Thursday, 14 July 2022



Words perform different functions in a sentence. A part of speech of a word is identified according to its form, usage and structure in a sentence. Different parts of speech are Noun, Pronoun, Verb, Adjective, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and interjection.
A  word acquires its part of speech according to its use in the given sentence. The same word acts as different part of speech in different sentences according to its place and use. The same word can be a noun and verb, an adjective and an adverb or a conjunction and a preposition. Following sentences illustrate the point :

He carried a bag on his back.  (Noun)
He entered from the back door. (Adjective)

Please close the door. (Verb)
He is my close friend. (Adjective)
She sat close to her mother. (Adverb)

All were present there. (Pronoun)
All members were present there.(Adjective)
He lost his all in gambling. (Noun)

He feels well now. (Adverb)
His ball fell into the well. (Noun)
He drank well water. (Adjective)
Tears welled up in her eyes. (Verb)

I did not see him since Monday. (Preposition)
I did not see him since he left. (Conjunction)

They reached soon after. (Adverb)
She left after they arrived. (Conjunction)
She left after their arrival.(Preposition)

Although no specific rule can be assigned yet there are certain tips to identify different parts of speech. 

-- An article precedes a noun. i.e. a book, an apple.
-- A noun or pronoun is used as subject or object in a sentence.
--Nouns and Pronouns have their gender forms. 
--Nouns, Pronouns and Verbs have their numbers. 
--An adjective qualifies a noun or a pronoun and an adverb  qualifies a verb, adjective or adverb etc.
--Some words are used as both adjective and adverbs.
--Adjectives and Adverbs have their degree forms. 
-- A conjunction enjoins a sentence with a sentence, a clause  with a clause and a word with a word.
--An interjection expresses feelings of happiness, sorrow or fear etc.
--An interjection, if removed from the sentence, makes no change in the meaning of the sentence. 
--A preposition precedes a noun or a pronoun.
-- A preposition joins any part of speech with any other part
   of speech.
-- A gerund acts as a noun and is used as subject and object.
-- A participle (present and past) is used as an adjective and qualifies a noun or pronoun.

In Competitive examinations there are questions of sentences with words whose part of speech is to be identified out of the given options or otherwise. 

Here follow sentences with their solution for practice. In these cases part of speech of all the words besides that of the word in question has to be identified to find the solution. 

 1.The appreciated value of all the assets has been displayed .
2. I appreciate the decision taken by you.
3. Appreciating his action, she congratulated him.
4. Down went the building like a pack of cards. 
5. He has seen many ups and downs in his life.
6. Down with the traitors.
7. Since when have you been studying in this college? 
8.  Since you are sick, you should not go to office today. 

ANSWERS :1. Adjective 2. Verb 3. Participle 4. Adverb 5. Noun 6. Verb 7. Preposition 8. Conjunction





1. You are paying less attention to your studies these days.

1. Adverb
2. Adjective
3. Intensifier
4. Noun 

(Answer - In this sentence you is Pronoun, Subject, paying is verb, attention is noun, object. Less is second degree of adjective Little and qualifies noun, attention. It is an adjective.)

2. Sit down and rest a while.

1. Noun
2. Adjective
3. Adverb
4. Intensifier
(Answer -  In this sentence sit is a verb, down is adverb and is conjunction, rest is a verb while represents time and it is a noun. It is preceded by an article a. )

3. All the pilgrims rested for a while under the bunyan tree.

1. Verb
2. Adverb
3. Preposition
4. Place value

(Answer -  In this sentence pilgrim is a noun, rested is a verb and  bunyan tree is a noun. A preposition precedes a noun. So under is a preposition.) 

