Tuesday, 5 November 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , OMISSIONS,SPELLING OR GRAMMAR MISTAKES, - CORRECTING IN A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH



Editing in English Grammar 
Error Spotting - 
Omissions - Spelling or Grammatical Mistakes - Correcting 


The importance of a written work being impeccable or grammatically correct can hardly be undermined. It is of utmost importance that the written work is error free and words are correctly spelled, be it some business correspondence or a document required for an academic purpose. In either case a trivial lapse even  in a document  can cause a big loss to the purpose for which it is created. There should be a flow of continuity and coherence of thoughts in the article.

 The English language is vast, cumbersome and sometimes difficult and thus it requires good practice and  knowledge for writing a document correctly and deftly. A writer generally first prepares a draft of his writing and then checks it to make corrections, amendments or improvements in it. For this knowledge of using an appropriate word at an appropriate place is very essential. This not only makes it correct but also effective and appealing to the mind of the reader. Besides a writing being grammatically correct there are other factors also required to make it perfect. The language used should be correct. There must be coherence of ideas contained in the writing. For this one needs rich vocabulary and complete grasping of the subject. 

The writer always writes a document correctly but mistakes creep in. There may be mistakes of omission, spellings or wrong use of words. One has to spot errors of all types in a draft document. For this it is very important to learn and understand the basic rules of the language such as structure grammar and punctuation.

 In vocabulary building, the problem is not so much finding new words or even finding out what they mean. The problem is to remember them, to fix them permanently in one's mind. One of the effective ways of fixing the meaning of words is getting at the roots of words - taking words apart i.e. to know about prefixes, suffixes and the main word. This makes a word stick.  

For a technical editor it is also necessary to know the purpose and nature of contents of the writing so as to determine what type of the readers the writer is addressing to. This will help in making the writing more purposeful and effective.










Here  are passages for practice of editing a draft.


ONE


In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words. Spot the errors and correct them.



People reside in the vincity of a  hinterland near the ocean generally  is fond for taking sea food. Most fish is the principal food of these people as  is easily avalable in the area. There are different specis of fish that are used  food by the people. Fugu is one of the species of fish used as food to people. Koreans relish eat delicious food of Fugu fish which is also known  puffer fish. It is a fish in small size. It has spikes with its body which it uses  saving itself from its enemies in the ocean. Its spikes containing a type of poison that it injects in the enemy. Due  these spikes this fish is considered as a danger fish.         


On reading the stanza written above one easily finds errors in the underlined words. After correcting these errors sentences will be as under.




People residing in the vicinity of a  hinterland near the ocean generally are fond of taking sea food. Mostly fish is the principal food of these people as it is easily available in the area. There are different species of fish that are used as food by the people. Fugu is one of the species of fish used as food by people. Koreans relish eating delicious food of Fugu fish which is also known as puffer fish. It is a fish of small size. It has spikes on its body which it uses to save itself from its enemies in the ocean. Its spikes contain a type of poison that it injects into the enemy. Due to these spikes this fish is considered as a dangerous fish.         



TWo

The following sentences have mistakes of spellings, grammar and missing words. Trace out the errors and correct them. 



The task _ cyber security experts today become thoroughly engaging and challenge by hackers and cyber criminals constantly upping there game. Cyber security is a rapid expending field full of much exciting work profiles. Since the risk of cyber attacks is great than ever, companies are fighting to full their ranks of professionals which can protect theirs information and networks against cyber infringements. Whyle the roles played with cyber security experts differs from profile by profile, the basic job remains the same too monitor, investigate and advice on how to stay save in cyber world. A background on technology and IT though are necessary prerequisite for a expert but he needs to constantly update oneself with not only the latest gadgets and tools but also within the latest trends and happening in the domain.




