Sunday, 15 March 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH -CONVERSION OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH FROM ONE TO ANOTHER -- EXPLANATION WITH EXAMPLES



Generally a sentence comprises of  two parts i.e. Subject and Predicate. But different Parts of speech  i.e.  Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction and interjection etc. form a sentence and these have a specific role according to their use in the sentence.

Different words are used as different parts of speech in a sentence but sometimes one word is used as different parts according to its use in the sentence. A word can be used as more than one parts of speech also. For example as the same word is used as a noun, verb or adjective etc. in the following sentences.


BACK

NOUN - He carried a log on his back.
VERB  - He did not back me in this case.
ADJECTIVE - He went through the back door. 
ADVERB - He turned back to look at me.



WELL

NOUN - He has sunk a well in the field.
ADJECTIVE - Villagers use well water to drink.
ADVERB - He feels well now.
VERB - Tears welled up in her eyes.
CONJUNCTION - He qualified the test ; well, I did not
expect it of him.



These sentences show that the same word Back or Well is being used as a Noun, Adjective, Verb or Adverb. 

But besides this, words are also  formed from one part to another  i.e. an Adjective or Adverb  formed from a Noun, a Verb formed from a Noun or an Adjective etc. This is called Formation of Parts of Speech.

Following examples will make the point clear.


FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS

Verbs       Nouns

Advise  - Advice
Break   - Breech
Choose - Choice
Drink - Draught
Draw - Draft
Enter - Entrance
Flow - Flood
Grieve - Grief
Hinder - Hindrance
Inform - Information
Invent - Invention
Live - Life
Lose - Loss
Permit - Permission
Prove - Proof
Refuse - Refusal
Speak - Speech
Weave - Web       



FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES

ADJECTIVES     NOUNS

Active                 Activity
Absent                Absence
Brief                   Brevity
Broad                 Breadth
Coward              Cowardice
Certain               Certainty
Equal                  Equality
Eminent              Eminence
Free                     Freedom
Fertile                  Fertility
Generous             Generosity
Grand                  Grandeur 
High                     Height
Humble                Humility
Inferior                 Inferiority
Just                       Justice
Long                     Length
Loyal                    Loyalty
Moist                     Moisture
Noble                    Nobility
Poor                      Poverty
Rival                      Rivalry 
Royal                    Royalty
Scarce                   Scarcity
Secure                   Security
Timid                     Timidity 
Vain                       Vanity
Young                    Youth


  


FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM NOUNS




NOUNS            ADJECTIVES
Angle                    Angular
Angel                    Angelic
Boy                      Boyish
Brass                    Brazen
Day                       Daily
Essence                Essential
Enemy                  Inimical
Frost                     Frosty
Fury                      Furious
Glory                    Glorious
Grace                   Gracious 
Greed                   Greedy
Industry                Industrious
Iron                       Ironical
Ignorance              Ignorant 
Joy                         Joyful
Live                       Lively
Love                      Lovely
Labour                   Laborious
Mystery                  Mysterious
Mirth                      Mirthful
Man                        Manly
Nature                     Natural
Nation                     National
Palace                      Palatial   
Particle                    Particular
Price                        Precious
People                      Popular
Pride                         Proud
Quarrel                     Quarrelsome 
Rain                          Rainy
Sense                        Sensible
Silk                            Silken
Star                           Starry
Table                         Tabular
Talk                           Talkative
Terror                        Terrible 
Type                          Typical
Vice                           Vicious
Vigour                       Vigorous
Virtue                        Virtuous
Voice                         Vocal
Will                            Wilful
War                            Warlike
Wood                         Wooden
Worth                         Worthy
Year                           Yearly
Youth                         Young    
Zeal                            Zealous
     


FORMATION OF VERBS FROM NOUNS



NOUNS                   VERBS         

Air                          Aerify
Action                     Act
Authority                Authorise
Belief                       Believe
Blood                      Bleed
Body                       Embody
Breath                     Breathe
Breadth                   Broaden
Class                       Classify
Critic                       Criticise
Circle                      Encircle
Courage                  Encourage
Centre                     Centralize
Danger                    Endanger
Drop                        Drip
Example                  Exemplify
Electricity               Electrify
Election                   Elect
Fool                         Befool
Force                       Enforce
Frost                        Freeze
Friend                      Befriend
Food                        Feed
Grass                       Graze
Glass                       Glaze
Glory                       Glorify
Gait                          Go
Habit                        Habituate
Half                          Halve
Haste                        Hasten
Heir                          Inherit
Head                         Behead
Height                       Heighten
Health                       Heal
Knee                         Kneel
Knot                         Knit     
Memory                   Memorize
Nation                      Nationalize
Necessity                 Necessitate
Office                      Officiate 
Origin                      Originate 
  

