Monday, 25 May 2020

PARTS OF SPEECH - PREPOSITION (2) AT, OF, TO,FOR, AGAINST - EXAMPLES, EXPLANATION WITH USAGE.

PARTS OF SPEECH--       


       PREPOSITION

Meaning, Definitions, Its Types, 
Different Words Taking Prepositions
With Them - Explanation And Their 
Use In Sentences.   

A sentence comprises of different parts of speech as Noun, Pronoun, Verb and Preposition etc. All the parts of speech occupy their own place and position in a sentence. 

A Preposition is a relating word used with a Noun or a Pronoun showing their relation with the remaining words denoted by these in the sentence.

In other words a preposition relates a Noun or a Pronoun with other words in the sentence. It is used before a noun or a pronoun For example, on the table, under the bridge, with a stick, by him etc.

Different words take different preposition with them according to their place or use in a sentence. A word used as a noun takes a particular preposition with it where as the same word used as a verb or an adjective takes another preposition  with it. Sometimes the same word in other form does not take any preposition at all with it. For example :   


She is proud of her beauty.
She takes pride in her beauty.

In the first sentence the word 'Proud' used as an adjective takes 'of' as its preposition with it. But its noun 'Pride' used in second sentence takes 'in' as preposition with it.

The child liked this dish.
The child did not show any liking for this dish.

In the first sentence the word 'liked' used as a verb does not take any preposition with it whereas the word 'liking' as a noun takes 'for' as preposition with it.



He does not care for his parents.
Take care of your health.

In first sentence 'care' a verb takes 'for' as preposition with it and in the second sentence 'care' a noun takes 'of' as preposition with it.

In the following two sentences 'Surprise' is used as verb.

He was surprised at her behaviour.
Her behaviour surprised him.

In the first sentence in passive voice, a preposition 'at' is used with the verb 'surprised but in the second sentence in active voice, no preposition is required with the verb 'surprised'.

A preposition is used,  according to its requirement, in the beginning, in the middle or at the end of the sentence. 

For example :
He deals in sugar.
He has a great thirst for wealth.
She has no grief at the loss of her wealth.
Service to mankind is service to God.
To live we all eat. 
For all, he is a good person.

Similarly in interrogative sentences, a preposition is used in the beginning or at the end of the sentence.


For example :
To whom was she married?
Whom was she married to? 


Here follow different words with prepositions they take with them.



PREPOSITION - AT

Surprised, Astonished, Amazed, Alarmed, Astounded, Shocked, Wondered, Startled.

These all Past Participles of verbs  take with them preposition'at' when followed by a noun. These words meaning 'to be taken aback' are used in passive voice of a sentence.  
For example:

He was surprised at his behaviour.
We were alarmed at his rudeness.
She was shocked at the sight.

Generally in Passive Voice 'by' is used. But with these verbs in Passive voice instead of 'by', 'at' is used.

For example :
His behaviour surprised me.
I was surprised at his behaviour.

This news shocked her.
She was shocked at this news.


But when a verb follows these words, preposition 'to' is used with them. 
For example:
He was surprised to find him missing.
She was shocked to see him there.
Boys were amazed to witness the scene. 

In Active Voice these words do not take any preposition with them.

His behaviour surprised me.
The scene shocked the viewers.
Children's ability astounded the teacher.
Her brilliance in this field astonishes me.


Smile, laugh, Jeer, Sneer, Mock, Chuckle, Grin. 

These words denote activity of laughing etc. These all take preposition 'At' with them. The words Jeer, Sneer, Mock, Chuckle,Grin are used in negative sense. Whereas other can be used in both negative and positive senses. 

For example :
The lady smiled at the child.
Children laughed at the beggar.
All the people jeered at his behaviour.
His class mates mocked at his hair style.
All the members grinned at her confession statement.









PREPOSITION - FOR


Wish for, Yearn for, Hope for, Long for, Pine for, Desire for, Affection for, Lust for, Passion for, Inclination for, Fondness for, Eager for.  

These all words take preposition'for' with them. These words mean 'to have a desire'.
  

For example:
He wished for a huge mansion for himself.
She is pining for her love.
They all hope for a favourable change.
He has a strong passion for music. 
The mother has a great affection for her child.
The old man has fondness for Shakespeare's plays.
The boy is eager for name and fame.

But these words when used as other part of speech they take a different preposition with them. 
For Example :

He is fond of reading books.
He is desirous of going abroad.
He is hopeful of meeting his brother soon.


Panacea, Remedy, Cure, Solution, Treatment, Antidote.

These words, meaning some treatment or solution, take 'For' with them.