4. When people found that the jewel was in the records of Rahim, they gave it to him.

1. Noun
2. Adverb
3. Pronoun
4. Conjunction

(Answer -  In this sentence people is a noun and is subject, found is a verb, jewel is a noun  and is object. They is a pronoun and subject, gave is a verb and "it" is a pronoun and object.  Nouns and pronouns form Subject and Object ) 

5. The wonderful statue of the leader welcomes all the people to the city.

1. Adjective
2. Noun
3. Object
4. Adverb

(Answer -  In this sentence welcomes  is a verb, people is a noun  and is object. Statue is a noun and is subject. Wonderful is an adjective and it qualifies noun statue )


1. She truthfully answered the detective's questions.

1. Noun
2. Verb
3, Adjective
4. Adverb

2. The children were walking through the forest.

1. Adjective
2. Adverb
3. Verb
4. Preposition

3." Bravo ! well done, my boys!" said the captain. 

1. Noun
2. Pronoun
3. Conjunction
4. Interjection

4. Ravi was declared as the winner because he had hit the most number of fours and sixes.

1. Adverb
2. Clause
3. Interjection
4. Conjunction

5. The building is very ancient. 

1. Auxiliary Verb
2. Transitive Verb
3. Intransitive Verb
4. Phrasal Verb

Tuesday, 7 June 2022



----Explanation with Examples 

An article though apparently is a small part in a sentence yet it has an important role in providing a sensible meaning of the sentence. It cannot be just dubbed as trivial as it appears to be. So its proper use at an appropriate place in a sentence is very necessary.

An article is an adjective but it is not termed as an adjective. It is categorised under the head determiners. 

An article describes or introduces a noun and  thus it is placed before a noun. Despite its position, an article is not called an adjective. 


--If an adjective precedes a noun, an article is placed before adjective.

 For example -
An   interesting story.

 In this sentence 'story' is a noun and 'interesting' an adjective and 'an' is an article.

--If an adverb precedes an adjective used prior to a noun the article is placed before the adverb. 

For example -
A very interesting story.
Story is a noun, interesting an adjective, very an adverb and an is an article.

-- In case of words like as, so,how, too etc. an article a or an is used between adjective and noun.

For example -
So large a tree, how difficult a sum, so nice a picture, as beautiful a child etc.

-- In case of words like All, both, half or double etc. the article 'the' is used after these words and before noun.
For example --
Both the girls, half the amount, all the boys etc.

But in case of whole or complete 'the' is used before these words.

For example- 
The whole luggage, The complete work etc.

-- In case of exclamatory sentences the article is used before adjective.

For example --
What a beautiful scene!
Such an interesting book!
What a lovely weather!

-- In case of comparative degree of an adjective article 'a' is used before it.

For example-
He is a better singer than a painter.
It is a worse situation than that  we feared.

An article is different from an adjective in the sense that it describes a noun but it does not describe a pronoun whereas an adjective describes both a noun and a pronoun.

There are two articles used --- A, An,  and The.

Articles A and An are used for singular noun which is not specific for example , a book or an apple.

Article The is used to express a specific noun as 'the book'. 'The' describes a particular book. This is clear in the following sentences.

There lived a rabbit in a forest. ........1
The rabbit lived in a burrow near a lion's den in the forest. .......2

In the sentence at Sr. no. 1 'a rabbit'  describes any single rabbit and a forest describes a single unspecified forest. 
But in the sentence 2 'the rabbit' and 'the forest' describe  about a particular rabbit and a particular forest respectively which are refered to in sentence no. 1.

A and An are  in a way shortened form of one and are used for single nouns. One acts as an adjective in a sentence. 

A and an articles are used for countable nouns.

For example :

I have a book.  It means any single book.

I have one book. It means a specified number one of book. 

Article The is used for a specific noun. It is used for singular as well as plural nouns. It is used for countable and uncountable nouns. 

For example :
He drank the water contained in the jug.

I read the book you gave me.
I read the books you gave me.

Application as well as omission of articles in a sentence is equally important. Just as an omission of  an article distorts the meaning of a sentence similarly unnecessary application of an article in a sentence also disturbs its meaning.

A noun used in a general sense does not take any article with it. 

For example : 

Man is mortal.

In this sentence the word man is used in general terms so carries no article. 