FORMATION OF VERBS FROM ADJECTIVES

 ADJECTIVES     VERBS

Able    -  Enable
Brief   - Abbreviate
Bold  -Embolden
Clean  - Cleanse
Clear - Clarify
Dear  - Endear
Dark - Darken
Equal - Equalize
Fond - Fondle
Fresh  - Refresh
Full - Fill
Glad - Gladden
Hard - Harden
Humble - Humiliate
Just - Justify
Large - Enlarge
Little - Belittle
New - Renew
Real - Realize
Sure - Ensure
Thick - Thicken
Wide - Widen
White - Whiten









FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVE      NOUNS

Absurd     -  Absurdity
Accurate  - Accuracy
Brutal  - Brutality
Candid  - Candour
Chaste - Chastity
Dear - Dearth
Dear - Dearness
Dense - Density
Enormous - Enormity
Frail - Frailty
Frequent - Frequency
Gallant - Gallantry
Hot - Heat
Hard - Hardship
Intense - Intensity
Liberal - Liberality
Moist - Moisture
Notorious - Notoriety 
Pious - Piety
Rare - Rarity
Solid - Solidity
Solitary - Solitude
Uniform - Uniformity
Vicious - Vice
Wide - Width
Young - Youth




FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES           ADJECTIVES 

Two - Twofold
Many - Manifold
Economic - Economical
Whole - Wholesome
Tragic - Tragical
Black  - Blackish
Green - Greenish
Red - Reddish
White - Whitish
Yellow - Yellowish

FORMATION OF ADVERBS FROM ADJECTIVES


ADJECTIVES             ADVERBS 

Absolute - Absolutely
Adequate - Adequately
Apparent - Apparently
Bold - Boldly
Careful - Carefully
Efficient - Efficiently
Full - Fully
High - Highly
Quick - Quickly
Slow - Slowly
Swift - Swiftly




FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM FOREIGN WORDS


WORDS           ADJECTIVES 

Body  - Corporal
Brother - Fraternal
Cat - Feline
Church - Ecclesiastical
City - Civic
Citizen - Civic
Cow - Bovine
Daughter - Filial
Son - Filial
Dog - Canine
Devil - Diabolic
Death - Mortal
Earth - Terrestrial
East - Oriental
Egg - Oval
Father - Paternal
Mother - Maternal
Flesh - Carnal
Flower - Floral
Foot - Pedal
Friend- Amicable
God - Divine
Hand - Manual
Head - Capital
Heaven- Celestial
Hell - Infernal
Home - Domestic
Husband - Conjugal
Wife - Conjugal
King - Regal
Male- Masculine
Female - Feminine
Man - Human
Moon - Lunar
Nose - Nasal
Night - Nocturnal
Sea - Marine
Ship - Naval
Sky - Ethereal
Sun - Solar
Tooth - Dental
Town - Urban
Village - Rural
Year - Annual



















Tuesday, 14 January 2020

ENGLISH GRAMMAR -- PARTS OF SPEECH -EXERCISES OF DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH WITH SOLUTION AND EXPLANATION.

PARTS OF SPEECH--       


DIFFERENT PARTS OF SPEECH-- EXERCISES  
FOR PRACTICE

Meaning, Types , Definitions,  
Explanation with Examples.  

Different Parts of speech in a sentence are Noun, Pronoun, Adjective, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, Conjunction, interjection etc. having their own place and role in the sentence.


NOUN

Noun is a word expressing about a person, place, thing or a state or condition. It is the name of a person, place or a thing.

Name of a thing -- Table, Book.
Name of a Place -- Temple, Paris.
Name of a Person -- John, Lucy.
Name of a Quality -- Honesty, Strength.
Name of a Deed -- Choice, Work.
Name of Condition -- Stupor, Rest.

The word 'thing' stated above includes all the objects which one can see, hear. taste, touch or smell and also something that one can perceive, think or imagine but cannot feel by senses.



EXERCISE

ONE

Use the noun form of the given words in parentheses to fill in the blanks in the following sentences.