For example :
Scientists suggest planting more trees a panacea for global warming.
There is no remedy other than physical therapy for this disease
The researchers are trying hard to find cure for this disease.
He should  get a regular treatment for his ailment.
Positive thinking is antidote for depression from which he suffers.


PREPOSITION - TO


Obedient, faithful, Sincere, Devoted, Dedicated, True, Committed. Obligated, Attached, Bound, Obliged.

These all words, meaning showing sincerity, take preposition 'to' with them.

For example:

He is obedient to his parents.
She is faithful to him.
The boy is sincere to his duty.
They are dedicated to the cause of country.
Find a file attached to this mail.
He is true to his word.






Injurious, Detrimental, Disastrous, Harmful, Pernicious, Baneful, Threat.

All these words mean something causing harm. These all take preposition 'to' with them. 
For example : 
Smoking is injurious to health.
Heavy rains are harmful to crops.
Floods pose threat to standing crops.
His actions proved detrimental to the interest of the family.






Relating, pertaining, appropriate, linked, relevant, irrelevant,cognate,  apposite, befitting, applicable, suitable, apt,germane, agreeable, .

All these words, used to show relation, take preposition 'to' with them.   

She wore dress appropriate to the occasion.
These rules are applicable to all the people.
This house relates to his brother.
He showed interest in literature cognate to philosophy.
He submitted reply quite apposite to her question.
He tried to find evidences pertaining to this case.
They were agreeable to his proposal.




Accede, Concede, Assent, Consent, Agree, Accord, Amenable.

All these words, meaning being agreed to something, take preposition 'to' with them.

The chairman acceded to his request.
The old man consented to his son's proposal.
She agreed to stay at home in the evening.
The members assented to his proposal.
His friends were amenable to his idea of going for a picnic.


Equal, Similar, Akin, Relate, Parallel, Symmetrical, Analogues, Homologous, Tantamount,Synonyms, Identical, Corresponding, Equivalent.

All these words, meaning showing similarity to something, take preposition 'to' with them.

He paid equal to half of the total money.
He bought a chair similar to this chair.
Her comments about him are akin to accusing him.
Both the pictures he drew are identical to each other.
His statement is tantamount to his admission of guilt.


Preface, Prelude. Prologue, Foreword, Introduction.

These words denote some note or views preceding some writing work etc.These all take preposition 'to' with them.

The Principal added a prologue to the book written by me.
This chapter gives introduction to the subject matter of the book.
In the beginning there was a foreword to the book.
A preface to the book preceded the chapters. 



PREPOSITION - OVER


Think, Ponder, Brood, Mull.

These all words meaning to think deeply take preposition 'over' with them.

For example
The government is mulling over implementing this scheme.
They are thinking over your proposal seriously.
The old man often broods over his past days.
I shall ponder over your suggestion.




PREPOSITION - WITH


Bestowed, Infested, Filled, Crowded, Overwhelmed, Thronged, Loaded, Gifted, Repleted, Congested, Endowed, Occupied, Brimming, Teeming, Beset, Deluged, Packed .

All these words, meaning to be filled with, take preposition 'with' with them.

This forest is infested with wild animals.
He was overwhelmed with happiness.
The drain was congested with garbage.
She is gifted with the talent of her sweet voice.
The old man was bestowed with costly gifts.
The hall was crowded with boys and girls.
Her mother was filled with joy.
The jug was brimming with water.
The room was packed with men and women.


PREPOSITION - FROM



Emerge, Emanate, Arise, originate,stem,spring.

These words meaning appearing from take preposition 'from' with them.

This road originates from the fort.
All of a sudden he emerged from the crowd.
A loud sound emanated from the room.
This idea sprang from her suggestion.
A sapling arose from the seed.



Abstain, Refrain, Restrain, Desist, Protect, Prohibit, Prevent,Hinder, Dissuade,Debar, Deter,Detach, Stop, Save, Guard, Separate, Rise.

These words hint about stopping or separating from something, take preposition 'from' with them.

You should abstain from smoking.
He was debarred from participating in the event.
Trees protect us from sun and rain.
This wall  separated my house from that house.
My principles prevent me from doing this.
His friends saved him from being arrested.


Derive, Deduce, Conclude, Infer.

These words hint at drawing a conclusion and these take preposition 'from' with them.

I deduce from her statement that she is quite intelligent.
Nothing could be concluded from the discussion.
These estimates were inferred from the data available with them.



Absolve, Exonerate, Emancipate, Exempt, Exculpate,Free, Vindicate, Liberate. 

These words, meaning to free from some charges etc., takes preposition 'from' with them.

