Wednesday, 24 March 2021

CONDITIONAL SENTENCES - FORMATION-- EXAMPLES-- EXERCISES WITH SOLUTIONS

 Conditional Sentences - Explanation with Examples

A conditional sentence denotes two actions, one followed by another and one action dependent on the other. One action happens in the situation when the other action takes place or has taken place. One part of the sentence containing condition is called conditional clause and the other  part on which this part is dependent is called main clause of the sentence. Generally the conditional part of the sentence starts with the word 'if'. The conditional part may be in the beginning  or in the latter part of the sentence. The following facts illustrate the point. 

If the reference is to the present, present tense in both the conditional and the main clause is used.


If I eat raw fruit, I fall ill.   
OR
I fall ill if I eat raw fruit.

This sentence gives a general statement of a situation which may or may not happen. In this sentence the latter action is to take place only if the action of the first part takes place. Both the parts of this sentence are in Present Indefinite Tense as the sentence tells about action in present time.  

If the reference is to the past, two patterns are used :

1. If something in general or of habitual nature happens, past tense in both the conditional and the main clause is used.

If she had any doubt,she got it cleared.

2.
If the reference is to the specific occurrence or situation in the past,then the past tense is used in the conditional and the "future in the past" in the main clause is used.

If I went out in rain I would fall ill.

This sentence tells that if one action had happened in past the other action dependent on it had also happened. In this case the first part is in Past Indefinite Tense and the dependent part is also in past tense with modal verb 'would'. It means if you had gone out in rain you would have fallen ill.
Both actions relate to past time.

 If the reference is to the future, present tense in  the conditional and future tense in the main clause is used.



If you go out in rain you will fall ill.

This sentence tells about actions taking place in future. One action is dependent on the second action. In this case the part containing condition is in Present Indefinite Tense and the second part of the sentence is in Future Indefinite Tense.

If the main sentence contains instructions, request or order, the future tense is replaced by imperative form in the main sentence.

If you meet them, pay my respects to them.

In this sentence the conditional part is in present indefinite tense and the main part is in imperative form. This sentence tells about action in future and the action may or may not happen.
It can be in the form of request also.
If you meet them please pay my respects to them.

If the condition is such that a thing was supposed to happen but it did not happen the conditional clause is in past or past perfect tense and the main clause is in past future tense.

If you worked hard you would pass.

If you had worked hard you would have passed.

If I were not so busy I would accompany you.
If I had not been so busy I would have accompanied you.


In this case both the actions were to take place in the past but did not happen nor will they happen in future. It is an imaginary situation of an action of past.

The conditional clause can be in both active or passive voice.

What would you do if a robber attacked you?
What would you do if you were attacked by a robber?

What would have you done if a robber had attacked you?
What would have you done if you had been attacked by a robber?

If the condition is such that the situation is imaginary and untrue, in conditional clause past tense is used.

If I were rich, I would help the poor.
If I were you, I would pardon him.

In certain cases, "if" is left out and in its place "Had, Should, or would" are placed before the subject in the sentence.

Had you worked hard you would have passed.
Should it rain, we would not  play the match.


EXERCISE

Fill in the blank in the following sentences with an appropriate option out of the given ones.

1. If he had asked me to return his book............

a. I would return it to him.
b. I had returned it to him.
c. I would have returned it to him.

2. If the driver were more careful........

a. the accident was averted.
b. the accident would have been averted.
c. the accident had averted.

3. Had I not been so tired........

a. I would accompany you for a walk.
b. I had accompanied you for a walk.
c. I would have accompanied you for a walk.

4. If you walked a little faster..........

a. you would catch the train.
b. you had caught the train.
c. you would have caught the train.

5. What would you do...........

a. if a robber attacked you.
b. if a robber had attacked you.
c. if a robber would attacked you.
