1. It is a matter of ......... (wise) if you take care of your health.
2. He did not understand the ........... (grave) 0f the matter.
3. The .......... (scarce) of foodgrains has upsurged their prices.
4. She has been living in this house since her ........ (child).
5. They lost their valuables in the ......... (thief).
6. His father's ......... (advise) fell flat on him.
7. This beautiful building is famous for its ....... (grand).
8. This was an act of ...........(coward) on her part.
9. It is her ........ (assume) only and not a fact.
10.The project started after ........ its (approve).  



TWO

Change the following words into their Noun form.

Apprehend , Contain, Assume, Excel,Defer,Grief,
Hasten, Humble, Essential, Popular.



THREE


Change the following Adjectives into their Noun form.

Brief, Long, Rival, High, Scarce, Pious, Moist, Vain, Equal, Short.




FOUR



Change the following Verbs into their Noun form.

Enclose, Resolve, Fly, Strive, Try, Handle, Omit, Horrify, Descend,Brood.











SOLUTION

ONE

Use the noun form of the given words in parentheses to fill in the blanks in the following sentences.

1. It is a matter of wisdom (wise) if you take care of your health.
2. He did not understand the gravity (grave) 0f the matter.
3. The scarcity (scarce) of foodgrains has upsurged their prices.
4. She has been living in this house since her childhood (child).
5. They lost their valuables in the theft (thief).
6. His father's advice (advise) fell flat on him.
7. This beautiful building is famous for its grandeur (grand).
8. This was an act of cowardice (coward) on her part.
9. It is her assumption (assume) only and not a fact.
10.The project started after its  approval (approve).  



TWO

Change the following words into their Noun form.

Apprehend , Contain, Assume, Excel, Defer, Grieve,
Hasten, Humble, Essential, Popular.


Apprehend - Apprehension
 Contain - Content 
Assume - Assumption
Excel - Excellence 
Defer - Deference
Grieve - Grief
Hasten - Haste
Humble - Humility
Essential - Essence
Popular - Popularity



THREE


Change the following Adjectives into their Noun form.

Brief, Long, Rival, High, Scarce, Pious, Moist, Vain, Equal,

Short.

Brief - Brevity
 Long - Longevity
 Rival - Rivalry 
 High - Height 
Scarce- Scarcity 
 Pious - Piety
 Moist- Moisture 
 Vain - Vanity
 Equal - Equality
Short - Shortage.



FOUR



Change the following Verbs into their Noun form.

Enclose, Resolve, Fly, Strive, Try, Handle, Omit, Horrify, Descend,

Brood. 

Enclose - Enclosure
Resolve - Resolution
Fly - Flight
Strive - Strife
Try - Trial
Handle - Hand
Omit - Omission
Horrify - Horror
Descend - Descent
Brood - Breed












PRONOUN

Pronoun is a word used in place of a noun. 
For example --
John is poor, he cannot help you.

In this sentence John is a noun and 'he' is 
a pronoun used in place of the noun 'John'.

First Person -- 
Subject -Singular - I, Plural -- We.
Possessive - My , Our
Object -- Me, Us.

Second Person -- 
Subject -Singular & Plural --You.
Possessive - Your
Object -- You.

Third Person --

Subject -Singular - He,She Plural --They.

Possessive - His, Her, Their.

Object -- Him, Her, Them.









EXERCISE 

ONE


Fill in the blanks in the following sentence by forming suitable pronouns of the words given in parentheses.


1. This is my book which is ....... (you) ?

2. I ......... (my) cleaned my room.
3. The town ......... (it) is not very large.
4. Both the sisters love ........ (each)
5. By his deeds he will harm ....... (him)
6. They are managing ........(they) affairs.......(they).
7. ........(who) books were stolen yesterday? 
8. They scored as many goals as ........ (us).
9. I saw ........(she) brother coming there.
10. Nobody came to ....... (he) rescue.


TWO


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate interrogative pronoun out of the given options.


(Who, Whom, Which, Whoever, Whomever, Whichever, Whose, What)


1. .......... is better honour or riches?

2. .......... , do you consider, is right?
3. ......... do you consider as your leader?
4. ......... do you want to  see ?
5. ......... am I speaking to, please?
6. .......... did you accompany to the market?
7. ...........do you believe did this?
8. ......... do you like her or her sister?
9. ...... is competent will be selected.
10. Select ....... you consider competent.



THREE



Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate relative  pronoun.