The court absolved him from all the charges.
He was exonerated by the court.
These items were exempted from tax.
After war ended, many slaves were liberated from prisons.
The prisoner was set free from prison.
He could hardly emancipate himself from shackles of poverty.






PREPOSITION - AGAINST


Fight, Protest, Knock, Strike,Warn,Lean, Guard,Complain, Lodge.


These words take preposition 'against' with them.

He lodged a complaint against him with police.
Boys protested against his rude behavior.
The lady was leaning against the wall.
His father warned him against bad company.
The car struck against a stationary truck.
We are determined to fight against evil forces.




PREPOSITION - OF


Devoid, Dearth, Deprived Destitute, Denude, Deficiency, Bereft, Lack, Shortage,Paucity, Robbed, Stripped .


These words,  meaning to be without or to be wanting, take preposition 'of' with them.

The poor is deprived of basic facilities.
All the roads were quiet and devoid of vehicles.
The lawyer submitted his statement bereft of any evidence.
The poor were starving for lack of food.
There is no dearth of talent among the youth of today.
He was stripped of his all benefits.
The project failed due to paucity of funds.
Deficiency of funds marred the progress of the project.













Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,



Thursday, 21 May 2020

MODALS (2) -- MEANING & WORDS SHOULD, OUGHT TO, MUST, HAD BETTER, USED AS MODALS EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES

MODALS --- MEANING & WORDS USED AS  MODALS 


A sentence without a verb is not possible. If a sentence is to be of one word, it  is a verb only that forms a sentence. A verb is an essential part to form a sentence. A verb can be of one word or more than one words. 

For example :

Following sentences are of one word only -
Go. Stop. Look. 

These sentences contain one word and that is a verb. 

In the following sentences  verb is of  two words -

The child is crying. 

In this sentence 'crying' is the main verb and the main verb is supported by a helping verb 'is'. 

Helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. 


A Modal verb is  an auxiliary Verb  used to express  mood  or attitude of the main verb.

 Main modal verbs are
Will, shall, should, would,May, Might, Must,Need,Ought to,Used to etc. 

Modal verbs express actions relating to ability, willingness, permission, request and possibility etc. 

Modal verbs are auxiliary verbs and these do not function as main verbs. A modal verb takes with it a main verb  in its first form.
Here follow some examples to explain it.

We should help the poor.
You must look after them.
He would play cricket in school days.
She used to sing songs in her college days.

In these sentences should, must, would, used to are modal verbs accompanied by their respective main verbs. 

A Modal Verb always takes first form of verb with it. It never acts itself as  main verb in a sentence.

Here follow some Modal verbs explained.




SHOULD , OUGHT TO, MUST


SHOULD

The modal verb 'should' is used to express some activity of  advice suggestion or duty etc. 

For example :
You should obey his orders.
One should do one's duty.
You should take medicine daily.
He should consult a doctor.

With modal verb 'should', bare first form of verb is used. It is used to express activity of present time. For an activity of past time, the words 'have and third form of verb ' are to used with it.

For example :
He should have finished his work.

In the above sentence with the modal 'Should' first form of verb 'Have' is used. But 'Have' always takes third form of verb with it. 
So the third form 'Finished' is used with it. Here 'Has' or 'Had' cannot be used in place of 'Have'. Even if the subject is third person singular i.e. He or She, 'Has' instead of 'Have' is not to be used. 


 OUGHT TO

The modal 'Ought to' has the same meaning as the modal 'should' has. But its use is a little different from that of 'should'. Unlike 'should' it always takes 'to' with it. 

With this modal also bare first form of verb is used.

'Ought to' is used for the following main purposes.

It is used to express a moral duty.

 For example :
We ought to obey our parents.
People ought to follow rules of the road.

It is used to express a strong necessity. 

For example:
Crops are under a long dry spell, it ought to rain now.
The patient has suffered a lot, he ought to cure now.

The modals 'Should' and 'ought to' are interchangeable with each other.

'Ought to' is also used for action in the present time. To express actions of past time, 'have and third form of verb' are used with it. 

For example :
He ought to have finished his work. 




 MUST 
Modal Verb 'Must' is used to express compulsion, necessity, result or conclusion. 

For example: 

You must leave now. - Compulsion.
They must be ready by now. - Conclusion.
He must consult a doctor. - Necessity. 
Rains must have damaged the crops. - Result

'Must' always takes first form of verb with it.

With 'Must' also to express past action 'have and third form of verb are used. 
For example :
He must have accomplished the job.
They must have prepared a plan to do it.