SOLUTION

The task of cyber security experts today becomes thoroughly engaging and challenging with hackers and cyber criminals constantly upping their game. Cyber security is a rapidly expanding field full of many exciting work profiles. Since the risk of cyber attacks is greater than ever, companies are fighting to fill their ranks with professionals who can protect their information and networks against cyber infringements. While the roles played by cyber security experts differ from profile to profile, the basic job remains the same to monitor, investigate and advise on how to stay safe in cyber world. A background in technology and IT though is necessary prerequisite for an expert yet he needs to constantly update himself with not only the latest gadgets and tools but also with the latest trends and happenings in the domain.



EXERCISE FOR PRACTICE



ONE

In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words in sentences. Find out and mark the errors.




Nuclear fission is a process with 
which a unstable atom splits
by two or more smaller pieces 
that is more stable.The fission
 of heavy elements is a exothermic
 reacition and huge  amounts of 
energy is released in the process.
Most of this are binary fissions
 that produce two charged frigments.
 Extra neutrons  also released in
the process and these can then spleet
 additional atoms, resulting at a chain
 reaction that releases  lot of energy.
There are also way to modulate the 
chain reaction with  soaking up the 
neutrons. Within the nucleus their
are diferent forces that act between
the particle. The strong nuclear force 
is the forces between two or more
 nucleons. This force bind protons 
and neutrons togather inside the
 nucleus. The electromagnatic force
 causes the repulsion between likely 
charged protons.These too forces
 produce opposite affect in the
 nucleus. The former act to hold
all protons and neutrons togather 
whiel the electromagnetic force
 act to push protons farther apart.







SOLUTION


Nuclear fission is a process by 
which an unstable atom splits
into two or more smaller pieces 
that are more stable.The fission
 of heavy elements is an exothermic
 reaction and huge  amounts of 
energy are released in the process.
Most of these are binary fissions
 that produce two charged fragments.
 Extra neutrons  are also released in
the process and these can then split
 additional atoms, resulting into a chain
 reaction that releases a lot of energy.
There are also ways to modulate the 
chain reaction by soaking up the 
neutrons. Within the nucleus there
are different forces that act between
the particles. The strong nuclear force 
is the force between two or more
 nucleons. This force binds protons 
and neutrons together inside the 
nucleus.The electromagnetic force 
causes the repulsion between like 
charged protons. These two forces 
produce opposite effect in the
 nucleus.The former acts to hold
 all protons and neutrons together 
while the electromagnetic force 
acts to push protons further apart.




TWO

In the following passage, there are mistakes of grammar, spellings and missing words in sentences. Find out and mark the errors.

The benifits of homework  students is the most debate issue among teachers,parents and
students. The very word evokes  great negative connotations to everyone involvd, students, parents and teachers. A majorty of the people think of homework for doing more harm then good in causing unnecessary stress for everyone. Others believes that it developes a habit of thinking more independantly among students. One benifit of homework is that it helps students to work togather among teachers and parents. Parents too got more involved their children's educational life. Homework make the students more responsible  the habit of discipline and punctuality. But the quantam of homework remain the issue that how homework should be given to a student.




SOLUTION


The benefits of homework to students is the most debated issue among teachers,parents and students. The very word evokes  great negative connotations to everyone involved, students, parents and teachers. A majority of the people think of homework as doing more harm than good by causing unnecessary stress to everyone. Others believe that it develops a habit of thinking more independently among students. One benefit of homework is that it helps students to work together with teachers and parents. Parents too get more involved in their children's educational life. Homework makes the students more responsible by the habit of discipline and punctuality. But the quantum of homework remains the issue that how much homework should be given to a student.












Thursday, 31 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , OMISSIONS - MISSING WORDS - CORRECTING IN A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH


Editing in English Grammar 
- Error Spotting - Omissions - Missing words - Correcting 



A writer writes about what he thinks or observes around himself. First he accumulates all this in his mind and then he puts it  down in writing through an appropriate medium i.e. language or words. This all is an instantaneous and continuous process. Further it is written too with a similar pace. In the process of writing sometimes the writer thinks certain words in his mind but skips those while writing and this goes unnoticed. This is called omission of words which requires correction for a correct and complete final form of writing. This correcting of omitted words also forms a part of Editing in English Grammar. To understand it better here is a sentence.