1. Did you receive the parcel ....... I sent to you?

2. I need such a person .......... you are.
3. There is no one ........ has not lost a friend.
4. No man can lose ....... he never had.
5. You should emulate such a man ..... he.
6. She is a woman ....... you can confide.
7. He is a man ......... you can trust.
8. Where is the book ....... I gave you?
9. Those men ..... do not work must fail.
10. One must get ......... he deserves.


FOUR
Join the following pair of sentences by means of Relative Pronoun.

1. I saw an old man. He cannot walk even.
2. I saw a child. He is very lovely.

3. He is a cheat. No one trusts him.
4. I saw a girl. She is very beautiful.
5. This woman is virtuous. All respect her.



FIVE 
Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the mistakes.


1.Who did you see in the garden?
2. The book whom I like the most is sold.
3. Either of the two boys are intelligent.
4. His brother is the person which is to blame.
5. Such women who are virtuous are respected.
6. As many thieves who were arrested were put behind the bars.
7. He who we worship, the God, gives us gifts.
8. I which am your captain will lead you. 
9. He and me are invited to the party.
10. Everyone is frightened when they see a lion. 




SOLUTION


EXERCISE 


ONE


Fill in the blanks in the following sentence by forming suitable pronouns of the words given in parentheses.


1. This is my book which is yours (you) ?

2. I myself (my) cleaned my room.
3. The town itself (it) is not very large.
4. Both the sisters love each other (each)
5. By his deeds he will harm himself (him).
6. They are managing their (they) affairs themselves (they).
7. Whose (who) books were stolen  yesterday? 
8. They scored as many goals as we (us).
9. I saw her (she) brother coming there.
10. Nobody came to his (he) rescue.


TWO


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate interrogative pronoun out of the given options.


(Who, Whom, Which, Whoever, Whomever, Whichever, Whose,What)


1. What is better honour or riches?

2. Who , do you consider, is right?
3. Whom do you consider as your leader?
4. Whom do you want to  see ?
5. Whom am I speaking to, please?
6. Whom did you accompany to the market?
7. Who do you believe did this?
8. Whom do you like her or her sister?
9. Whoever is competent will be selected.
10. Select whomever  you consider competent.



THREE



Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with an appropriate relative  pronoun.

1. Did you receive the parcel that I sent to you?

2. I need such a person as you are.
3. There is no one who has not lost a friend.
4. No man can lose what he never had.
5. You should emulate such a man as he.
6. She is a woman whom you can confide.
7. He is a man whom you can trust.
8. Where is the book that I gave you?
9. Those men who do not work must fail.
10. One must get what he deserves.



FOUR 
Join the following pair of sentences by means of Relative Pronoun.

1. I saw an old man who cannot walk even.
2. I saw a child that is very lovely.

3. He is a cheat so no one trusts him.
4. I saw a girl who is very beautiful.
5. This woman is virtuous so all respect her.



FIVE 
Rewrite the following sentences after correcting the mistakes.


1.Whom did you see in the garden?
2. The book which I like the most is sold.
3. Either of the two boys is intelligent.
4. His brother is the person who is to blame.
5. Such women as are virtuous are respected.
6. As many thieves as were arrested were put behind the bars.
7. He whom we worship, the God, gives us gifts.
8. I who am your captain will lead you. 
9. He and I are invited to the party.
10. Everyone is frightened when he sees a lion. 









ADJECTIVE



A word used to add to the meaning of a noun or a pronoun is called an Adjective. For example --



John is a wise boy.

Lucy is a timid girl.

He is a poor man.

They are honest.



In the sentence written above, the words wise,timid,poor and honest are examples of adjectives. They all add to the meaning of the words boy, girl, man and they.




EXERCISE 

ONE


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable degree of adjectives given as options.

1. A .......... (much) charming scenery I have never seen.
2. A wise enemy is ......... (good) than a foolish friend.
3. Who is the ........... (pretty) girl in the class?
4. He will get  who bids the .........(high) for it.
5. She is one of the ......... (clever) girls in the class.
6. Your house is .......... (far) from school than mine.
7. Honour is ....... (dear) to me than life.
8. His condition is......... (good) after he took medicine.
9. He is indeed a  .......(youth) man but he is .......(cowardice).
10. A lame ass is better than a ....... (die) lion.



TWO

Change the following Verbs into their Adjective forms.
Clarify, Abound, Humiliate, Enable, Condense, Fill, Refresh,
Justify, Enlarge, Specify. 



THREE

Change the following Nouns into their Adjective form.
Strength, Density, Scarcity, Youth, Activity, Wastage,
Height, Fertility, Moisture, Reality.