But in the following sentence,

I saw a man in the street.

 the word man describes any single unspecific man moving in the street.

The man I saw in the street is a shopkeeper.

In this sentence 'the man' describes about a particular man who is a shopkeeper and was seen by me in the street.

Here follow some sentences for explanation.



Find error in the following sentence.

1. It is only after the rains are over, farmers come to know how much loss they have caused to crops.

2. A hand that rocks the cradle rules over the world.

3. It is a big relief when the examinations are over. 

4. He presented her a copy of  latest version of the book.

5. He searched his pocket and found one rupee coin in it.


1. 'The rains' denotes some specific rains whereas it is in a general sense. So 'rains' instead of 'the rains'.

2.  Hand is used here in a specific sense i.e. ' the hand of the mother'. So it should be 'The hand' that rocks the .....

3. ' The examinations' means some specific examinations but here it is used in a general sense. So examinations instead of the examinations.

4. A copy of 'the latest' version of the book.

5. And found ' a one rupee coin' .



There lived two crows on 1......... tree standing on the bank of 2......... pond. In the hollow trunk of 3.......... tree there lived  4...........snake.  5......... snake used to eat eggs of 6........ crows. Both 7........ crows were distressed of it. One day 8 ....... princess with her soldiers came there. They sat on the bank of 9..........pond  to take rest . The princess took off her ornaments and placed them on the ground.  10........ crow hit upon 11...... plan.  It carried away all 12...... ornaments of the princess in its beak and threw them in the hollow trunk of 13........ tree. The soldiers followed 14....... crow and started searching the trunk of the tree. They found 15........ snake there. They killed the snake and took away 16........ ornaments.  The crows thus succeeded in getting rid of 17....... snake. Both 18...... crows started living happily in their nest on 19.....tree.


1. The teacher advised the students to pay an attention to their studies.

2. We have been visiting this city for last five years but we never went to his place.

3. Whenever he comes to my house he is always in hurry.

4. This candidate appears to be a most likely choice of parties of both the sides.

5. It took them about hour to complete their work and get  ready to accompany us.


1. He has been living with his family in same house since his childhood.

2. The more a man gets , more he desires.

3. The poor are always contented whereas rich are never happy.

4. The third and the fourth chapters of this book are very interesting. 

5. Nobody likes a person with bad temper like him.

6. All the members of the club have been instructed to follow an uniform code of conduct.

7. I can never forget kindness with which he treated me.

8. I found that he was in right whereas his brother was in the wrong. 

9. The day before yesterday he left for Europe by the air. 

10. There is need of finding out an early solution of the problem to avoid further complications. 



 1. to pay attention. 2. the last five years 3. in a hurry. 4. the most likely. 5. about an hour.


1. ....the same house 2. ...the more he desires 3. ....the rich are.... 4. ....and  fourth 5. ....with a bad temper... 6. .... a uniform code 7. .....forget the kindness  8. .......he was in the right.
9. .... by air. 10 .....a need of ..... 


Find error in the following sentence and write answers in Comments box.

1. Suddenly we heard loud noise in the street.
2. He did not go to his office today as he is having headache.
3. Such a alarming situation of unemployment in the country! 
4. He being a humble man will certaily extend a helping hand towards you.


Once a saint went into ......... forest. There he saw ......... lion trapped in ...... iron cage. ........lion on seeing ........ saint requested him to free him from ........ cage. The saint taking pity on him decided to free .........lion. He said to .......lion,"I am ready to help you but I am afraid that when you come out you will kill me." The lion replied,"I promise I shall not harm you." Believing upon ......lion the saint opened ....... cage. On coming out of ....... cage, the lion said to ......saint," I have been hungry for ......... last so many days. I shall kill you and eat your flesh." The saint was taken aback. In the meantime ....... fox reached there. Both of them narrated ......... whole incident to her. She, on hearing them, shouted,"I am surprised. How such.... big lion can be trapped in such ....... small cage?" The lion on hearing this jumped and went into ........ cage to prove that he was sitting in that cage. As soon as ....lion went inside the cage, ........ fox closed the door of ........ cage. The saint heaved .......sigh of relief. He thanked.......... fox and went on his way.