Editing is generally during proof reading.

By a casual reading one gets the idea what the writer wants to convey in this sentence but reading it again makes it clear that there is something missing in the sentence. It becomes clear that the main verb in this sentence is missing. So the correct form of the sentence will be as under.

Editing is generally done during proof reading.

In an examination a short text with one omission in each line is given. A candidate is required to find out and provide the words, a clause or a phrase missing in the given sentence or paragraph. Numbered blanks are provided with each line for writing the corrected word. The missing word is to be written with the words prior to it and after it. In the sentence written above it will be -

generally - done - during

In such cases, generally, omission of following types of words are observed.These are to be kept in mind while attempting these questions.

First of all there are omissions relating to tenses or verb forms which are to be noticed and corrected.

In many cases there are omissions of prepositions in these sentences. Proper preposition is required to be used in the sentence.

Sometimes articles or determiners are missing in the sentences. These are to be identified and be provided in the sentence. Similarly conjunctions too are required to provided in the sentences.

In certain cases proper pronouns are not used in the sentences. These are required to be corrected.

In certain cases number of nouns is also not used correctly. These also require to be checked and corrected. 

For this purpose a fair good knowledge of vocabulary and grammar is essential. The very first reading of draft or manuscript gives an idea of missing links between different parts of the text. So reading time and again makes the omissions clearer to the reader.

First of all read the complete passage or text to understand the purpose of writing of the writer. This will also give first hand assessment about style and language used.Try to understand the use of tense in the passage. See that appropriate tense is used in all the sentences. For this subject and verb relation too is to be checked and corrected where it is incorrect. Sometimes modals or main verbs are not used correctly. Either of these two is sometimes missing in sentences.

Here under are some exercises of omissions for practice.



ONE



The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.

1. Both sisters  exceedingly     
       sisters are exceedingly

intelligent but the younger 

beautiful than the elder .



2. In her room a candle
      a candle was
 burning dimly the table and

 she was sitting alone the

 chair looking the wall.



3. Time is precious than
more precious  

money. It said that Money 

 lost can regained but time

once lost can't recalled.





SOLUTION 




1. Both sisters  exceedingly     
       sisters are exceedingly

intelligent but the younger is 


beautiful than the elder one.



2. In her room a candle

       was
 burning dimly on the table and

 she was sitting alone in the


 chair looking at the wall.




3. Time is more precious than

more precious  

money. It is said that Money 


 lost can be regained but time


once lost can't be recalled.




TWO


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.





One day during  last week I 

 my friends was travelling 

by a car. After we covered a 

little distance when heard a 

great noise  the road side. We 
saw that many people  gathered 
near  big building. They were moving 
here and there in confusion. Some 
them  shouting loudly. We stopped
our car and went  that place. We
saw that the building was fire. Many 
persons were stranded  the building. 
A fire fighting engine  standing there 
and firemen were trying  douse the fire 
but they were not able to control. 
 A large number  flames coming out
 of the building were flying high  
 sky. People standing there told me 
 that a rubber factory and the building
 caught fire due electric short circuiting.
 The firemen with  help of local people
 were able to draw  a large number of
 labourers stuck  the factory. The 
 site presenting a very heart rending
 scene. We felt very sad see all this.