FOUR


Supply the proper  Adjective form of the following words in blanks in the following sentences.

Glory
This reminds him of his ............ past.

Child 
He has been living in this house since his ..........

Sincere
He is the .......... boy in the class.

Little
The shopkeeper charged the ........ price of the article.

Much
A ......... charming scenery I have never seen.

Pride
It was a ........ moment for the whole family.

Old
Who is the ........... of your two sons?

Dear
Honour is .......... to me of all the other things.

Pretty
No other girl in the class is as ....... as she.

Cold
As we moved upward weather was ...........













SOLUTION

ONE


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable degree of adjectives given as options.

1. A more (much) charming scenery I have never seen.
2. A wise enemy is better (good) than a foolish friend.
3. Who is the prettiest (pretty) girl in the class?
4. He will get  who bids the highest (high) for it.
5. She is one of the cleverest (clever) girls in the class.
6. Your house is farther (far) from school than mine.
7. Honour is dearer (dear) to me than life.
8. His condition is better (good) after he took medicine.
9. He is indeed a  young (youth) man but he is coward (cowardice).
10. A lame ass is better than a dead (die) lion.



TWO

Change the following Verbs into their Adjective forms.
Clarify (clear) , Abound (abundant), Humiliate (humble), Enable (able), Condense (dense), Fill (full), Refresh (fresh),
Justify (Just), Enlarge (large), Specify (specific). 



THREE

Change the following Nouns into their Adjective form.
Strength (strong), Density (dense), Scarcity (scarce), Youth (young), Activity (active), Wastage (waste),Height (high), Fertility (fertile), Moisture (moist), Reality (Real).



FOUR


Supply the proper  Adjective form of the following words in blanks in the following sentences.

Glory
This reminds him of his glorious past.

Child 
He has been living in this house since his childhood.

Sincere
He is the sincerest boy in the class.

Little
The shopkeeper charged the least price of the article.

Much
A more charming scenery I have never seen.

Pride
It was a proud moment for the whole family.

Old
Who is the  elder of your two sons?

Dear
Honour is dearer to me of all the other things.

Pretty
No other girl in the class is as pretty as she.

Cold
As we moved upward weather was colder
















VERB



A word used to express some action or activty in relation to a person, place or a thing is called a verb. It is a word that tells about an action by the subject. For example --



Boys play a match.

Girls sing a song.

She washes clothes.

They drink tea.



In the sentences written above the words play, sing, washes and drink express some action. These are examples of verb.






EXERCISE

ONE

Make sentences using the following verbs in their Transitive as well as Intransitive forms.

Open, Fly, Break, Stop, Begin, Run, Sing, Run, Fight, Laugh.



TWO

Change the following Nouns into their Verb forms.
Gift, Seat, Hand, Knee, Sale, Seed, Peace, Loan, Belief, Air


THREE

Change the following Adjectives into their Verb forms.
Large, Sure, False, Able, Real, Dear, Clear, Just, Hard, Equal.




FOUR


Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable form of verbs given as options.

SPEAK
English is ........ all over the world.


SLAY
Many people were ......... during riots in the city.

LET
Animals were ........ loose on the roads in the village.

RESOLVE
He ........... to take terrible revenge on him.






FIVE

Supply a suitable verb in agreement with the subject in each of the following sentences.

1. Everyone of the team             ............ (was/were)  very  

     happy.
2. Keats was one of the greatest poets that .......
    (has/Have)ever 
    lived.
3. No news ........ (is/are) good news.
4. A variety of flowers ......... (catch/catches) the eye.
5. Five rupees .......(is/are) no price for it.
6. Iron as well as coal ......... (is/are) found in this area.
7. Neither profit nor pleasure ........(is/are) mine.
8. Early to bed and early to rise ....... (make/makes) a man
    healthy,wealthy and wise.
9. The committee .......(was/were) divided in their opinion.
10. A good saint and great scholar ......... (has/have) arrived.






SIX

Fill in the blanks with correct form of the verbs given against each of the following sentences.

1. Did you ........ a pen with you ? (has)
2. Either he or his friends .........done it. (has/have)
3. She ............ have finished her job by now.(may)
4. He tried his best but ......... not do the job.(can)
5. You ....... not behaved in this manner, my son.(shall)
6. The choice ....... between name or money.(be)
7. Bread and butter ...... the main issue for them.(be)
8. Neither he nor his brother ....... present yesterday.(be)
9. She along with her sister ........ the business. (run)
10. Rain and snow ..... falling on the mountains.(be)   







SOLUTION

ONE

Make sentences using the following verbs in their Transitive as well as Intransitive forms.

