gives them a lot of practice experience.                                practice - practical

This experience farther gets sufficiently                                farther - further

sharpen by some common sense and                                   sharpen - sharpened

a highly develop presence of mind.                                    develop - developed





FIVE



In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.

A railway station is a place wherein people        wherein - where
by different cultures and attitude converge.
This is given a spectrum of a variety of
hews of life.People exhibit their attitude
towards their fellow beings. They experienced
feelings of pleasure and pains about their
relative and friends. Their weaknesses and strengths
comes out to the forefront on their faces. Some
 experiences joy while others have depressing
feelings by joining and leaving their own people.



SOLUTION

In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


A railway station is a place wherein people                          wherein - where

by different cultures and attitude converge.                                by - of

This is given a spectrum of a variety of                                 is given - gives

hews of life.People exhibit their attitude                                 hews - hues

towards their fellow beings. They experienced           experienced - experience   

feelings of pleasure and pains about their                           pains - pain

relative and friends. Their weaknesses and strengths          relative -  relatives

comes out to the forefront on their faces. Some                comes - come

 experiences joy while others have depressing           experiences - experience

feelings by joining and leaving their own people.                 by - of 



SIX



In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizzy.          dizzy - dizziness
It is not as simple as much people 
think. It is often associates with looking
down to height but it can also be caused
of the problems in inner ear or brain. This 
dizziness is comes with nausea, vomiting,
sweating or difficult in walking. Persistent
vertigo has linked with mental health 
issues. A psychiatric problem may causes
dizziness, and vertigo may lead by depression
and anxiety with an individual. Dizziness 
can happen with anyone at any age but
is commonly in people aged 65 or above








SOLUTION




In the following paragraph that has not been edited, there is one error  in each line. Spot the incorrect word and write the incorrect word and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the correct word  supplied. One is done as an example.


Vertigo is a sensation of spinning dizzy.                        dizzy - dizziness


It is not as simple as much people                               much - many


think. It is often associates with looking                     associates - associated 


down to height but it can also be caused                      to - from


of the problems in inner ear or brain. This                  of - by


dizziness is comes with nausea, vomiting,                  is comes -comes


sweating or difficult in walking. Persistent                 difficult - difficulty


vertigo has linked with mental health                         has - has been


issues. A psychiatric problem may causes                 causes - cause


dizziness, and vertigo may lead by depression           by - to


and anxiety with an individual. Dizziness                  with - in


can happen with anyone at any age but                    with - to


is commonly in people aged 65 or above               commonly - common




 


Saturday, 27 April 2019

PHRASAL VERBS -- Exercises based on questions from different Examination question papers -- For practice


Phrasal Verbs  are usually two worded phrases consisting of   Verb & adverb  or  Verb & preposition.
Mostly phrasal verbs consist of two words but a few consist of three words which always stay together.


Examples:
We should act on the advice of our parents.
They hit upon a plan to get out of the trouble.
We went across the river in a boat.



Consider the following sentences:


1. He brought a watch for me. 

2. His uncle brought up the child.




In the first sentence bring is a transitive verb and it means 'to fetch'. But in the second sentence, another word 'up' is added to it which changes its meaning altogether. Such a word is called a phrasal verb.



Examples : Abide by, bring up, come off, fall out, give up, make up, put on & put off etc.



Phrasal Verbs are of two types : Transitive & Intransitive.



Transitive Phrasal Verb is a verb having an object e.g.

We were alarmed at his weakness.
The hunter aimed at the bird.
John gave up smoking.
The child hit upon a plan.
The principal presided over the meeting.
He quarrelled with me over a trifle.
Children take after their parents.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Transitive Phrasal Verbs because these all are followed by an object. 




Intransitive Phrasal Verb is a verb which is not followed by an object e.g.


Friends fall off in adversity.
He broke down during his speech.
Both the brothers fell out over a trifle.
The autumn season has set in.
I get up at 5 O'clock in the morning.
Fire broke out in the factory.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Intransitive Phrasal Verbs & these all are not followed by any object. 



EXERCISE  NO 1.




Out of the given options, choose one which best expresses the meaning of the bold & in  italics idiom/phrase in the sentence.  



