Tuesday, 7 June 2022



----Explanation with Examples 

An article though apparently is a small part in a sentence yet it has an important role in providing a sensible meaning of the sentence. It cannot be just dubbed as trivial as it appears to be. So its proper use at an appropriate place in a sentence is very necessary.

An article is an adjective but it is not termed as an adjective. It is categorised under the head determiners. 

An article describes or introduces a noun and  thus is placed before a noun. Despite its position, an article is not called an adjective. 

If an adjective precedes a noun, an article is placed before adjective.

 For example -
An   interesting story.

 In this sentence 'story' is a noun and 'interesting' an adjective and 'an' is an article.

An article is different from an adjective in the sense that it describes a noun but it does not describe a pronoun whereas an adjective describes both a noun and a pronoun.

There are two articles used --- A, An,  and The.

Articles A and An are used for singular noun which is not specific for example , a book or an apple.

Article The is used to express a specific noun as 'the book'. 'The' describes a particular book. This is clear in the following sentences.

There lived a rabbit in a forest. ........1
The rabbit lived in a burrow near a lion's den in the forest. .......2

In the sentence at Sr. no. 1 'a rabbit'  describes any single rabbit and a forest describes a single unspecified forest. 
But in the sentence 2 'the rabbit' and 'the forest' describe  about a particular rabbit and a particular forest respectively which are refered to in sentence no. 1.

A and An are  in a way shortened form of one and are used for single nouns. One acts as an adjective in a sentence. 

A and an articles are used for countable nouns.

For example :

I have a book.  It means any single book.

I have one book. It means a specified number one of book. 

Article The is used for a specific noun. It is used for singular as well as plural nouns. It is used for countable and uncountable nouns. 

For example :
He drank the water contained in the jug.

I read the book you gave me.
I read the books you gave me.

Application as well as omission of articles in a sentence is equally important. Just as an omission of  an article distorts the meaning of a sentence similarly unnecessary application of an article in a sentence also disturbs its meaning.

A noun used in a general sense does not take any article with it. 

For example : 

Man is mortal.

In this sentence the word man is used in general terms so carries no article. 

But in the following sentence,

I saw a man in the street.

 the word man describes any single unspecific man moving in the street.

The man I saw in the street is a shopkeeper.

In this sentence 'the man' describes about a particular man who is a shopkeeper and was seen by me in the street.

Here follow some sentences for explanation.



Find error in the following sentence.

1. It is only after the rains are over, farmers come to know how much loss they have caused to crops.

2. A hand that rocks the cradle rules over the world.

3. It is a big relief when the examinations are over. 

4. He presented her a copy of  latest version of the book.

5. He searched his pocket and found one rupee coin in it.


1. 'The rains' denotes some specific rains whereas it is in a general sense. So 'rains' instead of 'the rains'.

2.  Hand is used here in a specific sense i.e. ' the hand of the mother'. So it should be 'The hand' that rocks the .....

3. ' The examinations' means some specific examinations but here it is used in a general sense. So examinations instead of the examinations.

4. A copy of 'the latest' version of the book.

5. And found ' a one rupee coin' .


1. Of the two sisters, younger one is more intelligent.

2. The higher you go , cooler it is.

3. This is a first step towards understanding a child's psychology.

4. It was big surprise for me when I met one of my old friends in the market yesterday.

5. During his school days he used to be most obedient pupil of his teachers.


1. The teacher advised the students to pay an attention to their studies.

2. We have been visiting this city for last five years but we never went to his place.

3. Whenever he comes to my house he is always in hurry.

4. This candidate appears to be a most likely choice of parties of both the sides.

5. It took them about hour to complete their work and get  ready to accompany us.


1. He has been living with his family in same house since his childhood.

2. The more a man gets , more he desires.

3. The poor are always contented whereas rich are never happy.

4. The third and the fourth chapters of this book are very interesting. 

5. Nobody likes a person with bad temper like him.

6. All the members of the club have been instructed to follow an uniform code of conduct.

7. I can never forget kindness with which he treated me.

8. I found that he was in right whereas his brother was in the wrong. 

9. The day before yesterday he left for Europe by the air. 

10. There is need of finding out an early solution of the problem to avoid further complications. 

1. the younger one  2. the cooler  3. the first step  4. a big surprise  5. the most obedient.


 1. to pay attention. 2. the last five years 3. in a hurry. 4. the most likely. 5. about an hour.