HAD BETTER 


'Had better' is also a Modal Verb like other modal verbs 'shall,will, should, would, may, might'.   It is used in the same way as other modal verbs are used. It comprises of two words 'Had' and 'better' and these both are to be used together. It has the same meaning as the Modal Verb 'Should' has. This modal verb is used to express moral duty, obligations, advice or suggestion.

The formation of a Modal Verb  cannot be changed. It can't be 'Has or Have better'.  It has its meaning as that of a modal verb only if it is used in that particular form. 

In this case the words 'Had' and 'Better' if used separately have different meanings. 'Had' is the Past Tense and Past Participle of the verb 'Has' or 'Have'. It is used as a helping verb as well as main verb.

For example : 
He had a book. - Main verb
He had gone to the market. - Helping Verb
In this sentence 'gone' is the main verb.

The other part of this Modal Verb 'Better' is comparative degree of adjectives 'Good' and 'Well'. 

When these two words 'Had better' used together as a modal verb has the same meaning as 'Should' has. 'Had' can be changed into 'have' and 'has' but 'had better' cannot be changed into 'Has or Have better'.

Like other modal verbs, 'Had better' is also an auxiliary verb and it   takes bare first form of verb with it. It is used for Present Tense.

For example :
She had better take rest.

'Had better' is a modal verb here and a bare first form of verb 'take' is used with it. It cannot be 'had better taken' considering that had takes third form of verb with it. Although it is correct to say 'She had (or has) taken rest. 

He had better finish his work.
They had better take an expert's advice.
The teacher had better reprimand him.
The lady had better not follow his advice.
She had better go to the doctor.


EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE


 Choose the correct option out of the given ones to substitute the underlined part in the following sentences.


1. The president must take this decision in a hurry otherwise he had not suffered such a loss.  

a)  must have taken  b) should have take   c) ought to taken d) No change.

2. The young man had  better stopped drinking to save his deteriorating  health.

a) ought to stopping b) had better stop c) should stopped d) No change.

3. The teacher had better encouraged the students to take their test.

a) must encouraged b) should encouraged c) ought to encourage d) No change.

4. All the members of the committee had better appreciated his action rather than criticising him.

a) must appreciated b) should appreciated c) should have appreciated d) No change.

5. The authorities should taking  all the field workers into confidence before making any amendment in rules. 

a) should take b) ought to taken  c) must taken d) No change.

6. The mother should not worry about her son because he should reaching home before it was dark.

a) ought to reach b) should had reached c) must have reached d) No change.

7.  They all ought to leave  for their destination before it is late. 

a) must left b) ought to leaving c) should have left d) No change.


8. The old lady must avoided interfering in the affairs of the other family as it is creating problems for all of them.

a) should avoid b) must have avoided c) ought to avoided d)No change.

9. The family ought to take this decision much earlier and this had saved all the members from so many problems.  

a) must had taken  b) should take c) ought to have taken d) No change.

10. The authorities should had taken all the necessary precautionary measures for safety from floods before the rainy season set in.

a) must taken  b) had better taken c) ought to taking  d) No change.













Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,

Wednesday, 20 May 2020

MODALS (1) -- MEANING & WORDS WOULD, USED TO, AS MODALS EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES

MODALS --- MEANING & WORDS USED AS  MODALS 


A verb  is an essential part of a sentence.There is no sentence without a verb. Verb is a part of speech that forms and completes a sentence. A verb with subject or object is required to form a sentence.

 Sometimes main verb in a sentence takes another helping verb to complete the mood or meaning in the sentence. These helping verbs are also called auxiliary verbs. These helping verbs used to express mode or attitude of the main verb are called Modal verbs.

 The main modal verbs are - Shall, Will, Should, Would, May, Might, Must, Need, Dare, Ought to, and Used to. For example :

I shall write a letter.   
He used to play hockey in school days.

Modal verbs are always auxiliary verbs. They are used as helping verbs with main verbs. 

For example :

He should take rest.
You must attend the meeting.


Modal verbs always take  bare first form of verb with them. 
 For example : 

I should 'go' there.  (Present Tense)

In order to express in Past tense, verb of Perfect tense is used. 

For example:
He should have gone. 

Because a modal always has first form of verb, 'have' (and not 'had') is used here to express past tense even. 'Have' as a helping verb always takes third form of verb with it. So 'gone' is used here. Even in case of third person singular, 'Have' is used and not 'Has'.

For example : 
He must have gone by now. 
and it is incorrect to say -
He must 'has' gone by now. 


'To' is not used with these Modal verbs except in case of 'Ought to' and 'Used to'. 

 For example :

He used to fly kites in his childhood.     