1. John joined the class late in the middle of the session but soon he was able to catch up with other students.

1. To excel others
2. To differ from others
3. To be jealous of others
4. To come to level of others.



2. His father toiled hard to establish his new business but his all plans fell through for want of funds.

1. To be successful
2. To progress slowly
3. To fail.
4. To acclaim high appreciation.



3. The young boy worked hard and was sure to succeed but he drew blank before the interview committee.

1. went through successfully
2. showed no interest in appearing
3. was confused and puzzled.
4. was very serious in appearance.



4. The sudden windfall of riches upon his father has completely turned off his head.

1. To become too haughty.
2. to fall sick.
3. to undergo a big change.
4. to be very thoughtful.



5. He was critical of the boss but for this he had to face the music and lose his promotion last year.

1. To lose interest
2. To bear the consequences.
3. To enjoy others' hostility
4. To show interest in music



6. The boss took John to task last week as he never attends to his duty seriously.

1. allotted more work.
2. To reprimand.
3. To assign important job
4.  To win favour of others



7. Apprehending the arrival of police on the scene, the culprit took to his heels.

1. To walk leisurely
2. To run away. 
3. To conceal one self
4. To prepare for a fight



8. The recent  comments published in the newspapers about the budding artist run him down.



1.     To disparage someone.
2.     To publicise against someone
3.     To make someone week
4.     To feel week and tired




9. Her father tried hard to bring her round but she paid no heed to him.

1. To make one agree/to attend to.
2. To punish someone/to undergo a  change
3. To praise someone/to accept the offer
4. To take out for a walk/to accompany someone





10.  He left no stone un-turned in making his effort to achieve the  target but all this ended in smoke.  

1. To make a futile attempt/to gain cheap popularity
2. To make all out efforts/to go waste.
3. To win favour/to lose interest
4. To go stray/to lose the job





EXERCISE  NO 2.



In the following sentences four alternatives are given for the idiom/phrase used in the sentence.Out of the given options, choose one which best expresses the meaning of the idiom/phrase.


1. As the manager was not in the good books of the boss, he was pushed to the wall.


1. To win undue favour
2. To have no say in the affairs.
3. To be insignificant
4. To attract wrath


2. His brother promised to stand by him through thick and thin but  he backed out at the eleventh hour.

1. To support earnestly
2. To feel helpless
3. To show no interest
4. To vacillate from a promise.


3. The indifferent and negligent attitude of the elder son towards  family affairs will bring about doom for the family one day.


1. To play an important role
2. To be cause of the.
3. To be helpful
4. To make it difficult


4. He was adamant on his decision in the matter but with  the intervention of the boss in the matter he gave in.

1. yielded.

2. To go stronger
3. To bring forth
4. To make feasible


5. As the consensus alluded the matter the boss called an urgent meeting of the staff members to put the heads together.  


1. To show strength
2. To make someone agree
3. To discuss.
4. To seek help of others

6. The doctor has advised him take along morning walk
to work off the excess fat present in his body.

1. To show off
2. To get a treatment
3. To get rid of.
4. To escape criticism

7. The chairman was a little nervous and anxiously tumbled to lead off the proceedings of the meeting.


1. To enjoy oneself
2. To keep a secret
3. To start.
4. To control administration


8. The young man did not want to juggle with the lady by telling a lie about his wealth.  

1. To exaggerate
2. To show off
3. To deceive.
4. To force someone



9.  The young entrepreneur wanted to surpass his competitor in his business but his rival turned tables on him.



1. To accuse someone
2. To quarrel with
3. To reverse someone's action.
4. To hinder someone's action


10. The clever boy passed off the base coin to the dealer in darkness.


1. To push off wrongly.
2. To win a favour
3. To earn livelihood
4. To pay bribe









EXERCISE  NO 3.




Out of the given options, choose one which best expresses the meaning of the  idiom/phrase.  




1. To meet one's waterloo.

1. To be a martyr in war
2. To fight till one's end
3. To meet one's final defeat.
4. To die an ignoble death


2. To take with a grain of salt.

1. To talk in a sensible way
2. To make a correct judgement
3. To listen to someone with a considerable doubt.
4. To make both ends meet with difficulty


3. To eat a humble pie.

1. To eat food of low quality
2. To make a strong request
3. To have to apologise.
4. To be ashamed of


4. To sow wild oats

1. To harvest a good crop 
2. To enjoy irresponsible pleasure in youth.
3. To suffer losses in crops
4. To face great difficulties