(to be continued)








Thursday, 25 February 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (SUPERFLUOUS WORDS)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING

In competitive examinations there are questions of error finding. These questions also relate to use of  words which are not required in sentences.These words are superfluous or redundant. These sentences appear to be correct as these mistakes are difficult to find out. Sometimes articles are missing in sentences and  in other  the same are used where these are not required. So knowledge of proper use of words and parts of speech in sentences becomes essential to attempt such questions correctly.

Following sentences illustrate this fact.

Today he returned back from his office very late.

This sentence appears to be correct but returned back is incorrect. Returned in itself contains the meaning of back. Return means to come back. So the word back is superfluous and is not required here.

The man is mortal.

The article 'the' in this sentence is not required here because it is used for specific items whereas 'man' is used here in general terms. So the correct sentence is - Man is mortal.


SUPERFLUOUS WORDS

1 The train slowed down as it approached near the station.
2. He had to pay fine when he did not return back books to the library.
3. Supposing if you visit him pay my respects to him.
4. My book is relatively better than yours.
5. My friend has sufficient enough money to pay off his dues.
6. All were surprised when he re-entered the room again.
7. His younger son contributed equally as much money as his elder son did.
8. His father forbade him not to visit her but he did not agree.
9. Her sister is comparatively more beautiful than her.
10.The reason why he did not succeed is because he did not work hard.
11. The patient could not sleep throughout the whole night.
12. The poet has tried to describe about the beauty of nature in this poem.
13. His father enquired that whether he would accompany him to the market in the evening.
14. The visitor asked the people gathered there that what had happened there.
15. In no case the number of words should exceed more than ninety in a paragraph.   

16. The culprit went scot-free unpunished.





INCORRECT USE OF ARTICLES


1. I know man who stole your box.  

2. The selection committee will select better one.

3. He drank little water that was in the jug.

4. He gave little money he had in his pocket to the beggar.

5. Only few students came to attend the class today.

6. Only small number of students paid their fee.

7. He did not listen to me as he was in hurry.

8. Both brothers are at daggers drawn with each other.

9. This plan will benefit rich as well as poor.

10. He is better clerk than teacher.

11. This is so difficult sum that I cannot solve it.

12. She took the offence of his remarks.


SOLUTION

1 The train slowed down as it approached (approached near) the station.
The word approached means to reach near. So the word near with approach is unnecessary.

2. He had to pay fine when he did not return (return back) books to the library.
The word return itself means to go or come back. So the word back with return is superfluous.

3. If (Supposing if) you visit him pay my respects to him.
Supposing and if both words have the same meaning. It should be supposing you.... Or If you.


4. My book is better (relatively better) than yours.
The word relatively or comparatively denote comparison. The word better itself is a comparative degree. So relatively with better is superfluous. It should be ' relatively good' or ' better'.


5. My friend has sufficient (sufficient enough) money to pay off his dues.
The words sufficient means to serve the purpose and enough also means the same thing. So only one of these two word will be used.

6. All were surprised when he entered (re-entered )the room again.
The word re- entered means to enter again. The word again with reentered is superfluous.

7. His younger son contributed (equally) as much money as his elder son did.
Equally and as much as have the same meaning so only one of these is to be used here.

8. His father forbade him (not )to visit her but he did not agree.
Forbade is a negative word so not with it is superfluous.

9. Her sister is (comparatively) more beautiful than her.
More beautiful or comparatively good denote comparison of two things. Only one of these is required to be used here.

10.The reason why he did not succeed is (because) that he did not work hard.

With the word reason that instead of because is to be used.


11. The patient could not sleep throughout the (whole) night.

The word throughout denotes completeness. So with it whole is redundant.


12. The poet has tried to describe (about) the beauty of nature in this poem.
13. His father enquired (that) whether he would accompany him to the market in the evening.
14. The visitor asked the people gathered there (that) what had happened there.
15. In no case the number of words should exceed (more than) ninety in a paragraph.   