Thursday, 19 May 2022


 A word expressing a thing, place, person, quality or state of condition, position or attitude is called a Noun.

In other words a noun is the name of a person, place,thing or a quality. It is generally formed of one word like book, crow or honesty etc.

 But sometimes it is formed of more than one words like Bookworm or Armchair etc. Book and worm separately are nouns and have their meanings but these two combined also form a noun which has a different meaning.

A compound noun is also of three words  like 
Father - in - law.

Besides a noun with another noun, a compound noun is formed of a verb, an adjective and a preposition with a noun.

A compound noun is formed of  :-

Noun +Noun      

Bathroom, Watermark

Adjective + Noun

Roundtable, Prime- Minister.

Verb + Noun

Playing card,  Moving cart.

Preposition + Noun

Underworld, Overtime.

There is no specific way of writing a compound noun. It can be in either way, sometimes by adding hyphen between two words or without a hyphen in between. 

In case of a noun with more than two words there is a hyphen between words.

For example :

Step-son, take-away, Mother-in-law, 

 Classroom, Blackboard. 

But while writing, a
 particular method has to be observed. 

For example 
In case of Blackboard and Black board:
These two words have different meanings. 

Black Board means any board which is black in colour. But in case of Blackboard it is a board black in colour which a teacher uses for teaching students. Similarly take away written separately means to snatch away. But take-away has a particular mode of sending things out of the premises where these are stored or are lying. It also means some message. 

A particular care has to be taken while changing these compound nouns from singular to plural or vice versa. Of the two or three words forming a compound noun the word giving the sense of a noun or the doer has to be changed. 

As in case of Mother-in-law it is mother the main word making a noun and not in-law. So plural will be of mother and not in-law. Its plural will be Mothers - in - law.
But in case of the word only in-law, it will be in-laws.

Some compound words worth studying.


Book- Fair
Carbon paper
Father- in - law
Flower arrangement
Full moon
Master copy
On looker
Passer by
Time table
Upper class
Water tank
Zebra crossing

These words require consideration 
while changing their number.


Book- Fairs
Carbon papers
Fathers- in - law
Flower arrangements
Full moons
Master copies
On lookers
Passers by
Time tables
Upper classes
Water tanks
Zebra crossings

Here are some examples of sentences with compound nouns containing errors relating to their number given in an examination.

1. Last year four commander-in-chiefs were promoted.
2. The passer-bys halted and took rest there.
3. The zebras crossing are for the use of padestrians.
4. Four stairs-carpet were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four walls clock struck four simultaneously.

1. Last year four commanders-in-chief were promoted.
2. The passers-by halted and took rest there.
3. The zebra crossings are for the use of padestrians.
4. Four stair-carpets were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four wall clocks struck four simultaneously.



Find error in the following sentences.Mark the part which contains the error.

1. Those ladies along with/(1) their mother-in-laws have/(2) gone to attend a family function in the city./(3) NE/(4)

2. She was combing her hairs /(1) which had messed up due to /(2) fast moving wind in the ground./(3) NE(4)

3. The company has requisitioned /(1) more troops from its headquarter to /(2) handle the situation in the city./(3) /NE(4)

4. The police is trying to find out /(1)the whereabout of the culprit/(2)  who is still at large./(3) /NE(4)

5. This piece of land is a bone of contention/(1) between two brothers and /(2) they are always at  loggers-head with each other./(3) /NE(4) 


1. (2) 2. ( 1) 3. (2) 4. (2)  5. (3)


Find out error in the following sentences.

1. The world of today is divided into the groups of haves and haves not.
2. Girls students always excel boy students in the examination.
3. Men after men went to the mall to purchase goods.
4. The committee is looking into the criterions required for the new post.
5. Books fairs are organised these days to inculcate habit of reading books among people. 