5. To  give the devil his due.

1. To encounter with an evil spirit
2. To give credit to a notorious person even.
3. To have relation with wicked person
4. To show mercy on an undeserving person


6. To end in a fiasco.

1. To have an abrupt end
2. To end as an utter failure.
3. To meet with a nice end
4. To have no effect



7. To mince matters

1. To confuse issues.
2. To flatter someone
3. To criticise someone
4. To make a clever statement


8. To throw down the glove.

1. To win laurels
2. To be victorious
3. To accept defeat.
4. To challenge the rival



9. To put cart before the horse.

1. To do things in wrong order.
2. To do a mean job.
3. To irritate someone
4. To be angry with someone


10.  To lay hands on 

1. To extend a helping hand
2. To take possession of.
3. To steal something
4. To gather some information



EXERCISE  NO 4.




Out of the given options, choose one which best expresses the meaning of the  idiom/phrase.  



1.To zero in on

1. To suffer big losses
2. To become a pauper
3. To focus attention on.
4. To show indifference


2. To touch upon

1. To make mention.
2. To show much interest
3. To have sympathy for 
4. To make a favour


3. To straighten out

1.To report to authority
2. To make clear and resolve.
3. To iron clothes
4. To speak in plain terms


4. To reach out  to

1. To arrive somewhere late
2. To extricate someone
3. To ask for help.
4. To stretch one's arm


5. To go off with

1. To steal something.
2. To rush to
3. To make haste
4. To follow someone


6. To fiddle about

1. To tell tales
2. To make statement
3. To waste time doing silly things.
4. To show love for someone



7. To face off

1.To show off
2. To pretend to be
3. To confront.
4. To be afraid of



8. To drop over

1. To visit for a short time.
2. To fall down
3. To suffer losses
4. To stoop


9. To boss about

1. To use excessive authority.
2. To show path 
3. To guide someone
4. To give wrong expression


10. To answer for

1. To be held responsible.
2. To make response
3.  To judge something
4. To make hasty decision






EXERCISE  NO 5.



In the following sentences four alternatives are given for the idiom/phrase used in the sentence.Out of the given options, choose one which best expresses the meaning of the idiom/phrase.


1. The manager is in the habit of crying up his own wares.


1. To shout loudly
2. To praise.
3. To give away
4. To complain about


2. The enquiry officer tried to get at facts of the case.  

1. To establish
2. To arrive at/obtain.
3. To conceal/cover up
4   To deface


3. The poor beggar had nothing with him to fall back upon in his old days.

1. To have recourse to.
2. To make arrangement for
3. To seek help from others
4.  To support someone


4. All the young children looked up to him as their leader.

1. To consider/respect.
2. To expect to be
3. To pose as a
4.  To make a show of


5. The young leader always stood up for better standard of living for the poor.


1. To go against
2. To defend.
3. To oppose
4.  To praise



(Answers: Hint: The correct answer choice ends with a full stop

Wednesday, 17 April 2019

PHRASAL VERBS -- Meaning & Explanation with Examples , Particles- Different Types Important Particles & their meanings.

Phrasal Verbs  are usually two worded phrases consisting of   Verb & adverb  or  Verb & preposition.
Mostly phrasal verbs consist of two words but a few consist of three words which always stay together.


Examples:
We should act on the advice of our parents.
They hit upon a plan to get out of the trouble.
We went across the river in a boat.



Consider the following sentences:


1. He brought a watch for me. 

2. His uncle brought up the child.




In the first sentence bring is a transitive verb and it means 'to fetch'. But in the second sentence, another word 'up' is added to it which changes its meaning altogether. Such a word is called a phrasal verb.



Examples : Abide by, bring up, come off, fall out, give up, make up, put on & put off etc.



Phrasal Verbs are of two types : Transitive & Intransitive.



Transitive Phrasal Verb is a verb having an object e.g.

We were alarmed at his weakness.
The hunter aimed at the bird.
John gave up smoking.
The child hit upon a plan.
The principal presided over the meeting.
He quarrelled with me over a trifle.
Children take after their parents.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Transitive Phrasal Verbs because these all are followed by an object. 

If  there is an object in the sentence, it is positioned in different ways in the sentence.First the object is a noun and it is used after verb and particle e.g. She brought up the children. Secondly it is between verb and the particle e.g. She brought the children up.  Thirdly it is a pronoun and it is between verb and particle. She brought her up.


Intransitive Phrasal Verb is a verb which is not followed by an object e.g.