16. The culprit went scot-free. Scot-free itself means to go unpunished. Here unpunished with scot-free is superfluous.


INCORRECT USE OF ARTICLES


1. I know the man who stole your box.  

2. The selection committee will select the better one.

3. He drank the little water that was in the jug.

4. He gave the little money he had in his pocket to the beggar.

5. Only  a few students came to attend the class today.

6. Only a small number of students paid their fee.

7. He did not listen to me as he was in a hurry.

8. Both the brothers are at daggers drawn with each other.

9. This plan will benefit the rich as well as the poor.

10. He is better a clerk than teacher.

11. This is so difficult a sum that I cannot solve it.

12. She took (the) offence of his remarks.


EXERCISE



Fill in appropriate articles in blanks.


........ more I try to please him....... more he gets angry. Sometimes he says he is busy at ..........moment or something of ......... sort. He is ............officer of .........Government and ........important person, but he is ........ill-tempered fellow. He does not lend ........helping hand to ..........poor.


TWO

Fill in appropriate articles in blanks.


........ girl was playing in the street, when ......... wild bull came and frightened her. .......... girl ran hastily to ....... neighbouring house where ......... elderly man was sitting in ...... chair with ...... thick stick in his hand. ......... man took up ......... stick, ran to ......... bull and drove him out of ....... street. ........ girl  thanked .....man and again went to play in .......street.



SOLUTION

The more I try to please him the more he gets angry. Sometimes he says he is busy at the moment or something of the sort. He is an officer of the Government and an important person, but he is an ill-tempered fellow. He does not lend a helping hand to the poor.


TWO

A girl was playing in the street, when a wild bull came and frightened her. The girl ran hastily to the neighbouring house where an elderly man was sitting in a chair with a thick stick in his hand. The man took up the stick, ran to the bull and drove him out of the street. The girl  thanked the man and again went to play in the street.









  














  








Saturday, 20 February 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (INVERSION)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING

Questions relating to error finding are common  in  competitive examinations these days. These questions are mostly based on incorrect use of articles, gerunds, present, past or perfect participles etc. These errors also relate to wrong use of adjectives, adverbs, conjunction and preposition etc. in sentences. These sentences are formed in such a way that it becomes sometimes difficult for candidates to distinguish and recognize errors. Nevertheless practice makes their identification  possible and easy.

 Here follow some examples.

With a Perfect Participle, third form of verb is used.
For example

 Having taken his breakfast, he left for his office.

In this sentence, instead of 'taken', words like 'taking, took or take' are used which is incorrect. 

In these sentences sometimes there are errors of participle and subject disagreement.

 For example
Going by the roadside,  a car hit him.
This sentence gives the impression of car going by the roadside whereas it should be -

 Going by the roadside , he was hit by a car.
OR

He going by the roadside was hit by a car.


Errors also occur while making Inversion in sentences.
 
Inversion means use of verb or helping verb and adverb before Subject in a sentence.

Generally in an assertive or simple sentence, the formation is Subject followed by verb and object. 

While writing an interrogative sentence, helping verb or verb is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject of the sentence.

Simple sentences--

She is singing a song.


Interrogative Sentences-
Is she singing a song? 

Sometimes  to emphasise a particular action in a sentence, verb, helping verb and adverb are used  in the beginning of the sentence before its subject. This is called Inversion.


Inversion takes place in the following cases :

A. When verb is used before the subject.

B. When adverb is used before the subject.

C. In case of conjunction. There are five conjunctions which require inversion with them. These are
Either..or, Neither..nor, Not only ..but also, Hardly, Scarcely...when, No sooner.... than.

D. In case of conditional sentences.

Words or adverbs  like Hardly, Scarcely, never, Not,  Either..or, neither ..nor, Not only.. but also, No sooner ....than etc., when used before subject, take inversion with them. 

But there is no need of inversion when these are used in the middle of the sentence in normal form of the sentence.


For example : 

A simple sentence is - 

He hardly knew about this incident.
In this sentence 'He' is subject, 'knew' verb and 'hardly' is adverb.

 But to put emphasis on action, adverb is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject.
Hardly he knew about the incident. But it is incorrect. 
With adverb, verb or helping verb too will be placed before subject.
The verb 'knew' will break into two parts - knew = Did +know.
 This sentence will be-
Hardly did he know about this incident.