Open, Fly, Break, Stop, Begin, Run, Sing, Fight, Close, grow.

INTRANSITIVE

The door opened and she went inside.

Birds fly in the sky.
The window pane broke with a loud sound.
The train stopped and passengers alighted.
Our vacation begins tomorrow.
He ran and disappeared from the scene.
She sings sweetly.
Soldiers fought bravely.
As she went in, the door closed.
The seed grew into a small plant.


TRANSITIVE

Open, Fly, Break, Stop, Begin, Run, Sing, Fight, Close, grow.

She went in and opened the box.
Boys fly kites.
The child broke the jar.
He stopped the car by applying brakes.
They began their work today.
Boys run a race.
The girls sing songs.
Soldiers fought the battle bravely.
She closed the box.
Peasants grow wheat in their fields.



TWO

Change the following Nouns into their Verb forms.
Gift (Give), Seat (Sit), Hand (Handle), Knee (Kneel), Sale (Sell), Seed (Sow), Peace(Pacify), Loan (Lend), Belief (Believe), Air (aerify )


THREE

Change the following Adjectives into their Verb forms.
Large (Enlarge), Sure (Ensure), False (Falsify), Able (Enable), Real (Realise), Dear (Endear), Clear (Clarify), Just (Justify), Hard (Harden), Equal (Equalise).




FOUR

Fill in the blanks in the following sentences with a suitable form of verbs given as options.

SPEAK
English is spoken by people all over the world.

BITE
The stranger was bitten by a stray dog.

DREAM
He dreamt a horrible dream last night.

LAY
Lay my books on the table.

RUN
A thorn ran into her foot.

SHAKE
He has been shaken by this news.

KNEEL
The boy knelt before the priest and begged pardon.


SLAY
Many people were slain during riots in the city.

LET
Animals were let loose on the roads in the village.

RESOLVE
He resolved to take terrible revenge on him.







FIVE

Supply a suitable verb in agreement with the subject in each of the following sentences.

1. Everyone of the team was (was/were)  very happy.
2. Keats was one of the greatest poets that have (has/Have)ever 
    lived.
3. No news is (is/are) good news.
4. A variety of flowers catches (catch/catches) the eye.
5. Five rupees is (is/are) no price for it.
6. Iron as well as coal is (is/are) found in this area.
7. Neither profit nor pleasure is (is/are) mine.
8. Early to bed and early to rise makes (make/makes) a man
    healthy,wealthy and wise.
9. The committee were (was/were) divided in their opinion.
10. A good saint and great scholar  has (has/have) arrived.




SIX
 


Fill in the blanks with correct form of the verbs given against each of the following sentences.

1. Did you have a pen with you ? (has)
2. Either he or his friends has done it. (has/have)
3. She might have finished her job by now.(may)
4. He tried his best but could not do the job.(can)
5. You should not behaved in this manner, my son.(shall)
6. The choice is between name or money.(be)
7. Bread and butter is the main issue for them.(be)
8. Neither he nor his brother was present yesterday.(be)
9. She along with her sister runs the business. (run)
10. Rain and snow are falling on the mountains.(be)   









ADVERB



A word that modifies anything except Noun, Pronoun or an interjection is called an Adverb. For example --



1. She walks slowly.

2. He is a strong man.

3. They are very strong persons.

4. She performed very nicely.

5. The kite flew just over his head.

6. She came just after you left.




In first sentence, the adverb 'slowly' modifies the verb 'walks'. In second sentence, the adverb, 'strong' modifies the noun 'man'. In the third sentence, 'very' modifies the adjective 'strong'. In fourth sentence, the adverb 'very' modifies the adverb 'nicely'. In fifth sentence the adverb  'just' modifies the preposition 'over'.In sixth sentence, 'just' modifies the conjunction 'after'.


NOTE  A word is identified as a particular part of speech according to its place and usage in the sentence. There are words which are used as Adjective as well as Adverbs.







EXERCISE

ONE

Make sentences using the following Adjectives as Adverbs.
Deep, High, Black, Near, Cheap, Dear, Pale,
weak, Popular, Wide.


TWO

Fill in Adverb form of the given words in blanks in following sentences.


1.He is successful because he does his work........(careful)
2. Travel .........(light) if you must.
3. He drove the car ........(fast) to reach in time.
4. His selection to this post is ......... (surely) now.
5. The traveler was tired so he slept.......(sound).