Friends fall off in adversity.
He broke down during his speech.
Both the brothers fell out over a trifle.
The autumn season has set in.
I get up at 5 O'clock in the morning.
Fire broke out in the factory.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Intransitive Phrasal Verbs & these all are not followed by any object. 


Here is a list of adverbs or particles frequently used in phrasal verbs. To know the meaning of phrasal verb it is necessary to know about basic meaning of the particle. A particle may have more than one meanings and thus make meanings of phrasal verbs accordingly.

about, after, above, against, across, along, around, at, away, among, ahead, behind, before, between, by, down, for, from, into, in, of, off, on, out, out of, over, to, through, towards, under, upon, with, without etc.

Please note that the use of a particle with a verb forming a phrasal verb may or may not change the meaning of the whole word. For example these two sentences -He finished his work or He finished off his work , have the same meaning. She spread the cloth on the ground. She spread out the cloth on the ground.

Basically the particle is used with its original meaning. For example the word 'down' means to move to a lower stage. When it is used as a particle it has the same meaning as in case of - Bring down, Keep down etc. This will bring down temperature of the day. The government tried to keep down the rate of inflation. Here are a few of particles discussed with examples.

AT

The particle 'at' is very frequently used in writing and speaking English to express something or someone in space or time.

--At is used with many verbs to express direction of an activity towards someone or something in space or time. For example : look at, laugh at, stare at, jeer at, aim at, frown at.

--At is used to express when someone hits, holds or strikes someone. For example : Strike at , hurl at,  get at.


ABOUT

The particle 'about' is used mainly  to express relation between  verb and its object. For example : To think about, to state about,

--About is used with many verbs to express someone's movement in different directions. For example 'throw about'. It is used to show that one is moving in different directions making some violent actions, it is the verb that elucidates the related action. For example Rush about, run about, move about, throw about. 

--About is used with many verbs to express someone's movement without any purpose or use. For example : hanker about, hang about , wander about.At is used with many verbs to express direction 


---About is used with many verbs to express that something is happening or someone is making it happen. For example : Bring about, set about, come about.

---About is used with many verbs to express something or someone surrounding or enclosing. For example : throw about, hedge about. It gives the meaning of 'around' here.  Throw about her arms, hedge about wires etc.



AROUND

The particle 'around' is used mainly  to express movement of something r someone in a circle or curve. For example : Turn around, go around, stroll around. Round is also used with verbs instead of around to give similar meaning.


---Around is used with many verbs to express a movement of someone or something in a round direction. For example Walk around, move around, dance around, rush around, gather around.

---Around is used with many verbs to express a movement in someone's periphery without any job or purpose. For example : Hanker around, loiter around, mess around. 'About' is also used in place of around.

---Around is used with many verbs meaning thereby enclosing or encircling. For example : Throw around, gather around, centre around, revolve around. Round  is also used here.---

---Around is used with many verbs to express avoiding something or someone. For example : Skirt around, work around, get around. 


AWAY

The particle 'away' is used to express movement of something or someone from one place to another place. "Off' used in place of 'away' has also the similar meaning. For example : Take away, do away, walk away. The particle 'away' is generally followed by preposition 'with' or 'from'.  For example :  Do away with, walk away from, run away from.

---Away is used to express avoiding some activity, place, person or situation. For example - Keep children away from fire. Look away, walk away from.

--- Away is used to show separation from some person, a group of persons,some happening or some place.  For example : break away, strip away, peel away.

---Away is used to express removal from a particular place. It is used with a verb to show that a particular thing or situation is no more required, it should be removed from scene. For example: Throw away, do away with, frighten away.

---Away is used to show disappearance of someone or something from the scene. For example : Fade away, pass away, wear away, die away. Her voice died away in din.

---Away is used to express putting things in a safe place for the purpose of hiding or storing. For example : Pack away, bury away, store away, stash away, lock away,shut away, clear away, put away. 

---Away is used to express that an activity or process continues for a long time. For example 'work away' means to work hard for a long time. Bang away, pump away, hack away, plug away.


BACK


The particle 'Back' is used to express movement of something or someone to a place that they were in before. For example : Go back , Move back, Come back.

--- Back is used with a verb to express return of something or someone to a position where it was earlier. For example : Come back, Go back, Push back, Turn back, Look back, Push back.