Similarly  in case of this  example:
He knew little about the incident.
This sentence is in simple form. 
But when adverb is used before subject he, it will be-
Little did he know about the incident. 
It is incorrect to say - Little he knew about the incident.


In case of either..or and neither.. nor or Not.. not, neither etc 
there is inversion.


Neither she knows him nor her mother does.

She does not know him nor her mother does.

These sentences are wrong. These should be-
Neither she knows him nor does her mother
She does not know him nor does her mother.

Words like Hardly, Not, So, Too, Never are used as adverbs. Inversion takes place  in a sentence when these are used in the beginning of the sentence before subject.

A simple sentence - The traveller was so tired that he could not walk.
Sentence with Inversion-
So tired was the traveller that he could not walk.
The old man is so weak that he cannot stand even.
So weak is the old man that he cannot stand even. 


Sentences starting with No sooner, Scarcely and Hardly also take inversion. 
Hardly had he entered the house when it started raining.
Scarcely had he stepped out of the house when it started raining.
No sooner did he enter the house than the lights went off.
Hardly has she any sense of shame.
Scarcely does he bother about others. 

Errors also occur when changes are made in interrogative sentences during Narration. 
Look at the following sentences in Direct and Indirect forms of Narration.

She said to me," Are you going to your office?"
She said to me," Where are you going?"

These sentences are interrogative sentences in Direct form of Narration. There is Inversion in both of these sentences. But while making indirect form of sentences inversion will be removed and these sentences will be changed into simple sentences. These sentences in their indirect form will be-

She asked me if I was going to my office.
She asked me where I was going.

It will be wrong if these are written as
She asked me if was I going to my office.
She asked me where was I going.

Inversion takes place in case of conditional sentences also. In its simple form a conditional sentence is written as-

If you had worked hard you would have passed.

But to put stress on a particular action helping verb 'Had' is written in the beginning of the sentence before Subject.

Had you worked hard you would have passed.






Here are some sentences relating to inversion for practice.

EXERCISE
Make necessary correction wherever necessary in the following sentences.

1. Never I have read such a beautiful book as this.
2. Never she has gone to see her parents living in the village.
3. Not only he helped him with money but also he gave him food.
4. Seldom he visits them to enquire about their welfare.
5. He did not attend the meeting today nor his friend did.
6. His friend did not attend the office today neither he did.
7. No sooner the child saw the dog it started crying.
8. He does not like sweets nor his brother does.
9. So difficult was the question that no student could solve it.
10.Gone the days are when the children used to play outdoor games.
11.So happy was she on his son's success that she could hardly utter        a word even.

12. No sooner she saw a lizard on the wall than she started crying.

13. Down the building went like a pack of cards.

14. So far the old man went that he was not visible to us.

15. So well planned the arrangement was that the guests did not feel any difficulty in staying there.    







SOLUTION

1. Never I have read such a beautiful book as this.
In this sentence , I is subject, Have read is verb and never is adverb. But to put emphasis on the action, Never has been shifted to the position  before Subject in the beginning of the sentence. For this change  inversion is required. This sentence should be -
Never have I read such a beautiful book as this.


2. Never she has gone to see her parents living in the village.

This sentence is similar to that at Sr. no. 1. This sentence will be 
Never has she gone to see her parents living in the village.


3. Not only he helped him with money but also he gave him food.
In this sentence, adverb Not has been used in the beginning of the sentence before subject. For this inversion of verb 'helped' is required. 'Helped' will break into 'Help' and 'Did'. The sentence will be - Not only did he help me with money but also he gave me food.


4. Seldom he visits them to enquire about their welfare.
In simple form this sentence is -
He seldom visits them to enquire about their welfare. 
But adverb 'seldom' is used in the beginning of the sentence before Subject to put emphasis on the action. For this inversion is required. 
Seldom does he visit them to enquire about their welfare.