SOLUTION

1. The stone went deep in the well.
2. He flew the kite high in the sky.
3. He painted the board black.
4. She sat near her mother.
5. He sold goods cheap.
6. He became dear to her mother.
7. His face turned pale to see me there. 
8. The patient has grown weak.
9. The leader became popular among people.
10. The chasm between two parties grew wide.




TWO

Fill in Adverb form of the given words in blanks in following sentences.

1.He is successful because he does his work carefully (careful).
2. Travel light (light) if you must.
3. He drove the car fast (fast) to reach in time.
4. His selection to this post is almost sure (surely) now.
5. The traveler was tired so he slept soundly (sound).








PREPOSITION

A word used with a noun or a pronoun to show how they relate to other words in the sentence is called a preposition. For example--

The cat is under the table.
She is short of money.
They play with a hockey.
The man writes on the slate.
The bird is in the bush.
The words 'under,of,with,on and in' are examples of preposition.





EXERCISE

ONE


Fill in appropriate prepositions in the following sentences.

1. Her father had already warned her ......... the danger.
2. But she insisted ......... doing this.
3. She did not adhere ......... her father's instructions.
4. She acted ......... her own accord.
5. She did not listen ....... any body.
6. She did not agree ....... his proposal.
7. She turned ......... his request.
8. She cared not a fig ........ him.
9. He parted his ways ........ her.
10. He felt ashamed ........ her behaviour.





TWO



Fill in appropriate prepositions in the following sentences.

1. A child is not able to distinguish ....... good and evil.
2. A miser can part ....... friends but not ...... money.
3. The path ....... duty is the way ....... glory.
4. He is indifferent alike ........ praise and blame.
5. The rich man supplied the poor ...... clothes.
6. He supplied clothes ...... the poor.
7. Why are you so jealous .......him?
8. The poor fellow is overcome ....... grief.
9. They mistook him ........ a pick-pocket.
10. He was almost mad ....... anger.



SOLUTION



ONE


Fill in appropriate prepositions in the following sentences.

1. Her father had already warned her against the danger.
2. But she insisted  on doing this.
3. She did not adhere to her father's instructions.
4. She acted of her own accord.
5. She did not listen to any body.
6. She did not agree to his proposal.
7. She turned down his request.
8. She cared not a fig for him.
9. He parted his ways with her.
10. He felt ashamed of her behaviour.





TWO



Fill in appropriate prepositions in the following sentences.

1. A child is not able to distinguish between good and evil.
2. A miser can part from friends but not with money.
3. The path of duty is the way to glory.
4. He is indifferent alike to  praise and blame.
5. The rich man supplied the poor with clothes.
6. He supplied clothes to the poor.
7. Why are you so jealous of him?
8. The poor fellow is overcome with grief.
9. They mistook him for a pick-pocket.
10. He was almost mad with anger.






CONJUNCTION

A word used to join two words or sentences is called a conjunction. For example --

Tom and Harry are friends.
He ran away as he saw me.
John tried but failed.
She or her sister will go there.
You will succeed if you work.
She went but did not return.

The words 'and,as, but,or,if, but are examples of conjunction.



EXERCISE


ONE

Join the following sentences with appropriate conjunctions.

1. The gentle man is very          rich.
    He is not happy.
2. He ate food to his fill.
    He was feeling hungry.
3. People respect  him.
    He is a brave person.
4. The boy was cheerful.
     He was wounded badly.
5. He is intelligent.
    His brother is intelligent.
6. The students worked hard.
     They may pass the examination.
7. He walked very fast.
    He should miss the bus.
8. He purchased clothes.
    He purchased ornaments.
9. She is beautiful.
    Her sister is more beautiful.
10.He worked hard.
     He did not succeed.





TWO

Supply appropriate conjunctions in blanks in the following sentences.

1. The girl writes slowly ........ neatly.

2. You may talk to him ...... you want.
3. It is long time ........ we met him.
4. I wonder ...... he will come at all.
5. He was punished ...... he was not guilty.
6. Boys will not play ....... it rains.
7. Please wait here ...... I return.
8. Virtue ennobles ....... vice degrades.
9. He is a cheat ....... a swindler.
10. The child was frightened ..... it heard the noise. 




THREE

Write out the following sentences, choosing the correct conjunctions or the sentence connectors from those in brackets.