---Back  is used with a verb to express position of someone or something from a central point or from where some action is taking place . For example :  Hold back, Stand back, Stay back, Pull back, Sit back, Call back.

---Back  with a verb gives the meaning of relating to past time or think about something happened in the past. look back, date back, take back, flash back, throw back, think back.

---Back  with a verb gives the meaning of restoring something or someone to a place or person where or with whom it was earlier. give back, pay back, send back, win back, get back.

--- Back is used with a verb to express repeating or returning to an action. For example : hit back, reply back, report back, strike back, fight back, call back, shoot back. 


BEFORE

--Before is used to express position of someone or something in front of or prior in terms of time or space. For example : go before, reach before, appear before, lie before, come before.


BY

By is used with a verb to form a phrasal verb giving different meanings. For example : Get by, come by, pass by.

-- By is used as an adverb or a preposition to form a phrasal verb to show movement past or close to someone or someone. For example : Go by, stand by, sit by, get by, push by, pass by.

-- By in a phrasal verb sometimes gives the meaning of visiting someone or a place casually or for a short time. For example stop by, sit by, call by, drop by, go by, come by, run by.

---By in a phrasal verb gives the impression of consistency or loyalty in an activity meaning thereby that one is always consistent or loyal in his actions. For example abide by, swear by, stick by, live by, stand by.

---By is used in a phrasal verb to express readiness or preparedness of something o a person. It means that a person or a thing is kept in readiness or preparedness for something that is going to happen. For example : Lay by, stand by, put by.



DOWN 

----Down is used with a verb forming a phrasal verb giving the impression of movement from a higher place to lower one.  For example : Go down, pull down, run down, get down, come down, sink down, take down, set down, pass down.

----Down is used with a verb to form a phrasal verb showing movement of a person or a thing from standing position to sitting or lying position or of putting something on the surface or ground. For example : Kneel down, bow down, bend down, plump down, lie down, sit down, set down stick down, reach down.

----Down shows movement on horizontal level rather than vertical one in place or time. For example : bear down or pass down, hand down.

----Down with a verb forming a phrasal verb gives the meaning of lowering or decreasing in degree, size or intensity. For example : Tone down, slow down, cut down, scale down, play down, cool down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of  fastening, fixing or attaching to someone or something. For example : Nail down, tie down, pin down, stamp down, screw down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the impression of attacking, collapsing or destroying. For example : Pull down, shoot down, grind down, cast down, fall down, chop down, hew down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the impression of completion or failing of an activity. For example : Shut down, break down. settle down, let down, step down, turn down, lay down.

---Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of drinking. For example : gulp down, swallow down, drink down, gobble down, wolf down, wash down.

-- Down in a phrasal verb gives the meaning of  writing or bringing on record. For example : Put down, note down, mark down, scribble down, lay down, jot down, copy down. 



SOME EXERCISES OF USE OF PHRASAL VERBS FOR PRACTICE  :

Exercise No. 1.

The following Phrasal Verbs have more than one meanings. Complete the following sets of sentences with one of these Phrasal Verbs.

Go through, Pick up, Set out, Give up, Take off, 

1. The children ................. their clothes and jumped into the river.
    The aeroplane ................. at the scheduled time. 

2. The young man has decided to ............... smoking.
     The rebels are not likely to ............... in near future.

3. The child is weak in his studies but he will .............with others soon.
     I shall try to ............you ......... in the morning while going to my office.

4. What  ................  your mind when you saw her ?
     I ................ all my pockets but did not find my purse.

5. They decided to ............... on their journey in the morning.
     She  began to .............. her all gifts ........... on the table.

(ANSWERS : 1.Took off 2. Give up  3. Make up  4. Went through  5. Set out.)



Exercise No. 2.


From the given phrasal verbs choose the following blanks with appropriate ones.

Go round, Come up, Set off, Show round, Go up , Let in, ask for, Get to, Lay on. 

Set off, go up , get to,  let in, show round, go round , lay on , ask for, Come up


Last Sunday, I with my friends had a holiday trip to a temple on a nearby  hill.  We all  

1............   .......... in a car early in the morning.  We were soon  2. .............  .......... some hair 

raising steep roads.  We all  3. ..........  .......... the temple after about  two hours. We had to wait 

for half an hour outside the temple before we were 4. ..........   ............ We hired a local guide 

who 5. ............ us ...........While 6............ ......... with the guide, there were a number of questions 

which 7. ......... ............  about the history of the temple. After we saw the temple we  started our 

downward journey and we reached a nearby valley. Lunch was  8. ........ .......... for all those who 

had 9. ............  .......... it because we had already taken packed lunch with us. We all had a 

memorable trip to a spectacular picnic spot.