5. He did not attend the meeting today nor his friend did.
This sentence describes activities of two persons. So 'He' and 'His friend' are Subjects of two parts of the sentence. 
He did not attend the meeting is the sentence in simple form but the other part with 'nor' before subject 'his friend' requires inversion. This part will be 'nor did his friend.'

6. His friend did not attend the office today neither he did.
This sentence is similar to that at Sr. no 5. There are two Subjects, 'His friend' and 'he'. First part of the sentence in simple form is correct but the part with 'neither' requires inversion. It should be 'neither did he.'

7. No sooner the child saw the dog it started crying.
This sentence in its simple form is 'The child no sooner saw the dog it started crying.' But with 'no sooner' before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. It will be - 
No sooner did the child see the dog it started crying.

8. He does not like sweets nor his brother does.
This sentence is similar to that at Sr, no 5. It will be - 
He does not like sweets nor does his brother.


9. So difficult was the question that no student could solve it.

In its simple form this sentence is - 

The question was so difficult that no student could solve it.

But with 'so difficult' before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. This sentence is correct as 'was' has been used before subject.


10.Gone the days are when the children used to play outdoor games.
This sentence in its simple form is-
The days are gone when the children used to play outdoor games.
With verb 'gone' used before subject, inversion is required. It will be
Gone are the days when children used to play outdoor games.



11.So happy was she on his son's success that she could                       hardly utter a word even.
This sentence in its simple form is -She was so happy on his son's success that she could hardly utter a word even. But with inversion it will be - So happy was she on his son's success that she could hardly utter a word even.


12. No sooner she saw a lizard on the wall than she started crying.
With 'No sooner' in the beginning of the sentence before subject inversion is required in this sentence. It will be-
No sooner did she see a lizard on the wall than she started crying.

13. Down the building went like a pack of cards.

In this sentence verb 'down' is used in the beginning of the sentence before subject. Inversion is required for this. This sentence will be -

Down went the building like a pack of cards.

14. So far the old man went that he was not visible to us.

This sentence in its simple form is -The old man went so far that he was not visible to us.

But with 'so far' in the beginning of the sentence, inversion is required. This sentence will be -

So far went the old man that he was not visible to us.

15. So well planned the arrangement was that the guests did not feel any difficulty while  staying there.    

In its simple form this sentence is -

The arrangement was so well planned that the guests did not feel any difficulty while staying there. But with verb and adverb shifting to the beginning of sentence before subject, inversion is required in the sentence. This sentence will be -

So well planned was the arrangement that the guests did not feel any difficulty while staying there.








Thursday, 21 January 2021

ERROR SPOTTING (Tense Sequence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 

ERROR SPOTTING

In different competitive examinations, there are questions of error finding in the given sentences. These errors generally relate to use of parts of speech, Subject and object or Subject and Verb combinations, Sequence of Tense, Use of Preposition or Phrasal verbs etc. It becomes a little difficult to trace out  errors if sentences are lengthy. However it becomes possible if proper use of tense, subject, object and verb combinations are checked. So it becomes necessary to verify proper use of tense and  parts of speech in the sentence. 

There are certain important points that need to be considered  while making sentences. For example :

1. 'Have' is a word that is used as a modal verb as well as a main verb. It also joins a helping verb like 'should' to express past tense of 'should'. Following sentence will clear this point.
I have a bag. 
In this sentence 'have' is used as a main verb. It denotes possession. It is therefore a possessive verb in this sentence. 

I have finished my work.
In this sentence 'have' is used as a helping verb. 'Finished' is the main verb in this sentence.
Similar is the case of 'Had'. 'Had' is also used as helping verb as well as a main verb. 
Had can be used as a Helping verb and Main verb both in one sentence.
I had had my breakfast.
It means that I had taken my breakfast. 
'Had' in first place is helping verb and 'had' in second place is main verb being third form of verb 'have'. This sentence is in Past Perfect Tense using 'had' + third form of verb.
Sometime in examination there are sentences with single verb 'had' in error finding questions.
 For example:

If he had had his medicine he would not have fallen ill.