1. ....the same house 2. ...the more he desires 3. ....the rich are.... 4. ....and  fourth 5. ....with a bad temper... 6. .... a uniform code 7. .....forget the kindness  8. .......he was in the right.
9. .... by air. 10 .....a need of ..... 





Thursday, 19 May 2022


 A word expressing a thing, place, person, quality or state of condition, position or attitude is called a Noun.

In other words a noun is the name of a person, place,thing or a quality. It is generally formed of one word like book, crow or honesty etc.

 But sometimes it is formed of more than one words like Bookworm or Armchair etc. Book and worm separately are nouns and have their meanings but these two combined also form a noun which has a different meaning.

A compound noun is also of three words  like 
Father - in - law.

Besides a noun with another noun, a compound noun is formed of a verb, an adjective and a preposition with a noun.

A compound noun is formed of  :-

Noun +Noun      

Bathroom, Watermark

Adjective + Noun

Roundtable, Prime- Minister.

Verb + Noun

Playing card,  Moving cart.

Preposition + Noun

Underworld, Overtime.

There is no specific way of writing a compound noun. It can be in either way, sometimes by adding hyphen between two words or without a hyphen in between. 

In case of a noun with more than two words there is a hyphen between words.

For example :

Step-son, take-away, Mother-in-law, 

 Classroom, Blackboard. 

But while writing, a
 particular method has to be observed. 

For example 
In case of Blackboard and Black board:
These two words have different meanings. 

Black Board means any board which is black in colour. But in case of Blackboard it is a board black in colour which a teacher uses for teaching students. Similarly take away written separately means to snatch away. But take-away has a particular mode of sending things out of the premises where these are stored or are lying. It also means some message. 

A particular care has to be taken while changing these compound nouns from singular to plural or vice versa. Of the two or three words forming a compound noun the word giving the sense of a noun or the doer has to be changed. 

As in case of Mother-in-law it is mother the main word making a noun and not in-law. So plural will be of mother and not in-law. Its plural will be Mothers - in - law.
But in case of the word only in-law, it will be in-laws.

Some compound words worth studying.


Book- Fair
Carbon paper
Father- in - law
Flower arrangement
Full moon
Master copy
On looker
Passer by
Time table
Upper class
Water tank
Zebra crossing

These words require consideration 
while changing their number.


Book- Fairs
Carbon papers
Fathers- in - law
Flower arrangements
Full moons
Master copies
On lookers
Passers by
Time tables
Upper classes
Water tanks
Zebra crossings

Here are some examples of sentences with compound nouns containing errors relating to their number given in an examination.

1. Last year four commander-in-chiefs were promoted.
2. The passer-bys halted and took rest there.
3. The zebras crossing are for the use of padestrians.
4. Four stairs-carpet were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four walls clock struck four simultaneously.

1. Last year four commanders-in-chief were promoted.
2. The passers-by halted and took rest there.
3. The zebra crossings are for the use of padestrians.
4. Four stair-carpets were spread for drying in the courtyard.
5. All the four wall clocks struck four simultaneously.



Find error in the following sentences.Mark the part which contains the error.

1. Those ladies along with/(1) their mother-in-laws have/(2) gone to attend a family function in the city./(3) NE/(4)

2. She was combing her hairs /(1) which had messed up due to /(2) fast moving wind in the ground./(3) NE(4)

3. The company has requisitioned /(1) more troops from its headquarter to /(2) handle the situation in the city./(3) /NE(4)

4. The police is trying to find out /(1)the whereabout of the culprit/(2)  who is still at large./(3) /NE(4)

5. This piece of land is a bone of contention/(1) between two brothers and /(2) they are always at  loggers-head with each other./(3) /NE(4) 


1. (2) 2. ( 1) 3. (2) 4. (2)  5. (3)


Find out error in the following sentences.

1. The world of today is divided into the groups of haves and haves not.
2. Girls students always excel boy students in the examination.
3. Men after men went to the mall to purchase goods.
4. The committee is looking into the criterions required for the new post.
5. Books fairs are organised these days to inculcate habit of reading books among people. 


1. haves and have-nots
2 Girl students
3. Man after man
4. Criteria
5. Book fairs


1. The sales-man went doors - to - doors to sell his goods.
2. Soon a five stars hotel will be constructed near this mall.
3. She has gone to attend her sister's-in law marriage.
4. We went to John's and Lucy's house yesterday but it was locked.
5. Trees after trees were felled to construct a housing colony.
6. The mother was feeding the child by putting spoonsful of pudding in its mouth.
7. Two man servants of the hotel were on leave on that day.
8. She gathered some twigs and handsful of rose flowers.
9. Piles after piles of debris were removed from the site.
10. Commander-in-chiefs of all the regiments attended the seminar.