(ANSWERS : 1.Set off,  2. going up, 3. got to,  4. let in, 5. showed round, 6.going round ,7. Came up,8.  laid on , 9.  asked for. )














































 He hurled a stone at me.  He struck at the door with a rod.















Monday, 11 March 2019

PHRASAL VERBS ------Meaning & Their Usage with explanation & examples




A combination of words that makes a complete sense or meaning is called a sentence.


A sentence is used to
---Name a person or thing
---say something about that person or thing

The word or words denoting the person or thing about which something is said are called the subject of the sentence.

The word or words which say something about the person or thing denoted by the subject in the sentence are called the Predicate.

The subject and predicate are absolutely necessary to make a complete sense in a sentence.The subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it comes after the predicate. Just in this sentence to put emphasis in the sentence.Down went the building like a pack of cards. In Imperative sentences the subject is implied and is left out as - Stand up.Here the subject 'you' is left out.

A group of words that makes a sense but not a complete sense, is called a Phrase. 

Examples :

People have come to see the fair from far and near.
The sun rises in the east.
She is a lady of virtues.

In the above sentences words in italics form a  phrase.

 A clause is a group of words forming a part of a larger sentence and having a subject and a predicate of its own and  makes a complete sense.

A Clause though is a part of a sentence yet it is independent in itself having its own subject and predicate where as a phrase also forms a part of the sentence but it is not independent in its meaning. No doubt both of these make their own sense. 



Example of a Clause:


I went to school when I was five years old.




Phrasal Verbs  are usually two worded phrases consisting of   Verb & adverb  or  Verb & preposition. Mostly phrasal verbs consist of two words but a few consist of three words which always stay together.


Examples:
We should act on the advice of our parents.
They hit upon a plan to get out of the trouble.
We went across the river in a boat.



Consider the following sentences:


1. He brought a watch for me. 

2. His uncle brought up the child.




In the first sentence bring is a transitive verb and it means 'to fetch'. But in the second sentence, another word 'up' is added to it which changes its meaning altogether. Such a word is called a phrasal verb.



Examples : Abide by, bring up, come off, fall out, give up, make up, put on & put off etc.



Phrasal Verbs are of two types : Transitive & Intransitive.



Transitive Phrasal Verb is a verb having an object e.g.

We were alarmed at his weakness.
The hunter aimed at the bird.
John gave up smoking.
The child hit upon a plan.
The principal presided over the meeting.
He quarrelled with me over a trifle.
Children take after their parents.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Transitive Phrasal Verbs because these all are followed by an object. 




Intransitive Phrasal Verb is a verb which is not followed by an object e.g.


Friends fall off in adversity.
He broke down during his speech.
Both the brothers fell out over a trifle.
The autumn season has set in.
I get up at 5 O'clock in the morning.
Fire broke out in the factory.


The words in italics in the above sentences are Intransitive Phrasal Verbs & these all are not followed by any object. 



Following are some of the examples of transitive and intransitive phrasal verbs :



This all will only add to his woes.
The patient was admitted into the hospital.
Her father did not agree with her in this matter.
All the passengers alighted from the train.
His father allotted to him this piece of land.
I was not amused at his jokes.
The stranger apologised to the host for his bad behaviour.
Please attend to what the boss says.
A gold medal was awarded to him.



The couple was blessed with a son.
The merchant backed out of his promise.
All the friends backed up him.
Some robbers broke into his house at night. 
All our efforts to bring him round to our views failed.
The old woman burst into tears.
Trees bring forth new leaves in spring.

Let me call up your name.
I called on him yesterday.
I called  at his but he was not at home.
We should call in a doctor.
The boy called out at the top of his voice.
The workers called off their strike yesterday.
Road accidents carry off a large number of people every year.
You should carry out  the orders of your boss.
His manager  will carry on the work in the absence of the boss.
On my way to office I came across an old friend of mine.
He comes of a  noble family. 
His marriage comes off on Monday.
How did you come by this book?
At last her father came round to her views.
We should cut down our expenses.
His comments cut her to the quick.
The speaker had to cut short his speech.