 You should finish your work now.

In this sentence 'should' is a helping verb. This sentence is in present tense as is also evident from the word 'now'. To express past tense of 'should' the helping verb 'have' is used with it.

You should have finished your work by now.
'Should have' in this sentence expresses past tense of should.

'Have ' is used not only as a possessive verb but it is also used as a stative verb. But as a stative verb it is not used in continuous or progressive form.

 So it is incorrect to say He is having a bag. It should be He has a bag.
But 'Having' when used as a noun in the form of a gerund is correct.

Having taken the breakfast, he started for his office.

In this sentence, 'Having' being a gerund is used as a noun. So it is correct use of 'having' here. 

Similarly there are some more verbs which are used as stative verbs and they do not have their continuous or progressive form. These are appear, like, know, see, believe or taste etc. When these words are used as stative verb these are not used in continuous or progressive forms.

It is incorrect to say 'It is appearing that it will rain today'. Here appear is used as a stative verb. It is correct to say 'It appears that it will rain today'. Similarly it is incorrect to say 'He is believing in God'. It should be 'He believes in God'.

2. There are errors relating to conditional sentences.

When two parts are joined together in a sentence there can be future tense in both the parts. But if one part of these is a conditional sentence, the conditional part should be in simple tense and the other part in future indefinite tense. 


For example:

In case of two parts in simple form
He will go by bus and I shall go by train.
These two are simple parts and are joined by 'and' so both can be in  future tense. 

In this case sense and tone of both parts of the sentence is the same. But if one part contains contrary tone 'but' in place of 'and' is used. 
He will go by bus but I shall go on foot.

In case of conditional sentence, one part is dependent on the other. One part containing condition will be in simple present tense and the other part will be in future tense. 
It will be incorrect to say - If he will go by bus, I shall go by train.
It should be - If he goes by bus I shall go by train.

The above conditional sentence can be in past tense also as-
If he went by bus I would go by train.
These both actions relate to past and one action is dependent on the other.

These conditional sentences can be in perfect tense also for example:
If he had gone by bus I would have gone by train.

In this case the conditional part has 'had and third form of verb' and the other part is 'would have and third form of verb'.
Just as there cannot be future tense in both the parts of the sentence, similarly there cannot be 'would have' in both the parts of the sentence. The part containing condition will have 'had and third form of verb' and in other part 'would have and third for of verb'. For example :

If he had come I would have helped him.

Some examples of above cases:

He will work hard and he will succeed.
If he works hard he will succeed.
If he worked hard he would succeed.
If he had worked hard he would have passed.


Here follow some sentences of this type on pattern of questions of competitive examinations duly solved with explanation. 

ERRORS DUE TO USE OF TENSE

EXERCISE NO 1

   1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.

   2. We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.

   3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.

   4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.

 5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.

   6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.

   7. When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.

   8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to     hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.

   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but  she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    


8







1.He does not want to seek any undue favour from that lady but his father advised him that he should meet her if she invites him to visit her.


In this sentence ‘does not like’ is in present tense. ‘to seek’ is infinitive and it is correct. ‘Seek ..from’ a phrasal verb is also correct. ’But’ is a conjunction it is a negative conjunction so after this tone or sense of the sentence will change. after ‘his father advised him’ is in past tense. ‘should’ is a modal verb and it has no effect of any tense on it. ‘she invites him’ is in present tense. It should be, according to the tense of ‘advised’, ‘if she invited him’ is correct.

 
2.We had planned to reach there much earlier so that we could help him but by the time we reach there, he had completed his project.


In this sentence, ‘had planned’ is correct as this action took place in the past. ‘so that we could’ is also correct as it is an imaginary action supposed to have taken place in the past. ‘he had completed’ is also correct as this action had already taken place in the past. ‘but we reach there’ is in present whereas it should be in the past tense as this action also took place in the past. So ‘we reached there’ is correct in place of ‘we reach there’.