1. haves and have-nots
2 Girl students
3. Man after man
4. Criteria
5. Book fairs


1. The sales-man went doors - to - doors to sell his goods.
2. Soon a five stars hotel will be constructed near this mall.
3. She has gone to attend her sister's-in law marriage.
4. We went to John's and Lucy's house yesterday but it was locked.
5. Trees after trees were felled to construct a housing colony.
6. The mother was feeding the child by putting spoonsful of pudding in its mouth.
7. Two man servants of the hotel were on leave on that day.
8. She gathered some twigs and handsful of rose flowers.
9. Piles after piles of debris were removed from the site.
10. Commander-in-chiefs of all the regiments attended the seminar.


1. door -to -door
2. five star hotel
3.  sister in law's
4. John and Lucy's 
5. Tree after tree was
6. spoonfuls
7. men servants
8. handfuls
9. Pile after pile ....was
10. Commanders-in-chief


Friday, 21 January 2022

Error Spotting (Verb - Proper Position of Verb in a Sentence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN


ERROR SPOTTING --- Proper Placing of a verb in a Sentence

A verb has an important place in a sentence. It is necessary that an appropriate form of a verb is used at a proper place in a sentence. It is because other words like subject, object or adverb etc.  in the sentence relate to a verb in the sentence. 

The importance of a verb can be judged from the fact that if one is to write a sentence of one word, that sentence  is of a verb. For example, 'Go' is a single word that carries all the meaning in itself and forms a sentence in imperative form.  

In competitive examinations, there are questions of errors relating to the incorrect form or position of a verb in a sentence.

Here follow some illustrations of it.

In negative or interrogative sentences, there is an error in the use of a singular first form of the verb with do or does.
 Similarly. with did the second form of the verb is used. e.g.

He does not goes to school.
Does he goes to school?
He did not went to school.
Did he went to school?

Inappropriate use of modal verbs with main verbs. 

e.g. He has went with his brother. 

Some verbs like need and dare are used both as a modal verb and main verb. In their cases, s or es and infinitive are not used with them when these are used as a modal verb.

There are errors of  --

-- the use of an abstract noun in place of a verb, 

-- the use of inversion of a verb in the case of a simple assertive sentence.

-- the  use of a participle in place of a verb.

-- incorrect use of a form of a verb of Voice or Narration in a sentence.

For example 
He told that he is on leave that day.
This poem is wrote by a famous poet.

--incorrect use of not with a phrasal verb. Words of a phrasal verb are not separated. For example - 
He told me not to go out in rain. 
It is wrong to say 
He told me to not go out in rain. 

These errors require to be identified for their  rectification. 

Here follow some sentences with such errors for understanding and error rectification.


1. The father could not understand why was his daughter so sad.

2. On entering the room, I found all the books lie on the floor.

3. I would have called him if I had saw him there.

4. You should be presented this box to him.

5. He need to understand your problems.

6. You may need hire a taxi to reach your destination.


1. Inversion in this sentence, 'why was his daughter' is incorrect. It being an assertive sentence, this part should be 'why his daughter was.....' .
2. In this sentence, 'I' is subject, 'found' is its verb, and 'all the books object. Lie is a verb without any subject. It describes the noun 'books' but the verb cannot describe a noun it should be an adjective, it should be a participle as an adjective 'lying'.
3. This is a conditional sentence, In the conditional part of a sentence, third form of verb is used with 'had' So it should be '...if I had seen him..' 
4. This sentence with the verb 'be presented' is in passive form. But is should be in active form. So it is 'You should present this box to him'. 
5. Need in this sentence is a modal verb like should, can or would etc. With a modal verb an infinitive is not used. It is 'He need understand your problems.  

6. In this sentence, 'Need' is used as a main verb. 'May' is a helping verb. With main verb, need, an infinitive, 'to hire' is required.



Find out errors in the following sentences and rectify them.