The horse dashed off down the road.
The waves dashed on the rocks.
It is your turn to deal out the cards.
I shall deal with him as I like.
We deal at M/s Mathew &  co.
They deal in sugar.
The examinations are drawing near.
The manager is drawing up the report.
All the friends drew back from him.


Please excuse me from attending the office today.
She expected an urgent message from her father.
The boss exempted her from payment of her dues.
Her sister excels her in dancing.


My all advice fell flat on him.
All our plans fell through for want of money.
On my way home, I fell in with a group of singers.
The robbers fell on the travellers.

Both the friends are getting on well with each other.
With a  great courage he got over all the difficulties.
He got into trouble through his own folly.
How are you getting along with your business these days?
All of a sudden the bridge gave way.
Let him go on his job.
I have gone through the book.
May he grow in wisdom as he grows in years!

This rule does not hold good in this case.
I hit upon a plan to get out of the trouble.
She will not hide the truth from her parents.
His opinion does not hold ground in this case.
All the staff members were held up to see off the chief guest.


I went there to inquire after his health.
We should not interfere with them in their affairs.
The police is inquiring into the incident.

The jury decided to jump on the proposal.

The new entrant is unable to keep up with others.
In winter we wear woollen clothes to keep off cold.
Both the brothers are keeping on well with each other.
We should not keep back anything from him.

He is lost to all sense of shame.
Look up this word in the dictionary,please.
The old man was looking for his lost purse.
We should not look down upon the poor.
Children are looking forward to summer vacation.
Children always look up to their parents.

You will have to make good his loss.
The child made up a false story to conceal the truth.
The old man made up his mind to start a new business.
The train was late but it made up  time.
The thief made good his escape in the darkness.
Both the brothers made up their difference.
The thief made off with all of their belongings.
Can you make out the meaning of this sentence?

The child owes to his parents for his progress in life.
He is occupied with his new business these days.
His speech offends against decency in manners.
Her parents are not opposed to her decision.


The swindler passed for a gentleman.
It is difficult for me to put up with such a  mean person.
He put me off with a lame excuse. 
She put out the light before going to bed.
The child was placed under the care of his mother.
All the members placed their confidence in the chairman.
The officer found negligent was placed under suspension.
Nothing can prevent him from going there.
Do not put off till tomorrow what you can do today.
We pushed on at a quick pace.
We must pull the business through somehow. 
We should put up something for the rainy day.
The father felt puffed up at the success of his son.


A bad workman quarrels with his tools.
The stag quenched its thirst at a pond.
He quarrelled  with his neighbor over a trifle.
He quoted references from scriptures in his speech.


The company is running short of money.
The car ran over the old man.
Their family has run into a large debt these days.
The goods train ran into a stationary engine.
After the day's hard labour my father feels run down.
Sands of life are running out.
She is rejoicing at his success.
They rallied round their leader for fighting.
The swindler robbed her of her money


My father set up a new factory last year.
The old lady set out on a long journey.
The winter season has since set in.
The new teacher set all the miscreants right.
You should set about your work at once.
He set on the boys to fight.
The manager set a meeting up with the chairman.
The police stand by to avert any unpleasant situation.
My all friends stood by me in adversity.
He was not strong enough to stand against me.
All the fellow colleagues sided with me in this matter.
He is sure to succeed in his new business.


Children take after their parents.
The child took a rope for a snake.
I was taken aback on hearing his remarks.
His son has taken to the bad habit of drinking.
He took off his shirt and waived it in air.
The aeroplane took off within seconds.
The students took down what the teacher stated.
The principal took up the matter with the parents of students.
The thief took to his heels on seeing a policeman.
The child did not turn off the tap.
Please turn on the tap.
The manager has not turned up so far.
He turned down my request to him for help.
Will you please turn down TV as I am a little unwell?
Please turn up the music. I like this song very much.
Hard work has told upon his health.



Why are you whiling away your time?
This piece of cloth will wear well.
The day is wearing away.
Things wear out in course of time.
Finally the manager won over the boss to his side.
The accountant worked out the total cost of  the project.
His plans did not work out well this time.
People warm up themselves in winter by sitting in front of a fireplace.


The young lady yearns for her love.
He never yielded to odd circumstances.
The dogs yelled at the beggar.



(your comments/suggestions about the post solicited)
(Exercise for practice in the following post)