Modal verbs are not used as main verbs except 'Dare' and 'Need'.

I need some money. (Main Verb)

You need not worry now. (Modal verb)
Here need is a modal verb and worry is main verb.


Here follows how some of peculiar Modal Verbs are used in sentences. 


WOULD

The Modal Verb 'Would' denotes some activity of habitual nature taken place in the past. 

He would go to school on foot during his school days.

This sentence expresses that he was in the habit of going to school on foot in the past.  

He would drink during his youth.
He would work hard during his school days.





USED TO

'Used to' is also a Modal Verb. 'To' always accompanies the word 'Used'. It expresses an action of habitual nature taken place in the past. First form of verb is used with the Modal Verb of 'Used to'.
It is used to express past action only. The action that took place in the past and ended during that time. It did not extend to Present or Future time. So it is not used for Present or Future time.


 The modal verb 'Used to' is used as it is and its formation cannot be changed to present of future time.

For example:
He used to play Hockey in his school days.
He used to be very shy during his childhood.


In these sentences 'used to' is modal verb and 'play' and 'be' are main verbs. 



These two words written separately give different meanings and cannot be termed as Modal Verbs. For example 'Use' is a main verb and it means to utilise and 'to' is used  with it.

For example:
Wax is used to prepare candles.

In this sentence 'Used' and 'to' are used as separate words and cannot be termed as Modal Verb. It gives the meaning that wax is utilised for making candles. 
  
This sentence is in passive voice. Its active form is -
They use wax to prepare candles.

Besides a Modal Verb, 'Used to' is also used as an adjective. For this with it, a verb  form of 'be' i.e. is, am. are. was. were etc. is used. 
For example :

He is used to gambling. 
This sentence means that he is in the habit of gambling.

Similarly it can express action of past also. 
For example :
He was used to playing hockey during those days.

In such a case after 'Used to' a noun is used and 'used to' becomes an adjective as it describes a noun. In these sentences 'gambling' and 'playing' are gerunds used as nouns. So here 'Used to' acts as an adjective describing nouns following it. 


 USE OF MODAL VERBS 'WOULD' AND 'USED TO' AS INTERCHANGEABLE WITH EACH OTHER.

The use of two modal verbs 'would' and 'Used to' is interchangeable. These can be used in place of each other.

Both these Modal Verbs denote habit in the past.
For example:
She would sing  songs in  her childhood.
She used to sing songs in her childhood.

Both these sentences denote an action of singing songs on her part in the past. Both these show her habit of singing songs in the past.


Here is another example.


He would be an intelligent student during his school days.

He used to be an intelligent student during his school days.


Both these sentences describe about condition of 'he' in the past but only  the latter one is correct. Here it is incorrect to use 'would'.

Verbs are of two types -- Action Verbs and Static Verbs.

Action verbs denote doing some physical activity by the doer but Static Verbs show condition or state of a person.

Verbs like play, run, read,write or sing etc are action verbs. Verbs  think, like, perceive or remember  etc are static verbs.

With Static Verbs only 'Used to' is applied. 'Would' is not used with these verbs.

He used to be a renowned singer in the past.

It is a correct sentence whereas it is incorrect to say 
He would be a renowned singer in the past.


He used to be very arrogant in the past.
She used to be very innocent in her childhood.


In these sentences 'would' is not interchangeable with 'used to'..








EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE

Choose the correct option to substitute the selected part in the following sentences.

1. Both the brothers used to practising these tricks in the past.

a) used to practise b) used to practice c) would practice d)No change


2. Her brother would accompany her when she went there.

a) used to accompanying  b) would accompanying  c) would accompanied d) No change


3. The sculptor used to preparing beautiful idols when he was young. 

a) would prepared  b) used to prepare c) would be preparing d) No change


4. Her mother  used to teaching her English when she was young.

a) would teaching b)would taught  c) used to teach d) No change


5. She would get up early in the morning during her stay at ours last year.

a) used to getting up b) would got up c) used to getting up d) No change


6. Her father was used to take his dinner very late at night.

a) was used to taking  b) would taken c) would taking  d) No change  


7. Their mother would told stories to the children at night.

a) used to telling b) would telling c) used to tell d) No change 


8. I used to boarding a train to go to my office when I was in the city.

a) used to boarded b) would boarded c) would board d) No change


9. Her sister used to learn poems by heart when she studied in the school. 

a) would learn b) would learnt c) used to learnt d) No change


10. Our teacher would be very strict when he taught us in the class.

a) used to be b) would been c) used to being d) No change 












Disclaimer: The contents are from the writer's knowledge or experience. Nevertheless any resemblance with any paper or electronic material is coincidental and he is not responsible for it,




Tuesday, 5 May 2020

MODALS AND OTHER FORMS OF VERBS --Uses of Modals And Different Types of Verbs -----Transitive, Intransitive, Helping Verbs-Modals (Chapter One)


USES OF MODALS

A sentence generally comprises of subject, verb and object.  
Verb is a word showing some action or deed in the sentence.