SOLUTION



One day during the last week I 
with my friends was travelling 
by a car. After we had covered a 
little distance when we heard a 
great noise on the road side. We 
saw that many people were gathered 
near a big building. They were moving 
here and there in confusion. Some of
them were shouting loudly. We stopped
our car and went near that place. We
saw that the building was on fire. Many 
persons were stranded inside the building. 
A fire fighting engine was standing there 
and firemen were trying to douse the fire 
but they were not able to control it.
 A large number of flames coming out
 of the building were flying high towards 
 sky. People standing there told me that

 that was a rubber factory and the building
 caught fire due to electric short circuiting.
 The firemen with the help of local people
 were able to draw out a large number of
 labourers stuck inside the factory. The 
 site was presenting a very heart rending
 scene. We felt very sad to see all this.













THREE


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



The food we consume daily    
daily is
converted  glucose, which
fuels the cells  the body. The
excess glucose in the system 
stored in the form  fat. Insulin,
a hormone made  the pancreas,
is a shuttle  the glucose in the
system. If the system  excess
 glucose,  insulin production
goes . If one regularly binges
eat then the body ends  
requiring more insulin  shuttle
the glucose  cells. this is 
referred  pre-diabetes or
insulin resistance. One need
then few healthy dietary 
changes  lifestyle modifications
 help prevent the onset 

 pre-diabetes or control diabetes.







SOLUTION
The food we consume daily is
converted into glucose, which
fuels the cells in the body. The
excess glucose in the system is 
stored in the form of fat. Insulin,
a hormone made by the pancreas,
is a shuttle for the glucose in the
system. If the system has excess
 glucose, the insulin production
goes up. If one regularly binges
eat then the body ends up 
requiring more insulin to shuttle
the glucose to cells. this is 
referred as pre-diabetes or
insulin resistance. One needs
then a few healthy dietary 
changes and lifestyle modifications
that help prevent the onset 
of pre-diabetes or control diabetes.







FOUR


The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error of omission in each sentence. Point out the error, write the missing word with words prior or after omission. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.



Way information technology 
 and artificial intelligence are 
influencing society, the human teacher 
be replaced by mechanical teachers 
future. Children  learn individually
 home sans school, sans human teachers.
" It is difficult to say what  impossible 
for the dream  yesterday is the
 hope of today and  reality of 
tomorrow. " says  educationist. If
learning was to  only about acquiring 
information , robot or tele-teacher 
would be the right choice but  educate 
a person meant only  stuff him or her
 facts or figures. " Education is
not filling  a pail but the lighting 
 a fire." says W.B. Yeats. One
wonders  a machine will be able
to light a fire  the young hearts.
Devoid  human warmth and 
emotions,  the electronic educator
ever be able to establish  emotional

bond between  teacher and students









SOLUTION

The way information technology 
 and artificial intelligence are influencing
influencing society, the human teacher will 
be replaced by mechanical teachers in
future. Children will learn individually
at home sans school, sans human teachers.
" It is difficult to say what is impossible 
for the dream of yesterday is the
 hope of today and the reality of 
tomorrow. " says an educationist. If
learning was to be only about acquiring 
information , a robot or tele-teacher 
would be the right choice but to educate 
a person meant only to stuff him or her
with facts or figures. " Education is
not filling of a pail but the lighting 
of a fire." says W.B. Yeats. One
wonders if a machine will be able
to light a fire in the young hearts.
Devoid of human warmth and 
emotions, will the electronic educator
ever be able to establish an emotional
bond between a teacher and students.




Tuesday, 22 October 2019

EDITING IN ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- ERROR SPOTTING , CORRECTING ERRORS AND PUNCTUATING A SENTENCE OR PARAGRAPH



English Grammar Editing 
- Error Spotting, Correcting And Punctuating.


Editing  starts with the inception of thoughts about writing in writer's mind. The writer first of all forms a thought in his mind to write something and then translates that idea into sentences to bring it on paper. But consciously or  unconsciously he then  starts thinking  of writing it in a better way. Thus in a way editing starts when writing itself starts. By the time the thoughts or concepts in the writer's mind come into a written form they already have undergone the process of editing.