1. door -to -door
2. five star hotel
3.  sister in law's
4. John and Lucy's 
5. Tree after tree was
6. spoonfuls
7. men servants
8. handfuls
9. Pile after pile ....was
10. Commanders-in-chief


Friday, 21 January 2022

Error Spotting (Verb - Proper Position of Verb in a Sentence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN


ERROR SPOTTING --- Proper Placing of a verb in a Sentence

A verb has an important place in a sentence. It is necessary that an appropriate form of a verb is used at a proper place in a sentence. It is because other words like subject, object or adverb etc.  in the sentence relate to a verb in the sentence. 

The importance of a verb can be judged from the fact that if one is to write a sentence of one word, that sentence  is of a verb. For example, 'Go' is a single word that carries all the meaning in itself and forms a sentence in imperative form.  

In competitive examinations, there are questions of errors relating to the incorrect form or position of a verb in a sentence.

Here follow some illustrations of it.

In negative or interrogative sentences, there is an error in the use of a singular first form of the verb with do or does.
 Similarly. with did the second form of the verb is used. e.g.

He does not goes to school.
Does he goes to school?
He did not went to school.
Did he went to school?

Inappropriate use of modal verbs with main verbs. 

e.g. He has went with his brother. 

Some verbs like need and dare are used both as a modal verb and main verb. In their cases, s or es and infinitive are not used with them when these are used as a modal verb.

There are errors of  --

-- the use of an abstract noun in place of a verb, 

-- the use of inversion of a verb in the case of a simple assertive sentence.

-- the  use of a participle in place of a verb.

-- incorrect use of a form of a verb of Voice or Narration in a sentence.

For example 
He told that he is on leave that day.
This poem is wrote by a famous poet.

These errors require to be identified for their  rectification. 

Here follow some sentences with such errors for understanding and error rectification.


1. The father could not understand why was his daughter so sad.

2. On entering the room, I found all the books lie on the floor.

3. I would have called him if I had saw him there.

4. You should be presented this box to him.

5. He need to understand your problems.

6. You may need hire a taxi to reach your destination.


1. Inversion in this sentence, 'why was his daughter' is incorrect. It being an assertive sentence, this part should be 'why his daughter was.....' .
2. In this sentence, 'I' is subject, 'found' is its verb, and 'all the books object. Lie is a verb without any subject. It describes the noun 'books' but the verb cannot describe a noun it should be an adjective, it should be a participle as an adjective 'lying'.
3. This is a conditional sentence, In the conditional part of a sentence, third form of verb is used with 'had' So it should be '...if I had seen him..' 
4. This sentence with the verb 'be presented' is in passive form. But is should be in active form. So it is 'You should present this box to him'. 
5. Need in this sentence is a modal verb like should, can or would etc. With a modal verb an infinitive is not used. It is 'He need understand your problems.  

6. In this sentence, 'Need' is used as a main verb. 'May' is a helping verb. With main verb, need, an infinitive, 'to hire' is required.



Find out errors in the following sentences and rectify them.

1. On reaching there, I found that the house of my friend is situated in the farthest corner of the village.

2. He told her that if he goes to his office he would take her along with him.

3. The labourer while digging earth found a pitcher full of coins bury under the ground.

4. The passerby asked the young man which road did lead to the nearest market.

5. He preferred to join his father's business instead of joining a government job after he completes his education.


1. .....my friend was situated...  2. ...if he went to.....  3.....coins buried under...   
4. ....which road led to.....  5. ......after he completed. 


Find out errors in the following sentences and mark their relative part as answers. Mark NE in case there is no error.

1. The general flanked by a large(1) number of armed soldiers was (2) headed towards the enemy's post.(3) NE(4).

2. His father assured his son that he need (1) not to worry about the money (2) required by him as he possessed enough of it with him.(3) NE(4)

3. The children felt much amused (1) when they saw a juggler (2) while played in the garden in the evening.(3) NE (4)

4. I came across, at the hindermost corner of the street, (1) a dandyish appearing young man who wears (2) a flamboyant yellow and green suit and a black coloured hat.(3) NE (4)

5. Having gather the required information, (1) the investigating team got engrossed in preparing its report (2) for its presentation to the chief investigation officer. (3) NE (4)

1. 3. ....heading towards....  2. .....not worry.....  3. (3) .....while playing...  4. ....who wore...   5.  (1) Having gathered.....