The child drinks milk.


In this sentence ‘drinks’ shows  an  'action'. It is a verb. 




Types of Verbs : ------ Transitive Verb and Intransitive Verb.


Transitive verb 

is a word that denotes an action which passes on from the subject to an object.


In other words a transitive verb governs the object.


In the above sentence drinks is a transitive verb.


The word 'drink' conveys an action between 'the child' and  'milk'.



Intransitive verb 

is a word that denotes an action which does not pass on to an object.


The child weeps.



In the above sentence the word ‘weeps’ denotes action but it does not pass on to any object. 


So there is no object in the sentence.


 A sentence with an intransitive verb has no object. 


Come, go,laugh,sleep are similar words. 


These are intransitive verbs according to their use in a particular sentence.



Such verbs are called Principal Verbs but along with these there are words which are used in the sentence to help to form the tense or the mood of the Principal Verb. 



These  are called ‘Auxiliary’ or ‘Helping’ verbs or ‘Modals’.


Main features of Modals are:



These are used in the sentence to express a request, permission. willingness, possibility,ability or power to act.


These verbs are used along with the main verb. These are not used alone.


Along with a modal first form of verb is used


A Modal remains unchanged irrespective of number or gender of the subject.


The word 'to' is used along  with 'ought' and 'used'.





Examples:



We should help him.
He may not come today.


In these sentences ‘should’ and ‘may’ are helping verbs.


The main helping verbs are:


Is,am,are,was,were,been,being,has,have,had,do,does,
did,may,might,can,could,shall,should,will,would,ought,
should etc.




Some verbs are used both as transitive as well as intransitive verbs.



Examples:


Birds fly in the sky.

Boys fly kites.



The slate broke.

He broke the slate.



The train stopped.

 I stopped him from going there.



The office opens at 10 a.m.

He opened the door.



The examination begins tomorrow.

I shall begin my work now.



Boys run in the garden.

He ran a thorn into his foot.

He runs a factory.



Rise, Lie & fall are intransitive verbs but raise, lay & fall are transitive verbs.


The sun rises in the east.The child raised his head.


The old man lies in the bed.She laid the book  on the table.


The tree fell down.He felled the tree.


Reflexive Verbs:

A verb which has a reflexive pronoun as its object, is called a Reflexive Verb; as,


The boy hurt himself.The boys cried themselves hoarse.



In the above sentences, the words in italics are Reflexive verbs and the words in italics after them are Reflexive objects.




Impersonal Verbs :


An impersonal Verb is one which has no real subject; as, 

It rains. It hails. It is very fine.It is very pleasant.

In the aforesaid sentences,the subject 'it' may refer either to the sky or the weather.  



Causative Verbs:

A verb in respect of which the work is got done instead of doing by the subject is called a causative verb ; as ,


He got her punished.


The subject  himself  'He' is not doing the work but on his behalf someone else is doing the same.


Examples: 


Let him sit here.
Did you get the door opened?
Get this letter posted.
The mother made her do this work. 



In the aforesaid sentences causative verbs are used.





OBJECTS :         Direct   &  Indirect



Sentences with two objects.


Some verbs govern two objects, one of which is a person and the other is a thing ; as,


He gave me (person) a gift (thing).


She told her son (person) a story (thing).


She gave the child (person) a toy (thing).

The name of a person or animal is called the Indirect object and the name of the thing is called the Direct object.


Intransitive verbs sometimes take after them an object similar in meaning to the verb.Such an object is called Cognate Object.


She sighed a deep sigh.


The child sleeps a sound sleep.


They laughed a hearty laugh.


I dreamt a horrible dream.


The patient  died a natural death.


He fought a good fight.


The girls sang a beautiful song.


Boys ran a race.



He had to wait for the fruit to fructify.


The words - sighed,sleeps,laughed, dreamt,died,fought,sang & ran are verbs.


The words -- sigh,sleep,laugh,dream,death,fight,song  & race are Cognate objects.




Some more Examples:


He did not object to the object.


The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.


I was content to know the content of the message.


The insurance was invalid for the invalid.


The blessed virgin blessed her.


The king subjected the subject to his tyranny.




The Use Of  Is, Am, Are, Was & Were  :



Is, Am & Are ---- are used in present tense.   'Am' is used with I in present tense


Examples:

I am going to the market. 