Generally a writer notes down what comes to his mind about the topic. He  goes through it and rethinks about the concept. He brings a better version of it in his mind and puts it down by correcting or improving the previous written- version. What a writer writes in the first go is called a draft. The writer  reads this draft again and it may go for a number of times. He, during this process, goes on improving the version of his writing. This is called on-going editing.  


For editing a given draft sentence or paragraph, one has to know what the writer thought while writing. His thoughts should synchronize with those of the writer. One should also know the way of presentation of thoughts required by the writer. Only then a writing can be edited.

A writing involves use of words and phrases in the way as the writer wants to impress upon the reader. So a  proper use of language and words is very essential to know while editing a writing. Vocabulary is the key ingredient required for editing. A complete knowledge about the subject or topic and its terminology is very essential for editing.    

Before editing one should read and re-read the given sentence or paragraph to bring home the basic idea contained in it from the point of view of the writer.

For the purpose of the examination certain key points are necessary to know while editing  a given passage or a sentence. It is essential to know about the subject and the language used in the passage. One should try to understand the idea contained in the passage and the meaning of the words used in it.

First of all  a casual reading from beginning to the end of the paragraph should be given. This gives a sketchy idea of the subject matter. To make the idea clearer the passage be read again until it is well understood. Locate difficult words and know their meanings. If a word is not clear try to know its meaning by linking it with other words and find out the underneath thought meant to be conveyed by the writer. Make sure that appropriate words are used according to the subject contained in the passage. Sometimes similar words with different meanings are used to confuse the candidates. Replace such words with the correct words. Punctuate the passage as and wherever required. After making corrections read the passage again and try to note if there is still any amendment or improvement required in it. Vocabulary is the main tool that helps in the process. Besides practice paves the way for an effective form of editing.  

To sum up steps for editing English Grammar


  • Good Command over English Language.
  • Know Purpose of Editing.
  • Knowledge of style of Editing.
  • Proper grasping of the subject.
  • Thorough Reading
  • Spotting of Errors


Here follow some exercises for practice of candidates. 


ONE



The following sentences have not been edited. There is one error  in each sentence. Point out the error, write the incorrect word and the correction against each sentence. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


1. His house is far from my.                           my - mine.

2. She told her mother that 
    she will not be able to visit her uncle that day.
   
3. He will not go to the office if it will rain tomorrow.
     

4. The reason why he failed 
     is that he did not work hard.

5. I as well as my brother is
     at fault.

6. He has left this house yesterday.

7. The teacher forbade the students not to disturb him.
    
8. He put me out with a lame excuse.

9. She and her  younger brother enjoyed himself in
our company.

10. The patient is too weak that he cannot walk even.
      







SOLUTION



1. His house is far from my.
 my - mine
2. She told her mother that 
    she will not be able to visit
     her uncle that day.


 Will - would
3. He will not go to the office
     if  it will rain tomorrow.

Will rain - rains
4. The reason why he failed 
     is that he did not work hard
 Why - that
5. I as well as my brother is
     at fault.

 Is -am
6. He has left this house yesterday.
 has left - left
7. The teacher forbade the students not to disturb him.
  not to - to
8. He put me out with a lame excuse.
    Put me out- put me off
9. She and her  younger brother 
    enjoyed himself in our     
    company.
 Himself - themselves
10. The patient is too weak that
      He cannot walk even.

  Too - so













TWO



The following paragraph has not been edited. There is one error  in each line. Write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. Underline the word you have supplied. One is done as an example.


 Once a king rules in a state. The king      rules in - ruled over 

was very cheerful and his queen always        

remained very sad. She always remain          

in a pensive mood most sitting in her            

chamber. This made the king worry and

he tried to find out the reason for her

sadness. The queen's maids also attempt

to make her happy but no avail. The

king made a announcement in his state

that he will give a huge amount as a prize

to the person who make the queen happy.

Many people came and try but none 

was successful. One day a sage came by

the king and told him that he wants to 

try  make the queen happy. The king gave

to him his permission. The sage brought

a number of small children with himself.