1. On reaching there, I found that the house of my friend is situated in the farthest corner of the village.

2. He told her that if he goes to his office he would take her along with him.

3. The labourer while digging earth found a pitcher full of coins bury under the ground.

4. The passerby asked the young man which road did lead to the nearest market.

5. He preferred to join his father's business instead of joining a government job after he completes his education.


1. friend was situated...  2. ...if he went to.....  3.....coins buried under...   
4. ....which road led to.....  5. ......after he completed. 


Find out errors in the following sentences and mark their relative part as answers. Mark NE in case there is no error.

1. The general flanked by a large(1) number of armed soldiers was (2) headed towards the enemy's post.(3) NE(4).

2. His father assured his son that he need (1) not to worry about the money (2) required by him as he possessed enough of it with him.(3) NE(4)

3. The children felt much amused (1) when they saw a juggler (2) while played in the garden in the evening.(3) NE (4)

4. I came across, at the hindermost corner of the street, (1) a dandyish appearing young man who wears (2) a flamboyant yellow and green suit and a black coloured hat.(3) NE (4)

5. Having gather the required information, (1) the investigating team got engrossed in preparing its report (2) for its presentation to the chief investigation officer. (3) NE (4)

1. 3. ....heading towards....  2. .....not worry.....  3. (3) .....while playing...  4. ....who wore...   5.  (1) Having gathered.....


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences by selecting appropriate word out of given options. 

1. Once one catches bad cold, it takes about one week or so when one................( (a) recovers/ (b) recovered) from it. 

2. Since he .........((a) is not/(b)has not been) doing this job for some time back, he will not be able to show his performance well at this time.

3. For the time at his disposal is very short, it is advisable for him that he should wind up his work as early as he ....... ( (a).is/ (b)can be) able  to. 

4.The proceedings of the meeting of today were marked by the repeated exchange of .......... ((a) hot/ (b) heated ) arguments among the members. 

5. As it had been raining since morning, we have decided to spend our time ........ ((a) stay/ (b) staying) at home. 

1.a.  2.b.  3.a.  4.b.   5.b.


1. As the house is lying vacant for some time, it needs repair and renovation before you start living in it.

2. Children felt very happy when they saw an aeroplane flown in the sky above their heads.

3. Coleridge could not accompany Shakespeare and Dorothy as hot tea fell on his foot and he burn his foot

4. The little child soon falls sleep when his mother sings lullaby and rocks the cradle.

5. The superintendent instructed that students appear in the examination should affix an attested photograph on their Hall entry card.


This has reference to your editorial 'India holds its own' The Tribune March 24, 2022. India really really deserves appreciation for its approach in th currently on- going Russia Ukraine conflict turned war. Right from the first day of its independence, India has adopted a balanced policy towards the various sects of countries of the world. It has never provoked and helped any country to attack or bully any other country. It is because it never wanted any war against any country nor does it want to usurp any part of any other country. 

India whereas respects its autonomy at the same time honours autonomy of each and every country of the world whether it is a small or big country. It never wants any interference or intrusion by a country into other. It has always treated  its friends and foes equally keeping in view humanitarian interest of the people of the country.

The USA that is calling India 'Shaky' should realise that India is not shaky but is 'Steady' in its relation with other countries. USA should recall relations between two countries when it brought its seventh fleet in India's waters. Then also India showed it's patience and never indulged in any war against any country. It should realise how India has improved its relations with USA and has always gone a step ahead in helping them. India is known for making good relations with warring  countries whether those be Iran- Iraq, Israel- Egypt, or even USA- China.
It is because India has no enmity against any country and it has no intention to provoke any country against any other country. It has always gone to help a country keeping in view the interest of people of that country. The live example of Afganistan should open eyes of the USA where it used its arms and military to bring peace but failed because its intention was not so pure and pious but India always found new ways and methods to help people of that country with its services,food and goods backed by its good intentions behind its actions. USA should instead emulate India and come forward with India to bring peace in that area because innocent people should be saved whether they are in Ukraine or Afganistan. A country should help other country with an intention for development of its people and area and not use as a tool against any other country as USA has been doing in Pakistan against India.