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences by selecting appropriate word out of given options. 

1. Once one catches bad cold, it takes about one week or so when one................( (a) recovers/ (b) recovered) from it. 

2. Since he .........((a) is not/(b)has not been) doing this job for some time back, he will not be able to show his performance well at this time.

3. For the time at his disposal is very short, it is advisable for him that he should wind up his work as early as he ....... ( (a).is/ (b)can be) able  to. 

4.The proceedings of the meeting of today were marked by the repeated exchange of .......... ((a) hot/ (b) heated ) arguments among the members. 

5. As it had been raining since morning, we have decided to spend our time ........ ((a) stay/ (b) staying) at home. 

1.a.  2.b.  3.a.  4.b.   5.b.


1. As the house is lying vacant for some time, it needs repair and renovation before you start living in it.

2. Children felt very happy when they saw an aeroplane flown in the sky above their heads.

3. Coleridge could not accompany Shakespeare and Dorothy as hot tea fell on his foot and he burn his foot

4. The little child soon falls sleep when his mother sings lullaby and rocks the cradle.

5. The superintendent instructed that students appear in the examination should affix an attested photograph on their Hall entry card.


This has reference to your editorial 'India holds its own' The Tribune March 24, 2022. India really really deserves appreciation for its approach in th currently on- going Russia Ukraine conflict turned war. Right from the first day of its independence, India has adopted a balanced policy towards the various sects of countries of the world. It has never provoked and helped any country to attack or bully any other country. It is because it never wanted any war against any country nor does it want to usurp any part of any other country. 

India whereas respects its autonomy at the same time honours autonomy of each and every country of the world whether it is a small or big country. It never wants any interference or intrusion by a country into other. It has always treated  its friends and foes equally keeping in view humanitarian interest of the people of the country.

The USA that is calling India 'Shaky' should realise that India is not shaky but is 'Steady' in its relation with other countries. USA should recall relations between two countries when it brought its seventh fleet in India's waters. Then also India showed it's patience and never indulged in any war against any country. It should realise how India has improved its relations with USA and has always gone a step ahead in helping them. India is known for making good relations with warring  countries whether those be Iran- Iraq, Israel- Egypt, or even USA- China.
It is because India has no enmity against any country and it has no intention to provoke any country against any other country. It has always gone to help a country keeping in view the interest of people of that country. The live example of Afganistan should open eyes of the USA where it used its arms and military to bring peace but failed because its intention was not so pure and pious but India always found new ways and methods to help people of that country with its services,food and goods backed by its good intentions behind its actions. USA should instead emulate India and come forward with India to bring peace in that area because innocent people should be saved whether they are in Ukraine or Afganistan. A country should help other country with an intention for development of its people and area and not use as a tool against any other country as USA has been doing in Pakistan against India. 

Tuesday, 18 January 2022

Error Spotting (Subject Identification in a Sentence)- SENTENCES OF COMPETITIVE EXAMINATION QUESTIONS PATTERN

 ERROR SPOTTING --- Identification of Appropriate Subject in a Sentence

In a sentence, Subject, Verb, and Object are its  most important parts. All other parts of speech in the sentence are written in consonance with them. For example Verb, relative pronoun or possessive pronoun used in a sentence are according to its subject. Their variances cause errors. For this reason identification of the proper subject in a sentence is of utmost importance.

In various competitive examinations, there are questions of errors arising due to incorrect identification of  subject and /or other parts of speech relating to it. The identification of an appropriate subject and its relation with other words in the sentence is very essential to find out these errors. 

To explain the point further here follow some illustrations.

In case of a sentence starting with a gerund as its subject singular verb is used e.g.

Playing games like cricket or football is very amusing.

In this sentence,  'Playing' a gerund and used as a noun is subject and words  'games like cricket or football' give further information about it. 
Here 'Playing' is subject. It should not be confused with 'games like cricket or football'.

So verb 'is' according to  a singular subject, 'Playing' , will be used.

Either he or his brothers are at fault.
Neither he nor his friends are at fault.

In the case of either..or, neither ...nor sentences, subject is the noun or pronoun nearer to the verb.

In these cases, they are 'brothers' and 'friends'.

Here verb will be used according to part of the subject nearer to the verb. In the two sentences written above plural verb 'are' will be used according to 'brothers' and 'friends'.