I am not going to the market.

Am I going to the market? 



'Is' is used with Third Person singular number i.e. he she & it or a name in singular .



Examples :


The child is making a noise.

He is my elder brother.

She is sitting in her office.

It is raining today.




'Are' is used with First Person plural, second person singular & plural  and third person plural. 


Examples:


We are very happy.

All of you are not in the wrong.

Are the grapes sour?

They are our neighbors.



'Was & Were' are used in past tense. 

'Was'  is used with First & Third person singular i.e I, he she & it or a name in singular in past tense.


He was my teacher.

I was his neighbor.

She was not going to her office.

Was he at fault?  



'Were' is used with First person plural, second person singular and plural & Third person plural in past tense.



Examples:

Were you  not well yesterday?

They were plucking flowers.

Boys were playing a match in the ground.We were wandering in the garden.



'Were'  is also used to express strong desire for an act.

Examples:

If I were a king!

If only I were a millionaire!




The Use Of  Have, Has & Had   :


'Have & Has'  are used in present tense whereas Had is used in past tense. 
Have is used with first person & second person  singular and plural & third person plural in present tense. 


Examples:

I have a beautiful purse.
We have no money.
Have you any spare pen with you?
He has  enough money to spend and spare.
They have five goats.
Here 'have' means 'to possess'.




'Have & Has'  are used in following tenses:


Present Perfect Tense.Present Perfect Continuous Tense.Past Perfect Tense.Past Perfect Continuous Tense.Future Perfect Tense.Future Perfect Continuous Tense.

Examples:

Present Perfect Tense

He has paid all his dues.
I have not collected my notebooks.
Have you taken your medicine?
They have gone to the market.
We have not seen him.


Present Perfect Continuous Tense

I have been doing my work for two  hours.
We have been playing cricket since morning.
Have you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Has the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They have been making a noise for an hour.



Past Perfect Tense

I had never been to Delhi.
You had made no mistake.
We had paid our respects to them.
She had plucked many flowers in the garden.
They had shown us their pictures.


Past Perfect Continuous Tense

I had been doing my work for two  hours.
We had been playing cricket since morning.
Had you been taking tea for the last half an hour?
Had the teacher not been teaching you for two months?
They had been making a noise for an hour.




Future Perfect Tense

I shall have not made this mistake.

We shall have done our work by then.
You will have not missed them.
Will they have gone to such an extent?



Future Perfect Continuous Tense

I shall have been working for two hours.

We shall have been playing since morning.
Will you have been studying for one hour?
She has been suffering from fever for two days.

Have they been making toys for two days?




The Use Of  Shall & Will   :

'Shall'  is used to express simple future tense in the first person & 'Will' in the second and third person; as,


I shall be late for the office.
The boys will succeed in the competition.
Your brother or you will win the race.
His brothers will start a sugar factory.



Shall with the second or third person expresses a command, a promise, a threat or a determination; as,


(a) Command:

He shall go to Simla.
You shall not play.



(b) Promise :

We shall  be free tomorrow.



(c) Threat:

He shall be fined.



(d) Determination :

He shall leave this very instant.You shall carry out the orders, whether you like them or not.


In asking questions shall is used  in the first person and will in the second & third person; as,


Shall I call him?Will he come to see me on Monday?Will you help me in doing this sum ?



The Use Of  Should & Would   :


'Should' is the past tense of  'Shall'. A Noun clause is used in this case.


We said that we should help our friends.
I said that I should not go to the market.


In these sentences, 'should'  gives the meaning of future tense.

'Should' also expresses the meaning of 'advice', 'suggestion', 'counsel'. or 'duty';as in the following sentences:


One should do one's duty.The children should respect their elders.He should not make any mistake now.



'Would' is the past tense of  'Will'. It is used in this form.

It is used in  the Indirect form of speech as in the following sentences :

She said that she would not go to the office that day.
I asked him if he would lend me his watch.
He told me that he  would not help me.
John told her that he would make no mistake then.



Would is used to express  a request.It is used in the present tense; as,


Would you please fetch me a glass of water?
Would you help me in solving these sums?
Would you attend to the customers, please?



Would is used to express of a habit of past time. It is used in the past tense.


He would travel by a bus.
My father would get angry over trifles.
Boys would act in a responsible manner in their childhood.




Would is used to express a strong determination. 


Come what may, I would reach there tomorrow in the morning.She told that she would make all efforts to solve this problem.He would have his own way.




Would is used in conditional sentences.


If I were you, I would have behaved in the same manner.If he were here, I would have talked to him.If you were with us, you too would have helped her.