 
3.The young man had been working with this company for the last ten years or so but a couple of months back he had left the job.


In this sentence ‘had been working …..for the last ten years’ is correct. ‘A couple of months back’ is correct denotes action occurred in the past and was complete in the past. Similarly the action, ‘had left the job’ also occurred in the past and was complete in the past. It did not continue for a span of time in the past. It should be ‘he left the job’.

 
4.My friend opined that he would ensure that his son gets a good job by the end of this month although his son did not like doing any job rather he preferred to start his own business.


‘My friend opined ‘ is I past tense, accordingly ‘he would ensure’ is correct. ‘Although his son did not like’ is correct according tense. Similarly ‘preferred to start his ……’ is also in correct form of tense. But ‘his son gets a good job’ is in present tense. It also should be in past tense according to ‘opined’. ‘His son got a good job’ is correct here.

 
5.Her daughter is working hard to get through the entrance examination and she hopes that by this time next year she will take admission in a medical college.


In this sentence ‘is working’ is in present continuous tense and is correct. ‘to get through’ is a phrasal verb and is correct. ‘she hopes’ is also in present tense and is correct.’by this time’ denotes action in future time. ‘will take’ also is in future tense. But it is an imaginary situation which may or may not happen in future. For this instead of future indefinite tense , future perfect tense is used. So ‘she will have taken’ is the correct version.

 
6.Yesterday I went to the market to purchase a pen that I wanted to purchase for some time but I chose a cheap one with the result that it is leaking since I purchased it.


 
In this sentence, ‘yesterday’ denotes past time and for this ‘I went’ is correct. With this ‘to the market to purchase ‘ is also correct. ‘that I wanted to purchase’ qualifies a particular type of pen. ‘I chose’ and ‘I purchased’ denote action in the past. ‘is leaking since’ denotes that action started in the past and continues up to present. For such an action perfect tense instead of indefinite tense is used. So ‘it has been leaking since’ is correct here.

 
7.When they had arrived two hours ago, we had already done most of our work, sent messages to friends and arranged a sweet cake for them.


In this sentence, two actions of past have been described. In such a case one part is in past indefinite tense and the other is in past perfect tense. The earlier action is in past perfect tense and the other in past indefinite tense.  ‘we had already done’ is correct but instead of ‘they had arrived’ should be ‘they arrived’.

8.Having amass a huge online following of art lovers, she decided to

      hold an exhibition of her art pieces in the Art Gallery of the city.


      In this sentence, 'she' is subject, 'decided' is verb in past tense, 'to    

     host' infinitive, 'an exhibition' is an object. In 'following of art      

   lovers' of is a conjunction, followers and lovers are noun. art is  adjective describing lovers. 'A huge' is an adverb describing an adjective online which in turn describes following a noun a gerund. 'Having' is perfect participle with this a third form of verb is used. In the case of  a perfect participle, an action takes place and another action follows that. But here with perfect participle 'Having' 'amass' is incorrect it should be third form of verb 'amassed'.


   9. The girl was frightened when all of a sudden she saw a snake near her feet but she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone. 

    In this sentence, the girl is subject, was a verb and 'frightened' is adjective, she is subject, 'saw' is verb 'a snake' is object. In the part, 'she gathering her courage and killed the snake with a stone' 'She' is subject, 'killed' is verb in past tense but 'gathering' is verb in continuous form, 'and' is a conjunction but with this on both sides of it there should be verb in past tense. 'Gathering' should also be in past tense as 'killed'. It should be '..but she gathered her courage and killed the snake with a stone.' 


   10. Generally the Chief Manager comes to the office late but on that day when we went to see him and congratulate him on his promotion we were surprised to find that he arrived before time.  

    

   In this sentence there are two actions one happening after the other,

    namely 'we went' and 'he arrived'. In such a case the first action is in 

   perfect tense and the second in indefinite tense. So the first action 'he

   arrived' should be in perfect tense and the other'we went' in indefinite

    tense. So instead of 'he arrive' it should be 'he had arrived.'