1. We want others to forgive our faults, ..........., we should forgive
     the faults of others. (consequently, nevertheless, similarly)

2. He apologised to me for his rude behaviour, ........., I agreed to go
    with him. ( moreover, however, consequently)

3. When I reached the bus stand, I discovered I had missed my
     usual bus, ....., I reached the office on time. (therefore,however,
     consequently)

4. The mother scolded him ......... he had broken the glass jar.
    (although, because, if)

5. The student did not fare well in the examination,  ........ he hopes
    to pass. (otherwise, even if, nevertheless)

6. We would have gone to attend the party .......... we had been
     invited. ( although, because, if)

7. His brother is very active and smart ........... he is very young.
    ( because, unless, although)
8. Such an act would not be appreciated ....... it were just. ( so that,
    as though, even if)

9. Tigers won't attack .......... they are hungry. (although, unless,
     because)

10. The beggar was walking .......... he were lame. ( as though, so
      that, even if)







SOLUTION

ONE

Join the following sentences with appropriate conjunctions.

1. The gentle man is very rich but he is not happy.
2. He ate food to his fill because he was feeling hungry.
3. People respect  him because he is a brave person. 
4. The boy was cheerful although he was wounded badly.
5. He as well as his brother is intelligent.    
6. The students worked hard so that they may pass the examination.
7. He walked very fast lest he should miss the bus.
8. He purchased clothes and ornaments.
9. She is beautiful but her sister is more beautiful.
10.He worked hard but he did not succeed.

TWO

Supply appropriate conjunctions in blanks in the following sentences.

1. The girl writes slowly but neatly.

2. You may talk to him if you want.
3. It is long time since we met him.
4. I wonder if he will come at all.
5. He was punished though he was not guilty.
6. Boys will not play if it rains.
7. Please wait here until I return.
8. Virtue ennobles but vice degrades.
9. He is a cheat as well as a swindler.
10. The child was frightened as it heard the noise.   




THREE

Write out the following sentences, choosing the correct conjunctions or the sentence connectors from those in brackets.

1. We want others to forgive our faults, ..........., we should forgive
     the faults of others. (consequently, nevertheless, similarly)

2. He apologised to me for his rude behaviour, ........., I agreed to go
    with him. ( moreover, however, consequently)

3. When I reached the bus stand, I discovered I had missed my
     usual bus, ....., I reached the office on time. (therefore,however,
     consequently)

4. The mother scolded him ......... he had broken the glass jar.
    (although, because, if)

5. The student did not fare well in the examination,  ........ he hopes
    to pass. (otherwise, even if, nevertheless)

6. We would have gone to attend the party .......... we had been
     invited. ( although, because, if)

7. His brother is very active and smart ........... he is very young.
    ( because, unless, although)
8. Such an act would not be appreciated ....... it were just. ( so that,
    as though, even if)

9. Tigers won't attack .......... they are hungry. (although, unless,
     because)

10. The beggar was walking .......... he were lame. ( as though, so
      that, even if)






INTERJECTION

An interjection is a word which is used to express some sudden feelings is called an interjection. It is used to express sudden feelings of happiness, sorrow, surprise or appreciation.
For example--

Hurrah ! Boys, we have won the match.
Alas! she lost her purse.
Ah ! flowers withered away.
Bravo ! well done, my boys.
Oh! he is undone.
What a beautiful flower!
How stupid she is!


EXERCISE

ONE


Supply appropriate interjection or exclamation in blanks in the following sentences.


1. The traveller said," ........., for a glass of cold water!"

2. The boys said,"........! we have won the game."

3. The captain said, " ..........! well done, my boys!"

4. She said," ...........! My fate has reduced me to dust."

5. The woman said, " .......... a beautiful child!"

6. She said in a loud voice," ........! my son has passed."

7. The old man said, " ........... ! my youth is gone."

8. Parting from them she said," .........! my friends."

9. The girl said," .......... a beautiful flower it is !"

10. He said," ........ ! I perish by my friends." 









SOLUTION

ONE


Supply appropriate interjection or exclamation in blanks in the following sentences.


1. The traveller said,"  O, for a glass of cold water!"

2. The boys said," Hurrah! we have won the game."

3. The captain said, " Bravo! well done, my boys!"

4. She said,"  Alas! My fate has reduced me to dust."

5. The woman said, " What a beautiful child!"

6. She said in a loud voice," Hurrah ! my son has passed."

7. The old man said, " Alas ! my youth is gone."

8. Parting from them she said," Good bye! my friends."

9. The girl said," What a beautiful flower it is !"

10. He said," Alas! I perish by my friends."