Would is used to express a desire.
Would that I were rich !Would that I were a millionaire!Would that she were young! 



The Use of Can


Can is used to express 'ability', 'capacity', 'permission' or authority to do a work as in following sentences:



The old man is very week. He cannot walk.

This sentence shows inability of the old man to walk.


The lady can play chess.

This sentence shows that the lady has the capacity to play chess.



The boss can grant you permission.

This sentence shows that the boss has the authority to permit.


You can take my motorcycle.

This sentence shows permission granted to use the motorcycle.

Just look at the following sentences:

I am alright now. I can go home.
You are alright now. You can go home.
The boss says that you cannot go home.
I shall inquire if I can go home.





The Use of Could



'Could' is past tense of 'can'. 'Could' is used to express ability in the past time; as in the following sentences: 

He could express his feelings to her.The team could win the match last year.The young lady could deliver her speech fluently.He could not attend the meeting yesterday.He could not help laughing.

'Could' is used in present tense to express a request; as in the following sentences:


Could you lend me your book?
Could you extend a helping hand to the old man? Could you feel convenient to attend the meeting tomorrow?





The Use of May


May is used in present tense to seek and grant permission; as in the following sentences:

May I come in, Sir ?May I go to see my mother?May we accompany you to visit the training centre ?May I leave now?

You may go now.You may take the guests to the market.You may leave the office early today.You may consult your lawyer.


May is used to express 'possibility' or 'probability' of an action; as in the following sentences:


The guests may reach today.

It may take us time to reach there.
They may not finish their work in time.
We may be late to our office.
It may rain tomorrow.


May is used to express a wish; as in the following sentences:   

May the king live long!

May God help them!

May you prosper in your life!


The Use of Might

'Might' is the past tense of 'May'. It is used to express a remote possibility in the past.It is used in the indirect form of speech.



He told me that he might come late in the evening.

His father thought that his son might get through the examination.

The sky is overcast with clouds. It might rain at night.

John is not serious about his studies. He might fail in the examination.



'Might' is used in the Adverbial clause with a function of showing purpose.


He walked fast so that he might catch the train.He worked hard so that he might get through the examination.



'May' in the direct form of speech changes into 'Might' in the indirect form of speech.

'Might' in the direct form of speech remains unchanged 'Might' in the indirect form of speech.


He said to me,"I may not attend the meeting today." He told me that he might not attend the meeting that day.


She said."I might come late in the  evening."She said that she might come late in the evening.




The Use of Must


'Must' shows meaning different than 'should'. It gives the feeling of necessity, compulsion,conclusion or some result; as in the following sentences:

He must have reached his office  by now.

We must do our duty.

It is very late. We must go to bed.

The boss is in the office.We must attend to our job.

We must not meddle with others' affairs.

We must respect our elders.


The Use of Ought to


'Ought to ' shows meaning different than 'should' or 'must'. 

It gives the meaning of obligation or strong possibility. It is followed by 'to' as in the following sentences:

We ought to obey our elders.

We ought to do our duty.

He ought to get through the examination.

Our team ought to win the match.

We ought to help the poor.




The Use of Used to


'Used to' is used in the past tense to express some action of habit (continuous) nature done in the past as is evident in the following sentences:

I used to play hockey when I was young.

He used to visit our house every Sunday.

John used to sell books in those days.

The merchant used to deal in tea.


'Used to' is not used in present or future tenses.






  PHRASAL VERBS


A combination of words that makes a complete sense or meaning is called a sentence. A sentence is used to


---Name a person or thing


---say something about that person or thing


the word or words denoting the person or thing about which something is said are called the subject of the sentence.


the word or words which say something about the person or thing denoted by the subject in the sentence are called the Predicate.


The subject and predicate are absolutely necessary to make a complete sense in a sentence.The subject of a sentence usually comes first, but occasionally it comes after the predicate. Just in this sentence to put emphasis in the sentence.

Down went the building like a pack of cards. 

In Imperative sentences the subject is implied and is left out as - 

Stand up.

Here the subject 'you' is left out.


A group of words that makes a sense but not a complete sense, is called a Phrase. 


Examples :
People have come to see the fair from far and near.
The sun rises in the east.She is a lady of virtues.


In the above sentences words in italics form a  phrase.


 A clause is a group of words forming a part of a larger sentence and having a subject and a predicate of its own and  makes a complete sense.


A Clause though is a part of a sentence yet it is independent in itself having its own subject and predicate where as a phrase also forms a part of the sentence but it is not independent in its meaning. 

No doubt both of these make their own sense.