As the queen saw those children she start

playing with theirs. She spent a lot of

time with them. She felt very happy with

their accompany. She did not want to 

leave them. This gave immense enjoy to

both the king and queen because they

had no issues of their own. The king 

thank the sage and gave him a lot of 

money as reward to his act.






SOLUTION

Once a king rules in a state. The king 
Rules in  -  ruled over
was very cheerful and his queen always 

And -but
remained very sad. She always remain          

Remain- remained
in a pensive mood most sitting in her            

Most - mostly
chamber. This made the king worry and

Worry - worried
he tried to find out the reason for her

For - of
sadness. The queen's maids also attempt

Attempt - attempted
to make her happy but no avail. The

no avail – to no avail
king made a announcement in his state

A - an
that he will give a huge amount as a prize

Will - would
to the person who make the queen happy
Make - made
Many people came and try but none 

try - tried
was successful. One day a sage came by

By - to
the king and told him that he wants to 

Wants -wanted
try  make the queen happy. The king gave

Make - to
to him his permission. The sage brought

to him - him
a number of small children with himself.
As the queen saw those children she start

himself - him




start - started
playing with theirs. She spent a lot of

Theirs - them
time with them. She felt very happy with

With -in
their accompany. She did not want to 

Accompany - company
leave them. This gave immense enjoy to
.

Enjoy - joy
both the king and queen because they

And queen – the queen
had no issues of their own. The king 

Issues - issue
thank the sage and gave him a lot of 

Thank - thanked
money as reward to his act.
To - for






THREE






The following sentences have not been edited. Each line contains  one error . Spot the error, write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. One is done as an example.


Elimination for child labour is undoubtedly   for -of
one of the biggest challenge facing our 
country. Various article of the constitution
prohibits  the employment of children in
factories. Under Article 24, it has stated
that no child below the ages of fourteen
shall be employed in any factory.Once 
person asked a miner boy working 
in a factory why he works there
 and if he does not know that law
 does not permit that. He politely
 replied that he not knows laws
 but he knew that he works
because he needs money. 
His father does not have money 
enough to run family expenditure.





SOLUTION


Elimination of child labour is undoubtedly           for -of

one of the biggest challenges facing our

 country. Various articles of the constitution

prohibit  the employment of children in 

factories. Under Article 24, it has been stated

that no child below the age of fourteen

will be employed in any factory. Once 

person asked a minor boy working 

in a factory why he worked there

 and if he did not know that law

 did not permit that. He politely

 replied that he did not know laws

 but he knew that he worked

because he needed money. 

His father did not have money 

enough to run family expenses.












FOUR





The following sentences have not been edited. Each line contains  one error . Spot the error, write the incorrect words and the correction against the correct question number. One is done as an example.




There lived a old woman in                             a- an
a small village. She lived lonely
at her house. Her children lived
separate in a nearby city after
she lose her husband a couple
of year ago. She earned her
livelihood from doing odd
domestic jobs in people
houses. She was content for
her lot. She had been always
very cheerful. She is always
went for the village temple
daily in the morning everyday.
 She never demand 
nothing from God. One day
the temple preest asked her
why she comes to the temple
daily. She replied that she comes
to telling the God that His
selection is excellent when He
selects her for His all favours.
She came to thanks God also.






SOLUTION




There lived an old woman

 in a small village. She lived alone 

in her house. Her children lived  

separately in a nearby city after 

she  lost her husband a couple 

of years ago. She earned her

 livelihood by doing odd 

domestic jobs in people's 

houses. She was content with 

her lot. She was always 

very cheerful. She is  always

 went to the village temple 

dailin the morning everyday. 

She never demanded 

anything from God. One day 

the temple priest asked her 

why she came to the temple 

daily. She replied that she came

 to tell the God that His

 selection was excellent when He 

selected her for His all favours. 

She came to thank Him also.