In the case of 'one of the' or; none of the' a plural noun is used after these words.

 For example, 'One of my friends' 'One of those' or 'one of the proposals', etc. 

The verb in this case is used according to the subject. It may be singular or plural as the subject is

Look at the following sentences.

One of my friends has gone abroad.

None of his proposals was accepted.
In these sentences, pronouns 'one' and ' none' are subjects. These should not be confused with friends and proposals.

He is not one of those who shirk work.

This is one of the boxes which were empty.
In these sentences, relative pronouns, ' who' and 'which' describe words immediately prior to them i.e. who describes those and which boxes. So verbs will be used according to these.

Here are similar sentences extracted from question papers of different competitive examinations. 
(Please note that  all of these are adapted.) 


1. To be a king and wear a crown are more glamorous to see than to bear.

2. I am fully aware that my boss is one of those who is totally dedicated to their work.

3. To participate in the contest and win a prize are his ambition.

4. The Principal fined those two students but neither of them were at fault. 

5. Lack of ingredients in appropriate quantity in food lead to its bad taste.  

(All the sentences are adapted from source and  extracted from different question papers of competitive examinations ) 


Find out the error in the following sentences and rectify them.

1. He is one of the borrowers who has not repaid the loan amount.

2. A group of constables were chasing the thief.

3. Neither the students nor their teacher were present in the classroom at that time.

4. Paucity of funds have hindered the smooth working of the project.

5. I want each members of this office should contribute some money for this noble cause.

6. The company had to bear much losses during the previous year.
7. A number of farmers expects rich crops due to good rain fall this year. 

8. It have been only through his help that I am  able  to complete my project.
9. He has got job in one of the biggest enterprise of the country.

10. There is a sect of people in the society that do not believe in such things.


1. who have
2. was
4. has
5. each member
6. many
7. expect
8. It has.... 
9. enterprises
10..... that does


1. All religions teaches to believe in God and do the right but none advocates to do an evil.

2. Modern facilities has made the life of a common man very comfortable but sedentary and lazy. 

3. Harvesting of crops have already been started by farmers during the first week of this month.

4. As thieves in the darkness of night was not visible, they managed to run away.

5. The students and the teacher is planning to go out for a picnic next Sunday.

6. The jury is divided in its judgement. 

7. One of the workers working in the factory have fallen ill and is absent today. 

8. Most of the chapters taught to us by our teacher during this session relates to a single topic.

9. An addition of twenty buses in the local bus service fleet have  improved its service in the city substantially.

10. A group of fifty students of our school have decided to go to nearby villages and undertake job of their cleanliness.

1. teach
2. have
4. were
6. are
7. has
 8.chapters.... relate
9. has improved
10. has


1. The scheme which will be launched during the next two years require an additional investment of one hundred crore

2. These companies have been asked to furnish their financial details and information about its board members.

3. While banks almost always meets the overall target, keeping up with the sub-targets was getting difficult for banks with limited expertise in certain sectors.

4. Not only the students but also the Principal were laughing at the joke, he cracked.

5. The sowing of summer crops such as rice and soybeans and corn have been lagging as a result.

6. Seldom has the discoveries of the world's greatest discoverers like    Copernicus and Galileo been forgotten. 

7. The flood situation in the eastern region of the country remain grim for the fifth day.

8. How many does the cricket bat cost?

9. There was many people who voted for him.

10. Much people attended the feast hosted by the village panchayat.


1. The scheme....... requires
2. about their
3. meet
4......... the principal was... 
5.The sowing..... has
6....... have the.. 
7. remains
8. How much.. 
9. were
10. Many


1. Playing in the park is one of the thing that small children really love.

2. Findings by the investigating team has been sent to the chief investigation officer for his consideration and orders.  

3. My visiting to my family are few and far between.

4. The mother, as well as her children were brought to the police station for interrogation.

5. This coffee is not available in any of the shop in the neighbourhood market.

6. Virat Kohli is one of the best batsman that the world has seen.

7. After a heated argument they went to their respective place.

8. A large number of people opines that demonetazation was not in the interest of the country. 

9. Many people thinks to migrate to other states where ther are enough job opportunities for them.

10. Despite my repeated requests he went out in rain and have caught 

1. the things
2. have
3. is
4. was brought
5..... of the shops... 
6...... best batsmen
 7. places
8. opine
9....... people think.... 
10. ..... he went.... has caught...